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  • 1. Adams, Mike
    et al.
    Andersson, Lars-Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Hardwick, Philip
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Firm size and growth in Sweden's life insurance market between 1855 and 1947: A test of Gibrat's law2014In: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 56, no 6, p. 956-974Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using data for the period from 1855 to 1947 and the two sub-periods, 1855-1902 and 1903-47, the article examines whether the organic growth rates of 38 Swedish life insurance firms are independent of size, as predicted by Gibrat's (1931) Law of Proportionate Effects. Using panel unit root tests and panel Generalised Method of Moments (GMM) regression, the article finds a significant difference between the growth rates of small and large Swedish life insurance firms (with smaller firms tending to grow faster than larger firms), a result that clearly contradicts Gibrat's Law as a long-run tendency in the Swedish life insurance sector. significant influences were also found on firm growth from profitability, organisational form, reinsurance, the real rate of interest and the Swedish regulatory environment.

  • 2.
    Adjei, Evans
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Social proximity and firm performance: the importance of family member ties in workplaces2016In: Regional Studies, Regional Science, ISSN 0080-0694, E-ISSN 2168-1376, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 303-319Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study empirically assesses the role of social proximity, defined as the concentration of family members (FM) in firms, on firm performance. Based on longitudinal micro-data for the period 1995–2010 connecting information on workers and their workplaces in the Swedish labour market, the effects of FM (parents, children, siblings and grandparents) on per capita productivity in 15,359 firms were analysed. The results indicate that FM positively affect firm performance. In particular, the results suggest that in specialized regions (mainly small regions) FM have a positive influence on performance and can thus compensate for relative shortage of regional agglomeration economies.

  • 3.
    Adjei Korang, Evans
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Skogen som resurs in Region Västernorrland: näringslivsnalys 2002-20152019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Med utgångspunkt i perspektivet att ekonomisk utveckling i grund och botten är betingat på de kompetenser som används i produktionen av varor och tjänster, har denna rapport analyserat skogsnäringarnas utveckling i Västernorrland 2002-2015 med avseende på sysselsättning, antal arbetsgivare och arbetsinkomster. Särskilt fokus ligger på hur Västernorrlands skogsindustri är kopplad till övriga delar av näringslivet i form av det humankapital som de delar med varandra. Detta görs empiriskt genom analyser av regionens skill-relatedness, det vill säga flöden av arbetskraft mellan sektorer i regionen, för att grafiskt visa i vilken grad olika sektorer är relaterade till varandra. Utifrån argumentet att humankapital är en central resurs för regional utveckling låter vi data visa hur regionens skogsnäringar är kopplade till övriga näringslivet, och därigenom belysa branschöverskridande relationer bortom gängse föreställningar om kopplingar drivna av det officiella industriklassificeringssystemet. 

    Även om inkomstutvecklingen och andelen kvinnor i Västernorrland följer riksgenomsnittet har både antalet företag och sysselsatta utvecklats betydligt sämre i Västernorrland. Generella utbildningsnivån har ökat både i riket och i regionen, men Västernorrland har generellt en lägre utbildningsnivå. Skogsnäringarna i Västernorrland bryter delvis mot detta generella regionala mönster. Både antalet sysselsatta och antalet arbetsställen inom skogsnäringarna har kraftigt minskat i antal och tvärtemot regionens generella utveckling har också andelen högutbildade (med minst treårig universitetsexamen) minskat liksom andelen kvinnor. Trots dessa kraftiga rationaliseringar på personalsidan är utvecklingen för skogsnäringarna inom Västernorrland betydligt mindre negativ än för riket i övrigt. Det gäller framförallt inkomstnivåerna bland de anställda. Inkomstnivåerna i Sveriges skogsnäring har sjunkit i relativa termer men ökat med drygt 20% i Västernorrland och ligger 2015 på en något högre nivå än övriga näringar i regionen. Det kan i sin tur tyda på en positiv omvandling mot mer kvalificerade arbetstillfällen, även om det också inneburit kraftiga rationaliseringar. 

    För att belysa hur skogsnäringarna är inbäddade i regionens struktur av kompetenser har vi kartlagt graden av specialisering (hur representerad en industri är i regionen relativ i riket), graden av relatedness(hur väl en industri är kopplad till andra industrier genom personalflöden), och graden av inbäddning (förekomsten av andra industrier i regionen som delar liknande kompetensresurser). När det gäller den relativa närvaron av skogsnäringar i regionen utifrån antalet sysselsatta finner vi att ingen av skogsnäringarna har en betydande relativ specialisering i Västernorrland. Det är endast tillverkning av wellpapp och pappers- och pappförpackningar som har en specialiseringsgrad över 1 (dvs högre än riksgenomsnittet). Det innebär med andra ord att trots ett relativt högt bidrag till regionalt förädlingsvärde och skatter är näringarna underrepresenterade på regionens arbetsmarknad. Det återspeglas bland annat i den relativt kraftiga minskningen av sysselsatta och arbetsställen vi identifierat (och som pågått långt innan den period denna rapport analyserar) men också den relativt kraftiga ökningen av inkomster (högre än riksgenomsnittet för skogsnäringarna och i paritet med regionen i övrigt). Skogsnäringarna har med andra ord genomfört produktivitetshöjande rationaliseringar vilket i sig kan gynna regionen.

    Utifrån vårt analytiska ramverk är det dock aningen mer problematiskt att de relativt få arbetsgivarna inom skogsnäringarna också är relativt isolerade i regionen utifrån ett kompetensresursperspektiv. Det är endast tillverkning av andra byggnads- och inredningssnickerier, skogsförvaltning, drivning och pappers- och papptillverkning som har en genomsnittlig koppling till andra näringar i regionen över gränsvärdet för en kompetensrelaterad verksamhet. Detta återspeglas också i hur inbäddad skogsnäringen är utifrån den relativa koncentrationen av kompetensrelaterade verksamheter. Det är endast ovan nämnda fyra näringar som är tydligt inbäddade i regionens näringslivsstruktur, och endast två (pappers- och papptillverkning och tillverkning av byggnads- och inredningssnickerier) som har ett inbäddningsindex över regionens medelvärde. Det innebär att skogsnäringarna generellt är relativt perifera när vi pratar om vilka kompetensresurser skogsnäringen delar med övriga regionen. Dock är teknisk konsultverksamhet direkt eller indirekt relaterat till flertalet skogsnäringar, vilket kan peka på ökade tekniknivåer och ökat behov av tekniska specialistkunskaper. Även om företag kan kompensera för en svag regional inbäddning genom utomregionala nätverk, innebär framförallt en svag inbäddning att det kan vara svårare för arbetskraften att finna nya produktiva uttryck för sina kompetenser i regionen vid framtida rationaliseringar. Det i sin tur kan driva på utflyttning till andra regioner.

    Utifrån en smart specialiseringsagenda drar vi slutsatsen att policyinsatser bör verka för att öka graden av inbäddning för regionens nyckelindustrier då det kan underlätta en framgångsrik omvandling som bygger på regionens redan existerande kompetensresurser. 

  • 4. Andersson, Elias
    et al.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Adaptation to climate change?: Why business-as-usual remains the logical choice in Swedish forestry2018In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 48, p. 76-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The two latest IPCC assessment reports have concluded that knowledge is not sufficient for inducing action on climate change. This study problematizes the issue of going beyond business-as-usual through a study of the forestry sector in Sweden, which is a large economic sector and could be expected to be an early adapter, given that newly planted forest may stand some 70-90 years into the future. Therefore resources, economic motivation in the longer term and environmental foundations for early adaptation action could be expected to exist. This study draws upon the Foucauldian conceptualization of governmentality to explain the particular institutional logics that nevertheless lead to business-as-usual arguments dominating discussion on adaptation in the case of Swedish forestry. The study emphasizes that adaptation must be seen as steered and limited by existing institutional, social system logics, rather than by externally defined "rational" motivations. Efforts on adaptation to climate change must thus be considered in relation to, and seek to change, existing institutionally based motivational and incentive structures, and must thus be conceived through social rather than environmental logics. In fact, social logics may even define the types of actions that may be regarded as adaptations.

  • 5. Andersson, Elias
    et al.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Technology use in Swedish reindeer husbandry through a social lens2017In: Polar Geography, ISSN 1088-937X, E-ISSN 1939-0513, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 19-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rationalizing production more effectively, technological developments and innovations also have effects on, for example, skills, knowledge and social relations, that connect the specific technique to large processes and rationalities. In the conflict between user rights and ownership rights in northern Sweden, the introduction of new techniques within reindeer husbandry is studied on a local and embodied level. Through observations and interviews, the tension between empowerment and control in their implementation is further explored by utilizing a labor process theoretical framework. The results illustrate a shift in the definition of skills and knowledge, in relation to the use of GPS and GIS, that reshape, reorganize, restructure and embody the labor process of reindeer husbandry and spatial, temporal and ecological relations. Through its production of subjective conditions and dependence, the disciplinary logic of these techniques contributes to shape and enact governable spaces and subjects within the context. Operating as technologies of government, the techniques emphasize the responsibilities of the reindeer herding community and shape their participation, by reinforcing the demand for certain kind of subjectivities and accountability – governmental rationales that contribute to a technologicalization and depoliticizing of policy and conflict managing.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Elias
    et al.
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lawrence, Anna
    Adaptation to climate change in forestry: a perspective on forest ownership and adaptation responses2017In: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 8, no 12, article id 493Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adaptation to climate change has often been discussed from the perspectives of social vulnerability and community vulnerability, recognising that characteristics at local level will influence the particular adaptations undertaken. However, the extent to which national-level systemic factors influence and shape measures defined as adaptations has seldom been recognised. Focusing on adaptation to climate change in forestry, this study uses the example of two countries in the northern hemisphere with different forest ownership structures, forestry industry and traditions: Sweden, with strong private, non-industrial ownership, dominant forest industry and long forestry traditions; and Scotland, with forest ownership dominated by large estates and investment forestry based on plantations of exotic conifer species. The study shows how adaptation to climate change is structurally embedded and conditioned, which has resulted in specific challenges and constraints for different groups of forest owners within these two different contexts. This produces a specific set of political spaces and policy tools by rendering climate change in relation to forestry manageable, negotiable and practical/logical in specific ways. It is recommended that the focus of future work on climate-related issues and development of adaptation measures and policy should not be primarily on climate-related factors, but on institutional analysis of structural factors and logics in target sectors, in order to critically explore concepts of agency and power within these processes.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Scocco, Sandro
    Arenagruppen, Arenaide, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Refugee immigration and the growth of low-wage work in the EU152019In: Comparative Migration Studies, ISSN 2214-8590, E-ISSN 2214-594X, Vol. 7, no 39, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our paper focuses on current trends in refugee migration and job polarization. In so doing, we assess the role of refugee migration in relation to institutional, technological and globalization factors in an effort to trace the factors underlying the growth of low-paying occupations in EU 15 between 1995 and 2017. Our empirical findings suggest that refugee migration has a small but positive and statistically significant impact on the growth of low-wage occupations in the EU 15 as a whole. However, the effect is attributed to Southern Europe and the UK and Irish economies. Despite hosting relatively large numbers of refugee migrants, the effects in the Nordic countries and Continental Europe are negligible, if present, and non-existent in the long run (5 years). When including all migrant workers, we find a limited impact on the growth of low-wage work in general, while the impact of immigrant workers from low-income third party countries becomes positive for the UK and Irish economy, but less for other European macro-regions. This suggests that institutional settings can play an important role in how the economy adjusts to migration. It also suggests that traditional fiscal cost calculations in relation to migration are often overestimated, as they implicitly build on the assumption that refugees and general immigration have great impacts on the growth of low-wage occupations.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Lars-Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Danley, Therese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Henning, Martin
    Handelshögskolan, Göteborgs universitet.
    Workers’ participation in regional economic change following establishment closure2018In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses if and when workers affected by economic destruction in the form of establishment closures move to more productive or newly started establishments in the region, become self-employed, leave the region or become displaced. Results from multinominal probit models show that the majority of these workers face destructive employment outcomes from a Schumpeterian point of view compared to a matched sample of workers not subject to a closure. However, we do find indications of a creative destruction as a small, albeit significant, share become employed in young establishments. Different types of human capital influence the likelihood of triggering positive or negative regional outcomes. While higher education significantly decreases the risk for unemployment, high-income earners more often become engaged in creative outcomes. Firm tenure increases the likelihood of becoming employed in younger establishments. There are significant spatial differences where metropolitan regions excel as loci of creative change, whereas smaller and peripheral regions face far less creative outcomes of economic transformation.

  • 9.
    Andersson, Lars-Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Hane-Weijman, Emelie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Växande Regionala Obalanser2018In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 46, no 8, p. 52-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den svenska ekonomiska geografin genomgår en snabb förändring. Allt fler tjänstejobb skapas i storstäderna. I takt med att industrijobben minskar bidrar det till färre jobb totalt sett utanför storstäderna. Det hänger samman med storstädernas ekonomiska mångfald: att tjänsterna växer fram i nära koppling till andra relaterade verksamheter. Många tjänster kräver specialkompetenser och hög utbildning, resurser som främst finns i storstäder. Därtill finns starkare efterfrågan kopplad till högre privat köpkraft och offentlig konsumtion. Då dessa processer i hög grad är självförstärkande, spelar politiken en viktig roll för att hantera omvandlingens negativa effekter.

  • 10.
    Appelblad, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    The spawning salmon as a resource by recreational use : the case of the wild Baltic salmon and conditions for angling in north Swedish rivers2001Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the thesis is to analyse the preconditions for increasedsalmon angling in the remaining wild salmon rivers in Upper Norrland in northernSweden, as well as to evaluate the present and possible future impacts on the localeconomy. It includes the identification of the internal and external conditions, in what ishere called the Salmon Utilisation Landscape, that influence the present use as well asfuture development of the Baltic salmon as a resource in angling. The empirical materialsderive from two mail surveys, 1) a survey of anglers in the River Byske and 2) a jointNordic survey on the economic value of recreational fishing.Interest in recreational fishing is widespread in Sweden. About 35 % of adultSwedes fish for recreation. Recreational fishery and angling can be seen as one expressionof the urbanised society's need for contact with nature and outdoor recreation. Salmonangling is one part of recreational fishery. Salmon are considered by many to be the 'biggame' of angling. Salmon anglers are often the most devoted kind of anglers, investingconsiderable resources into this leisure activity. The subgroup of Swedish salmon anglingspecialists is estimated at 10-30,000 persons. The wider category of Active River anglersconsists of approximately 170,000 persons.Salmon fishing in the River Byske has turned out to be representative of salmonangling in Upper Norrland, comparable with other high-class Scandinavian salmon rivers.The growing proportion of remote anglers in the 1990s indicates that the Byske hasbecome a rather specialised angling water. The groups of Fishing tourists and Home fishersmake up two distinctive categories. Fishing tourists fish more intensively, have higher dailyexpenditures and show higher consumer surplus. They fish the river almost entirely forsalmon in. On the other hand, Home fishers to a large extent claim the right to fish fordecent prices and without any particular restrictions. During the 1990s, the average annualincome to the local economy of Byske river valley derived from salmon angling fishingtourism was about 850,000 SEK.Many river habitats have been depleted during the 20th century and many salmonstocks were exterminated by severe degeneration factors linked to industrialisation. To thisis added the over-fishing on wild stocks of salmon and the mortality syndrome, M74. Theavailable estimates of the potential production of wild salmon smolt in Upper Norrlandaggregates close to 1.2 million. This can be converted to an angling activity of some250,000 fishing days.On the basis of the prevailing cost level, the potential angling activity in UpperNorrland would amount to a direct annual turnover of 75 million SEK, however theimpact caused by fishing tourism is likely to remain within the interval of 10 - 30 millionSEK. The Active River anglers' average willingness to pay for annual access to a salmon andsea trout scenario was 1,100 SEK per capita. There is a widespread attitude among manyanglers that fishing should be accessible for all and prices should be kept low. In theNordic context such opinions are especially evident among Swedish anglers in general, butless frequent among devoted salmon anglers.

  • 11.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    The Swedish forest sector's approach to a formalized forest policy within the EU2013In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 26, p. 131-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the Swedish forest sector's approach to a formalized forest policy within the EU; utilizing a revisited neo-functional framework focusing on cultivated spillover and non-governmental forest stakeholders' preferences and strategies. The study is based on in-depth interviews with central non-governmental representatives divided into four categories: forest owners, forest industry, environmental representatives and other representatives. The paper shows that, in spite of lacking interest and engagement in this issue on the Swedish government's side, the Swedish forest owners and the forest industry have made a U-turn and now welcome some form of formalized forest policy in the EU, as it would benefit their interests. They also believe they can influence the content of the integration process. This confirms the theoretical premise that organized interests, in this case non-governmental forestry stakeholders in Sweden, can act as pressure groups for further coordination and integration. National and transnational elites and their work in transnational networks and associations seem particularly important in this context.

  • 12.
    Borgegård, Lars-Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences.
    Tjärhanteringen i Västerbottens län under 1800-talets senare hälft: en studie av produktion och transporter med särskild hänsyn till Ume- och Vindelälvens dalgångar1973Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Borggren, Jonathan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Eriksson, Rikard H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Human capital, skills and uneven intra-urban employment growth: The case of Göteborg, Sweden 1990-20082014In: Urban Studies Research, ISSN 2090-4185, E-ISSN 2090-4193, Vol. 2014, article id 260813Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research has elucidated the role of talents to explain urban growth differences but it remains to be shown whether urban dynamics, such as human capital and a mixed local population, can be linked to intra-urban employment growth. By use of a unique longitudinal database, we track the economic development through the lens of intra-urban employment growth of a number of primary urban areas (PUA) in Göteborg, Sweden. Regarding factors influencing employment growth we find that relative concentrations of human capital protect areas from rising unemployment during severe recession (1990-1993) and recovery (1990-2000) while the composition of skills is beneficial during recovery (1990-2000) and long-term growth (1990-2008). Our findings suggest that neither too high concentrations of creative occupations, nor too low, is beneficial. Thus, human capital drives much of the employment changes in relation to the recession and early transition from manufacturing to service but composition of skills is more relevant for explaining long-term intra-urban employment growth.

  • 14.
    Borggren, Jonathan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Knowledge flows in high-impact firms: how does relatedness influence survival, acquisition and exit?2016In: Journal of Economic Geography, ISSN 1468-2702, E-ISSN 1468-2710, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 637-665Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Following the impact on regional renewal and employment ascribed to rapidly growing firms (high-impactfirms, HIFs), this paper argues that little is still known in economic geography and business studies todayregarding the mechanisms influencing growth of such firms and, hence, the potential impact on regionalemployment. The aim of this paper is thus to explore how the qualitative content of skills (i.e. the degree ofsimilarity, relatedness and unrelatedness) recruited to a firm during a period of fast growth influences itsfuture success. Our findings, based on a sample of 1,589 HIFs in the Swedish economy, suggest that it is notonly the number of people employed that matters in aiding the understanding of the future destiny of the firms– but also, more importantly, it is the scope of the skills recruited and their proximity to related industries.

  • 15.
    Borggren, Jonathan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Ström, Patrik
    On the waterfront: studying the development of residences and work-places at Norra Älvstranden, Gothenburg, Sweden2014In: Local Economy, ISSN 0269-0942, E-ISSN 1470-9325, Vol. 29, no 4-5, p. 429-452Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Following economic restructuring, waterfront redevelopment emerges as a post-industrial option for struggling cities and regions that will boost economic growth. If functioning according to plan, publicly initiated and privately executed waterfront redevelopment will attract educated and high-income earning residents as it simultaneously transforms derelict industrial grounds into residential areas and science parks. The recent financial crisis of 2008 has seen severe turbulence in the urban economy resulting in for example foreclosures and drops in real-estate value. Drawn on this background, the aim of this paper is to shed light on whether a specific place-based activity: the establishment of a redeveloped waterfront in Gothenburg, Sweden facilitating residences and workplaces, has attracted human capital in the form of residents and workers often termed ‘talented’ and ‘creative’. This paper uses a unique longitudinal micro database (GILDA) containing information on residence, work, age etc. covering the entire Swedish population between the years 1990 and 2008 and focuses on flows of in- and out-migration of two human capital sub-groups; the arts-educated bohemians and the engineering-educated consultants. Results show that the waterfront attracts resident consultants and not bohemians, while the growth of workplaces stagnate and decline following the global economic recession of 2008. The paper contributes to knowledge on the complexity of redevelopment and how difficult it is to manage this process.

  • 16.
    Boschma, Ron
    et al.
    CIRCLE, Lund University / Utrecht University.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Labour market externalities and regional growth in Sweden: the importance of labour mobility between skill-related industries2014In: Regional studies, ISSN 0034-3404, E-ISSN 1360-0591, Vol. 48, no 10, p. 1669-1690Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the relationship between labour market externalities and regional growth based on real labour flows. In particular, we test for the importance of labour mobility across so-called skill-related industries. We make use of a sophisticated indicator that measures the degree of skill-relatedness between all industries, and we employ actual labour flows between 435 4-digit industries within 72 Swedish functional labour market regions to estimate how labour market externalities are related to regional growth in the period 1998-2002. Both our fixed effect models and GMM-estimates demonstrate that a strong intensity of intra-regional labour flows between skill-related industries impacts positively on regional productivity growth, but less so on regional employment growth. Labour mobility between unrelated industries tends to dampen regional unemployment growth while a high degree of intra-industry labour flows is only found to be associated with rising regional unemployment.

  • 17.
    Brouder, Patrick
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Staying Power: What Influences Micro-Firm Survival in Tourism?2013In: Tourism Geographies, ISSN 1461-6688, E-ISSN 1470-1340, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 125-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate how previous experience and location of entrepreneurs influence the survival of new tourism firms. The paper departs from recent evolutionary economic geography advancements, highlighting the importance of routines and skills as well as location-specific knowledge for firm success. While having been well-researched for manufacturing industries characterized by high entry barriers, little knowledge is currently available on the factors influencing survival rates in service sectors with low entry barriers. A quantitative approach applies hazard models to investigate the survival rates over a seven-year period of a total of 133 new micro-tourism firms started between 1999 and 2001 in the four northernmost counties of Sweden. The geo-referenced micro-database ASTRID links information on firm features (e.g. firm births and deaths, spatial coordinates and industry codes) to characteristics of entrepreneurs (e.g. age, education, previous experience). The main finding is that entrepreneurs with previous work experience in related sectors are more likely to survive and, in this case, entrepreneurs without local experience tend to be less successful. We find no evidence that new firms operating in regions specialized in tourism have a survival advantage. Our analysis also indicates that surviving firms improve performance over time. The paper thus contributes new knowledge on the determinants of micro-firm survival in tourism.

  • 18.
    Brouder, Patrick
    et al.
    Mid-Sweden University.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Tourism Evolution: On the Synergies of Tourism Studies and Evolutionary Economic Geography2013In: Annals of Tourism Research, ISSN 0160-7383, E-ISSN 1873-7722, Vol. 43, p. 370-389Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evolutionary Economic Geography (EEG) is receiving increasing interest from tourism scholars. EEG has proven to be a useful explanatory paradigm in other sectors, e.g., high-technology and creative sectors. There remains, however, a lack of theoretical discussion on evolutionary principles of economic change within relatively low-technology service sectors, of which tourism is a prime example. This paper introduces EEG to a wider tourism audience by presenting the core principles of EEG and how they relate to tourism studies. A selection of new research paths combining EEG and tourism studies is highlighted together with a number of latent research synergies which can progress both EEG and tourism studies. The paper calls for further empirical and conceptual engagement with EEG by tourism scholars.

  • 19. Bullock, Ryan C. L.
    et al.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Vuojala-Magga, Terhi
    Ambjornsson, Emmeline Laszlo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Forestry administrator framings of responses to socioeconomic disturbance: Examples from northern regions in Canada, Sweden, and Finland2016In: Environment and Planning. C, Government and Policy, ISSN 0263-774X, E-ISSN 1472-3425, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 945-962Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the global forest sector endures rapid crises and more gradually evolving social, political, and environmental influences, little attention has been paid to how forest administrators view changing sectoral conditions and response measures. We analyze policy frames mobilized by 27 senior actors within major private and state-owned companies, and government agencies in northern forest regions of Canada, Sweden, and Finland. Results show that four intervening theme areas are engaged by forest administrators to frame sectoral changes and responses, namely, the role of international markets; timber pricing and supply; the role of the state; and environmental policies. However, perceived regional differences in the level of impact of the international market changes, public versus private wood supply dependence, and satisfaction with forestry institutions lead actors to frame problems and solutions differently. While forest policy discourse is relatively consistent across these regions, responses are specified to regional contexts.

  • 20.
    Bwalya-Umar, Bridget
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. Geography and Environmental Studies Department, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia.
    Mubanga, Kabwe H.
    Do locals benefit from being in the "tourist capital'?: Views from Livingstone, Zambia2018In: Tourism and Hospitality Research, ISSN 1467-3584, E-ISSN 1742-9692, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 333-345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study used 268 household and 13 key informant interviews to get the views of Livingstone city residents on economic, environmental and sociocultural effects of tourism on local households and the city. Results show very few economic benefits at household level with residents perceiving big tourism-related businesses, the state and its officials to be the main beneficiaries. Although tourists were commended for helping vulnerable residents, they were blamed for contributing to prostitution and diseases by local residents; and were targeted for petty thefts by unemployed youths. Sociocultural effects of tourism are significant for residents but are routinely ignored or glossed over by tourism development practitioners. Tourism had resulted in a general improvement in the city environs. It is concluded that tourism development projects must target increased benefits for residents to increase benevolent attitudes from them towards tourism in their city, and to ensure a more sustainable variant of tourism is achieved in the tourist capital.

  • 21.
    Byström, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Mines, Tourism and Related Diversification in the Swedish Far NorthManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Byström, Joakim
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography. Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Müller, Dieter K.
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Space Penetration in the Far North: Resource Extraction as Precondition for Tourism DevelopmentManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 23. Carina, E.
    et al.
    Keskitalo, Carina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Liljenfeldt, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Implementation of forest certification in Sweden: an issue of organisation and communication2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 29, no 5, p. 473-484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of nature conservation is often implemented on productive forest land largely by means of forest certification a market-driven, voluntary system of third-party verification of the fulfilment of specific goals. This study assesses how certification requirements are being implemented in various organisations in the forest sector at various levels, and the problems and opportunities identified at each level in order to implement the requirements of the standard. Based on interviews with 34 stakeholders in Sweden, the study demonstrates that forest certification is a communication issue: it places great demands on communication or "information logistics" between different parts of the felling and forest management chain, from the top management to the contractor in the field. Integration with environmental performance systems, clarity in the division of responsibility, formalisation of requirements for forest planning and further integration of a culture of continuous improvement and internal reporting could support implementation of the certification system.

  • 24.
    Carson, Dean B.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. Northern Institute of Charles Darwin University, Australia.
    Govan, Jeanie
    Northern Institute of Charles Darwin University, Australia.
    Carson, Doris A.
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. Northern Institute of Charles Darwin University, Australia.
    Indigenous Experiences of the Mining Resource Cycle in Australia’s Northern Territory: Benefits, Burdens and Bridges?2018In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 11-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a model of how Indigenous communities may engage with the mining sector to better manage local development impacts and influence governance processes. The model uses a resource lifecycle perspective to identify the various development opportunities and challenges that remote Indigenous communities and stakeholders may face at different stages of the mining project. The model is applied to two case studies located in the Northern Territory of Australia (Gove Peninsula and Ngukurr) which involved different types and scales of mining and provided different opportunities for development and governance engagement for surrounding Indigenous communities. Both cases emphasise how the benefits and burdens associated with mining, as well as the bridges between Indigenous and outsider approaches to development and governance, can change very quickly due to the volatile nature of remote mining operations. There is thus a need for more flexible agreements and more dynamic relationships between Indigenous, mining and other governance stakeholders that can be adjusted and renegotiated as the conditions for mining change. The final discussion reflects on how the model may be applied in the context mining governance and Indigenous stakeholder engagement in the Fennoscandian north.

  • 25.
    Carson, Dean
    et al.
    Charles Darwin University, Australia.
    Schmallegger, Doris
    James Cook University, Australia.
    Harwood, Sharon
    Charles Darwin University, Australia.
    A City for the Temporary?: Political Economy and Urban Planning in Darwin, Australia2010In: Urban Policy and Research, ISSN 0811-1146, E-ISSN 1476-7244, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 293-310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Darwin, in Australia’s Northern Territory, faces urban planning challenges consistent with those reported in ‘resource peripheries’ around the world. The city has recently experienced strong population growth associated with resources and construction projects, and an increase in public sector workers sent to address the challenges faced by remote (particularly Indigenous) populations. The Northern Territory Government is determined to foster further growth, and promotes ‘major projects’ in urban development as the key. Analysis of the public debates about two recent major projects (the Waterfront Development and the Lyons residential development) reveal a planning process consistent with the clientelism observed by Rayner and Howlett (2009) in resource peripheries in Canada. The risks of clientelism are both the marginalisation of important internal publics and the institutionalisation of ‘temporariness’ as the driver of growth. Shifting to a more consultative planning process might help stimulate internal development, but could also put at risk the relationships that the Northern Territory Government has established with external investors.

  • 26.
    Carson, Doris A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. The Northern Institute, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Australia.
    Carson, Dean B.
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. The Northern Institute, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Australia.
    International lifestyle immigrants and their contributions to rural tourism innovation: Experiences from Sweden's far north2018In: Journal of Rural Studies, ISSN 0743-0167, E-ISSN 1873-1392, Vol. 64, p. 230-240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the contributions of international lifestyle immigrants to new tourism development and innovation in the sparsely populated north of Sweden. Based on a qualitative case study, the paper examines how lifestyle immigrants contributed as tourism entrepreneurs to the formation of local capital in tourism, and stimulated local learning and innovation spillover through networks of interaction and collaboration. The theoretical framework integrates concepts from rural lifestyle migration, local community development, and local tourism innovation systems. The results document how immigrants emerged as important drivers of new tourism products, processes and markets, and introduced a range of new ideas, skills and external networks to the region. Yet, an in-depth social network analysis reveals that immigrants made more limited contributions to networks, collaborations and knowledge exchange with local tourism stakeholders, thus limiting learning outcomes and innovation spillover at a broader local system level. Reasons for this lack of systemic interaction included socio-cultural distance between immigrants and locals, limited levels of trust and reciprocity, diverging development and lifestyle priorities, and issues around exclusive immigrant networking. Finally, the relevance of the theoretical framework is discussed in relation to its applicability to other immigrant mobilities in sparsely populated rural areas.

  • 27.
    Carson, Doris A
    et al.
    University of South Australia, Australia.
    Carson, Dean B
    Flinders University, Australia.
    Hodge, Heidi
    Flinders University, Australia.
    Understanding Local Innovation Systems in Peripheral Tourism Destinations2014In: Tourism Geographies, ISSN 1461-6688, E-ISSN 1470-1340, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 457-473Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism destinations in peripheral areas are often large regions established by centralised government agencies to encourage collaboration between dispersed communities and foster innovation. Relatively little research attention has been paid to the impact that centrally defined destination boundaries have on whether and how small communities contribute to innovation at a regional level. This paper examines the case of Burra, a small town in rural South Australia. It analyses the networking, collaboration and knowledge exchange behaviour of tourism stakeholders in the context of the state-government-defined 'Clare Valley' tourism region. Data were drawn from a web-based social network analysis, in-depth interviews, historic document analysis and field observations. The study found that the local tourism system had limited aspirations and capabilities to collaborate with other towns in the region. Lack of regional engagement was only partially due to intra-regional competition and resistance to regional boundaries. More significant barriers included a local culture of operating in isolation, an embedded reliance on public sector leadership to manage systemic interactions, an aging system with limited ambition to change and an inability to harness in-migrants and externally based stakeholders to stimulate knowledge transfer. Changing the imposed destination boundaries would have limited impact on the operation of the local system. The paper concludes that effective regional destination development in peripheral areas needs to be better informed by more detailed understandings of local tourism systems and their capacities to engage.

  • 28.
    Carson, Doris A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Koster, Rhonda L.
    Lakehead University, Canada.
    Theoretical perspectives on rural tourism development2015In: Demystifying theories in tourism research / [ed] Kelly S. Bricker; Holly Donohoe, Wallingford: CABI Publishing, 2015, p. 46-63Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Chabala, Mwila
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Privatization of State Owned Enterprises: An Analysis of Impact on Regional Migration Patterns in Zambia Between 1990-20002014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Throughout history, migration has been an ongoing phenomenon driven by various factors ranging from social, political, economic and environmental situations. Zambia is not immune to migration and has seen a considerable share of its population engage in both internal and external migratory activities. Recognising the important role that migration plays in any economy and how it is influenced by circumstances prevailing at different points in time, this thesis seeks to analyse migration flows between Zambia's regions and the impact that privatisation of state owned enterprises had on migration patterns between 1990 and 2000. Because of challenges in gathering statistics to conduct a thorough quantitative analysis, the study employs a descriptive methodology using statistics collected from the Central Statistics Office online data catalogue and institutions such as the World Bank. The statistics are organised, calculated and analysed using Microsoft Excel and GIS Arcmap. The results indicate that soon after privatisation began in 1991, there was a sharp reduction in employment figures and a reduction in the proportion of urban population. The proportion of rural destined migrants was 2.3 times higher than that of urban destined migrants during the period of privatisation, an indication that people were leaving urban areas for rural areas. Return migration also rose, however, the country experienced both urbanisation and counter urbanisation during the period 1990-2000. Findings of this study show similarities to Beauchemin & Schoumaker's (2006) findings in Burkina Faso were changes in migration patterns were observed after the economy underwent structural change in the 1980's.

  • 30. Dannevig, Halvor
    et al.
    Bay-Larsen, Ingrid
    van Oort, Bob
    Keskitalo, Carina H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Adaptive capacity to changes in terrestrial ecosystem services amongst primary small-scale resource users in northern Norway and Sweden2015In: Polar Geography, ISSN 1088-937X, E-ISSN 1939-0513, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 271-288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents results from case studies in which we investigate the interrelations between changes in ecosystem services (ESs) and adaptive capacity among small-scale users of multi-use forest or outfields resources in northern Sweden and Norway. The study presents a framework that utilizes scenarios for changes in ESs under climate change in combination with qualitative interviews with outfield resource users in order to assess their adaptive capacity to the projected changes. The study illustrates that ESs may change significantly under climate change, and in particular affect winter snow and ice conditions, for instance increasing the duration of the growing season but with consequences for pasture quality. We find that given structural constraints, the key factors that influence the selected resource users' adaptive capacity at an individual level include motivation and entrepreneurial inclinations, which are related to the lifestyle choice of making a livelihood based on small-scale and multi-use occupations.

  • 31.
    de la Barre, Suzanne
    et al.
    Department of Recreation and Tourism, Vancouver Island University.
    Maher, Patrick
    Department of Community Studies, Cape Breton University.
    Dawson, Jackie
    Department of Geography, Institute for Science, Society and Policy, University of Ottawa.
    Hillmer-Pegram, Kevin
    Department of Geosciences, University of Alaska Fairbanks.
    Huijbens, Edward
    Icelandic Tourism Research Centre, University of Akureyri.
    Lamers, Machiel
    Environmental Policy Group, Department of Social Sciences, Wageningen University.
    Liggett, Daniela
    Gateway Antarctica, University of Canterbury.
    Müller, Dieter K.
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    Department of Human Geography, School of Technology and Business Studies, Dalarna University.
    Stewart, Emma
    Department of Tourism, Sport and Society, Faculty of Environment, Society & Design, Lincoln University.
    Tourism and Arctic Observation Systems: exploring the relationships2016In: Polar Research, ISSN 0800-0395, E-ISSN 1751-8369, Vol. 35, article id 24980Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Arctic is affected by global environmental change and also by diverseinterests from many economic sectors and industries. Over the last decade,various actors have attempted to explore the options for setting up integratedand comprehensive trans-boundary systems for monitoring and observing theseimpacts. These Arctic Observation Systems (AOS) contribute to the planning,implementation, monitoring and evaluation of environmental change andresponsible social and economic development in the Arctic. The aim of thisarticle is to identify the two-way relationship between AOS and tourism. On theone hand, tourism activities account for diverse changes across a broad spectrumof impact fields.Onthe other hand, due to its multiple and diverse agents and farreachingactivities, tourism is also well-positioned to collect observational dataand participate as an actor in monitoring activities. To accomplish our goals, weprovide an inventory of tourism-embedded issues and concerns of interest toAOS from a range of destinations in the circumpolar Arctic region, includingAlaska, Arctic Canada, Iceland, Svalbard, the mainland European Arctic andRussia. The article also draws comparisons with the situation in Antarctica. Onthe basis of a collective analysis provided by members of the International PolarTourism Research Network from across the polar regions, we conclude that thepotential role for tourism in the development and implementation of AOS issignificant and has been overlooked.

  • 32.
    Demiroglu, O. Cenk
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Müller, Dieter K.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Tokmakcioglu, Kaya
    Department of Management Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Impacts of Climate Change on Second Home Property Values in the Swedish Mountain2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change has and will have its impacts on the tourism industry, especially where weather-dependent amenities constitute the key attractions. In this study, our aim is to assess the impacts of climate change on existing and proposed second homes in and around ski resorts in the Swedish mountains, which are determined as among the most attractive locations for such development. It is thought that, along with climate change induced natural disasters and phenomena such as landslides, avalanches, floods and permafrost thaw, property value loss (or gain) is a major climate change impact that needs to be considered in conjunction with the vulnerability of skiing-based second homes and their immediate and wider regions. For this purpose, firstly, corresponding (and lagged) states of the ski climate are treated as estimators for second home sales prices for the 2000-2016 period and, secondly, the quantified relationship is simulated according to future climate projections, based on data available from the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. The results are mapped in terms of existing and potential skiing-based second home regions, the latter with a certain focus on the "winners", and according to different representative concentration pathways.

  • 33.
    Demiroglu, O. Cenk
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Development of downhill skiing tourism in Sweden: past, present, and future2019In: Winter tourism: trends and challenges / [ed] Ulrike Pröbstl-Haider, Harold Richins and Stefan Türk, CABI Publishing, 2019, p. 305-323Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Eklund, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Unequal opportunities in the knowledge economy: A social network analysis of formal and informalnetworks2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A new capitalistic era known as the knowledge economy has emerged since the middle of the 20thcentury, identified by ‘knowledge-based work’ and ‘immaterial labor’ generating innovation inleading-edge sectors, and recognized as a driver for economic change and future growth. As aspatial consequence, the importance of regions as economic entities has increased. Where regionsoften are dependent on innovative activities to generate competitive advantage and prospect. Topromote a socially inclusive regional economic development, scholars stress the significance of

    addressing issues of gender, particularity in male-dominated occupations such as knowledge-intensive industries, where masculine cultures tend to be deeply rooted. However, the regional

    learning and innovation literature is criticized for being firm-centric, gender-blind and ignoringthe wider existence of the knowledge worker, thus reproducing patterns of gender constraintssuch as barriers of equal advancements, discriminatory practices and social exclusion. This thesisaims to address these ignored issues by conducting a social network analysis on formal andinformal network within firms in the knowledge economy, and examine how individual

    characteristic might affect a workers position within these networks. A case study of Umeå ICT-industry was carried out where intra-firm social networks were analyzed of 16 firms and 204

    workers. The result from the analysis indicates that female knowledge worker tends to be sociallyexcluded within the informal network of these firms, while at the same time more dependent ona well-connected social position to be able to advance to a more influential position within firm’sformal networks. These findings support earlier claims that there is a need to incorporate a genderperspective into future research agendas as well as regional economic policymaking.

  • 35.
    Elekes, Zoltán
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Västernorrlands styrkeområden: Detaljstudie av de funktionella arbetsmarknaderna i Örnsköldsvik, Sollefteå, Kramfors och Sundsvall2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Alla lokala arbetsmarknader i Västernorrland har jämfört med Sverige i övrigt tydliga specialiseringar inom offentligt finansierad service (skola, vård och omsorg samt till viss del offentlig service och tjänster i alla arbetsmarknader förutom Örnsköldsvik). Två andra gemensamma karaktärsdrag är koncentrationer i skogsnäringarna även om det finns viss variation i vilka skogsnäringar respektive region är specialiserad inom (tex massa och papper i Kramfors, Örnsköldsvik och Sundsvall, sågning/hyvling i Kramfors och drivning och skogsskötsel i framförallt Sollefteå). Utöver detta delar alla av regionens lokala arbetsmarknader en tydlig profil kring maskinindustriell tillverkning. Här bör det noteras att dessa tydliga regionala specialiseringar också är märkbart könsuppdelade då de offentligt finansierade verksamheterna (framförallt vård och omsorg) domineras av kvinnor medan tillverkningsindustri och skogsnäringarna i högre utsträckning domineras av män. Denna könsfördelning är också sammankopplad med skillnader i inkomstnivåer då de mer kvinnodominerande verksamheterna har avsevärt lägre lönenivåer än de mansdominerande tillverkningssektorerna.

    Utöver dessa gemensamma karaktärsdrag finns också tydliga lokala specialiseringar som inom mer funktionella gränser kanske bättre speglar regionens näringsliv än vad den övergripande regionala strukturen gör. Örnsköldsvik är föga förvånande relativt specialiserad inom fordonstillverkning och teknisk konsultverksamhet, men har inte lika tydlig närvaro av exempelvis offentlig förvaltning, finans och försäkring eller IKT. Sollefteå å andra sidan har inte lika tydliga specialiseringar och det är framförallt offentligt finansierade verksamheter som dominerar liksom besöksnäringar, transport samt kraftförsörjning. I Kramfors och framförallt i Sundsvall återfinns de tydligaste koncentrationerna av finans och försäkring. I Kramfors återfinns också tydliga koncentrationer av offentliga tjänster samt sågning/hyvling och tillverkning av kablar och maskiner liksom besöksnäringar. Sundsvall speglar å andra sidan en mer servicebetonad del av näringslivet där förutom ett tydligt kompetensknippe kring finans och försäkring återfinns specialiseringar inom IKT och media, teknisk konsultverksamhet, detaljhandel och offentlig förvaltning.

    Den övergripande slutsatsen vi kan dra av detta fokus på de funktionella arbetsmarknaderna är att en generell regional utvecklingsstrategi för hela regionen också måste ta hänsyn till de lokala variationerna då respektive arbetsmarknad består av olika kompetensresurser och därmed också har olika förutsättningar för framtida specialiseringar. Utöver skogsnäringarna återfinns inte någon av regionens identifierade styrkeområden i alla fyra av regionens arbetsmarknader. Istället är det mer lokala specialiseringar som karaktäriserar sammansättningen av regionens näringsliv. Det innebär i princip två olika vägar för framtida regionala utvecklingsstrategier. Antingen kan dessa skillnader bejakas och utveckla respektive delarbetsmarknad utifrån vad som finns där idag då det kan gynna hela regionens utveckling, eller verka för att regionens styrkeområden bättre ska representeras i hela regionen. För en mer hållbar utveckling som bygger på befintliga lokala resurser bör dessa lokala särdrag bejakas då det underlättar bildandet av nya framtida specialiseringar (Elekes & Eriksson 2019a). Det är också främst inom den funktionella arbetsmarknaden där den lokala kompetensstrukturen reproduceras genom att det möjliggör jobbyten utan att nödvändigtvis behöva byta bostadsort.

    Slutligen bör framtida strategier tydligt verka för att öka mångfalden inom respektive del av arbetsmarknaden. En tydlig utmaning ligger i att exempelvis öka andelen kvinnor i de mer tillverkningsorienterade specialiseringarna. Framtida studier bör därför särskilt betona hur strukturomvandlingen (skapandet av nya och försvinnandet av gamla specialiseringar) påverkar män respektive kvinnor. Ytterligare studier på yrkesstrukturers förändring kan också tydligare fånga förändrade kompetensbehov inom sektorer, huruvida det påverkar könsfördelningen i näringslivet, och om det skiljer sig mellan de lokala arbetsmarknaderna

  • 36.
    Elekes, Zoltán
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Västernorrlands styrkeområden: översikt av näringslivets styrkeområden och relationer till varandra ur ett kompetensperspektiv2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Med utgångspunkt i perspektivet att ekonomisk utveckling i grund och botten är betingat på de kompetenser som används i produktionen av varor och tjänster, har föreliggande rapport gjort en översiktlig analys av Västernorrlands näringslivsstruktur. Detta gjordes genom att teckna ett så kallat industry-spacesom visar vilka sektorer som är starkt närvarande i regionen, men också i vilken utsträckning sektorerna är kopplade till varandra genom att vara beroende av liknande kompetenser. 

     

    I korthet pekar rapporten på att av de 15 sektorer med högst specialiseringsgrad i regionen så utgör endast pappers och massatillverkning (2,7%) samt försäkring (1,7)% någon av de 15 sysselsättningsrikaste sektorerna. De 15 mest specialiserade sektorerna utgör sammanlagt endast 12% av regionens totala sysselsättning 2016 vilket går att jämföra med de 15 största sektorerna som tillsammans utgör nästan hälften av den totala sysselsättningen. Med andra ord ligger regionens ekonomiska tyngdpunkt på andra ställen i näringslivet än i de relativt sett mest närvarande sektorerna. Det kan i sin tur medföra att en regionalpolitik som fokuserar på existerande starkt regionalt koncentrerade sektorer riskerar att exkludera stora delar av den regionala ekonomin. Exempelvis kan skillnader i mans- respektive kvinnodominerande yrken förstärkas. 

     

    När det kommer till etableringen av nya specialiseringar (och försvinnandet av existerande) finner vi en tydlig korrelation till hur inbäddad sektorn är i regionens kompetensstruktur. Kraftigt inbäddade sektorer (som delar liknande humankapital som många andra sektorer i regionen) har högre sannolikhet att etablera nya specialiseringar (eller öka sin relativa närvaro) medan mindre inbäddade sektorer har högre sannolikhet att minska sin relativa regionala närvaro. Då detta kan härledas till kompetensförsörjningsfrågor (många relaterade sektorer ökar sannolikheten att kunna rekrytera kompetent arbetskraft) bör fokus också riktas mot dessa typer av verksamheter i strävan att diversifiera näringslivet genom att skapa nya specialiseringar. 

  • 37.
    Eliasson, Kent
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Westlund, Hans
    Johansson, Mats
    Determinants of Net Migration to Rural Areas, and the Impacts of Migration on Rural Labour Markets and Self-Employment in Rural Sweden2015In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 693-709Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Across most of Europe, the countryside seems to show a polarized development in which large districts are depopulating, while certain areas, mainly around big- and mid-sized cities, are increasing in population. The latter development is often described in concepts of "rural gentrification" and "rurbanization", symbolizing a transformation of rural communities to communities with urban values and lifestyles. Most studies of the effects of these processes have focused on social and cultural consequences, as e.g. the displacements of lower-income households with higher-income residents and of rural culture and values with urban ones. This paper examines the phenomenon from another perspective, namely the effects of the "rurbanization" processes on countryside's labour markets and economic life. This paper aims at analysing the determinants of net migration to rural areas in general and to different types of regions, and the impacts of in-migration on rural labour markets, self-employment and other socio-economic conditions in Sweden for the period of 2003-2005. We find that net migration into rural areas increases with the size of adjacent local and regional centres, whereas net migration decreases with the average commuting distance of workers in the rural areas. When comparing in-migrants to rural areas with rural area stayers, our results indicate that the former has lower incomes, a lower employment ratio and a lower degree of entrepreneurial activities. These differences could-at least partly-be explained by the fact that rural area stayers were on average 6 years older than rural area in-migrants, i.e. the two groups were in different stages of their life cycles.

  • 38.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Labour mobility and plant performance: The influence of proximity, relatedness and agglomeration 2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to shed new light on the theorizations discussing the economic benefits of geographical clustering in a space economy increasingly characterized by globalization processes. This is made possible through the employment of a plant-perspective and a focus on how the relative fixity and mobility of labour influence plant performance throughout the entire Swedish economy. 

    By means of the longitudinal micro database ASTRID, connecting attributes of individuals to features of plants and localities for the whole Swedish economy, the empirical findings indicate that both localization and urbanization economies produce significant labour market externalities and that such inter-plant linkages positively affect plant performance as compared to the partial effects of relative regional specialization and diversification. Moreover, it is also demonstrated that it is necessary both to distinguish how well the external skills retrieved via labour mobility match the existing knowledge base of plants and to determine the geographical dimension of such flows to verify the relative effect of labour market-induced externalities. Finally, it is demonstrated that whereas general urbanization is beneficial within close distance to the plant, the composition of economic activities is more influential at greater distances. In such cases the geographical dimension influences whether plants benefit from being located in similar or different local settings. 

    In conclusion, it is argued that the circulation of labour skills, created and reproduced through the place-specific industrial setup, is crucial for understanding the mechanisms creating geographical variations in plant performance as compared to other regional conditions often proxied as relative specialization or diversification. This is because the relative fixity of labour tends to create place- and sector-specific skills which by means of their mobility in space are likely to facilitate the recombination of local skills, make the acquirement of non-local skills possible and secure sufficient affinity between economic actors by strengthening other dimensions of proximity – all aspects regarded as crucial to facilitate interactive learning processes and contribute to sustained regional growth.

  • 39.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Umeå utvecklas om fler bor kvar2011In: Västerbottens-Kuriren, ISSN 1104-0246Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 40.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Work–life advantage: Sustaining regional learning and innovation2018In: Regional studies, ISSN 0034-3404, E-ISSN 1360-0591, Vol. 52, no 9, p. 1306-1307Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Forslund, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    How do universities contribute to employment growth?: The role of human capital and knowledge bases2014In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 22, no 12, p. 2584-2604Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to analyze whether employment growth is faster in regions housing a university compared to non-university regions. We argue that universities per se are less likely to trigger externalities that facilitate employment growth. Instead we propose that it depends on the concentration of different skills in that particular region. This is analyzed by running a number of OLS regressions, based on official data on municipal level from Statistics Sweden, on how concentrations of human capital, analytic-, synthetic- and symbolic- knowledge bases in Swedish university regions influence employment growth 2002-2008. The results indicate that presence of universities per se do not influence employment growth. However, the findings suggest that university regions with high concentrations of human capital and, in particular, with employees characterized by the synthetic knowledge base, show higher growth rates. This implies that the influence of universities on employment is greatest in regions with high concentrations of skills able to apply the knowledge created in universities. Consequently, the regional composition of skills needs to match the knowledge produced by universities for significant university-induced spillovers to occur. 

  • 42.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Hane-Weijman, Emelie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Har Västernorrland en brist på digital kompetens?: En analys av den digitala yrkesstrukturen i länet2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Även om det än så länge inte finns några tydliga tendenser att antalet jobb i Sverige sammantaget minskar är det tydligt att nationellt sammanslagna siffror på arbetsmarknaden döljer två distinkta omvandlingsförlopp. Dels en omfördelning mellan olika typer av jobb (exempelvis från tillverkning till service och från lågkvalificerade tillverkningsjobb till mer kvalificerade) samt en geografisk omfördelning av arbetstillfällen. Detta bidrar till en förändrad efterfrågestruktur då nya kompetenser behövs i produktionen av både varor och tjänster i takt med ökad digitalisering. 

     

    I Västernorrlands län har diskussioner förts kring regionens eventuella relativa underskott av digitala kompetenser. Givet det omvandlingstryck som ekonomin genomgår kan detta försvåra kompetensförsörjningen och konkurrenskraften inom både tillverkning och service. 

     

    Syftet med denna rapport är därför att ge en överskådlig bild av den formella digitala kompetensen inom Västernorrlands län (fortsättningsvis benämnd som Västernorrland). Detta görs genom att beskriva och analysera länets sammansättning av yrken (SSYK96 på 3-siffernivå) som i olika grad använder sig av ”digitala kompetenser” i relation till övriga Sverige. 

    Resultaten pekar på att Väsernorrland har en relativt hög andel yrken med digitala kompetenser. Dock återfinns dessa mer ustrpidd i näringsliven än i övriga Sverige. 

  • 43.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Hane-Weijman, Emelie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    How do regional economies respond to crises?: The geography of job creation and destruction in Sweden (1990–2010)2017In: European Urban and Regional Studies, ISSN 0969-7764, E-ISSN 1461-7145, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 87-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By means of Swedish longitudinal micro-data, the aim of this paper is to analyse how regional economies respond to crises. This is made possible by linking gross employment flows to the notion of regional resilience. Our findings indicate that despite a steady national employment growth, only the three metropolitan regions have fully recovered from the recession of 1990. Further, we can show evidence of high levels of job creation and destruction in both declining and expanding regions and sectors, and that the creation of jobs is mainly attributable to employment growth in incumbent firms, while job destruction is primarily due to exits and micro-plants. Although the geography of resistance to crises and the ability of adaptability in the aftermath vary, our findings suggest that cohesive (i.e., with many skill-related industries) and diverse (i.e., with a high degree of unrelated variety) regions are more resilient over time. We also find that resistance to future shocks (e.g., the 2008 recession) is highly dependent on the resistance to previous crises. In all, this suggests that the long-term evolution of regional economies also influences their future resilience.

  • 44.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Hane-Weijman, Emelie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Henning, Martin
    Handelshögskolan, Göteborgs universitet.
    Sectoral and geographical mobility of workers after large establishment cutbacks or closures2018In: Environment and planning A, ISSN 0308-518X, E-ISSN 1472-3409, Vol. 50, no 5, p. 1071-1091Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies redundant workers’ industrial and geographical mobility, and the consequences of post-redundancy mobility for regional policy strategies. This is accomplished by means of a database covering all workers who became redundant in major shutdowns or cutbacks in Sweden between 1990 and 2005. Frequencies of industrial and geographical mobility are described over time, and the influence of some important characteristics that make workers more likely to be subject to particular forms of mobilities are assessed. We find that re-employment rates vary extensively across industries and time. Whereas going back to the same or related industries is the most common re-employment strategy among workers who find a new job in the first year, workers who do not benefit from quick re-employment are increasingly squeezed out to new job fields and regions. Older workers and workers with high vested interest in their original industries usually employ a “same-industry/same-region” strategy. This most frequent, and perhaps often most attractive, same-industry strategy comes at a cost, however. Individuals who instead pursue other mobility strategies have a lower risk of suffering from another major redundancy in the future. Thus, in terms of regional policy, strategies promoting diversification to related industries after major redundancies seem to be much more important than trying to retain workers in their old industry. In this case the route via education (university or vocational training) is important, as it increases the likelihood of successfully changing industry at time of re-employment. 

  • 45.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Hansen, Högni
    Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, Geography Section, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Winther, Lars
    Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, Geography Section, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Employment growth and regional development: industrial change and contextual differences between Denmark and Sweden2017In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 25, no 10, p. 1756-1778Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the potential drivers behind uneven regional development in the context of employment growth in Denmark and Sweden. In particular, we are interested in the roles of urbanization, industrial change and the rise of the new economy as manifested in the growth of the two economies in 2002–2007. The aim of this paper is, therefore, to analyse the impact of a number of key industrial sectors on regional employment growth in the two countries. The empirical analysis is based on longitudinal matched employer–employee data retrieved from official registers in each economy from 2002 to 2007, a period of strong national growth following the crisis of early 2000. Our findings indicate that the two economies follow a similar pattern in addressing total employment growth; but looking at changes in employment levels across the national borders of these two relatively similar open economies, we find that, although in general these economies react relatively similarly to changes, embarking on a narrower analysis of the individual sectors reveals marked national differences. This indicates that context matters in the analysis of regional economic dynamics in terms of structure, system and policy. 

  • 46.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Hansen, Høgni Kalsø
    Department of Geography and Geology, University of Copenhagen.
    Industries, skills and human capital: how does regional size affect uneven development?2013In: Environment and planning A, ISSN 0308-518X, E-ISSN 1472-3409, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 593-613Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses how the composition of industry structures, skills and human capital is related to regional development in peripheral and central locations. We do this by means of OLS models to analyse the relationship between purchase power growth and employment growth between 2001 and 2008 as well as a selection of variables constructed via register data of the total population in Sweden. The analysis demonstrates an evident spatial division of post-industrial development that larger regions benefit relatively more from than smaller regions do. The empirical findings indicate that a transition towards more knowledge intensive sectors and a higher educated labour force has the strongest impact on development in the largest Swedish regions, while a transition from manual skills towards more creative skills shows only a positive relationship with development in medium size regions. Consequently, the paper argues that the recent appraisal of the knowledge based economy mainly benefits the largest urban regions, meaning that regional size is an important parameter when discussing trajectories of regional development and the adaption to contemporary economic development paths.

  • 47.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Hansen, Høgni Kalsø
    Department of Geography and Geology, University of Copenhagen.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    The importance of business climate and people climate on regional performance2014In: Regional studies, ISSN 0034-3404, E-ISSN 1360-0591, Vol. 8, no 6, p. 1135-1155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Creativity and talent are considered key-factors in regional development due to the connection between growth, city regions and human capital. To come to a deeper understanding on the relevance of recent amenity-driven theories and how they are related to employment and GRP at regional level, this paper analyses the influence of business-climate (business friendly assets) and people-climate (amenities). Based on panel-data regressions, we show that both business- and people-climate is related to regional performance. The exact nature of these relationships is however dependent on how both regional performance and business- or people climate is defined.

  • 48.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Lengyel, Balazs
    Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
    Co-worker networks and agglomeration externalities2019In: Economic Geography, ISSN 0013-0095, E-ISSN 1944-8287, Vol. 95, no 1, p. 65-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present article provides an initial systematic analysis of how social networks influence productivity in regional agglomerations. This is accomplished by means of matched employer–employee data for the entire Swedish economy for the period 1990–2008, allowing us to construct a weighted co-worker network with aggregated tie weights on the plant level. We find evidence that increasing density of the plant-level network has a positive effect on productivity, particularly in large regional industry-clusters with high degrees of specialization. Triadic closure of ties is, however, negatively linked to productivity, suggesting the importance of nonredundant knowledge. Moreover, we find only limited support for the notion that the diversity of linkages within or across regions as such is beneficial for productivity. Instead, we show that the degree of specialization conditions the extent to which both linkages to related industries in the region and nonlocal ties are beneficial. Our results thus suggest that having dense social networks is a crucial feature of high-performing agglomerations, and that interindustry, as well as interregional, linkages are compensatory in cases when sufficient industry specialization is absent.

  • 49.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Rodriguez-Posé, Andrés
    Department of Geography and Environment, London School of Economics, London, UK.
    Job-related mobility and plant performance in Sweden2017In: Geoforum, ISSN 0016-7185, E-ISSN 1872-9398, Vol. 83, p. 39-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses a Swedish micro-dataset containing 2,696,909 hires during the period 2002-2006 to assess the impact of job-related mobility on plant-level performance. The analysis classifies new recruits according to their work experience and level of formal qualification, as well as by the region of origin and of destination. New hires are divided into graduates and experienced workers and between high- and low-educated. The results point towards the importance of acknowledging both the experience and the skills of new recruits. The greatest benefits are related to hiring new workers from outside the region where the plant is located. The analysis also stresses the importance of geography, with plants in metropolitan regions gaining the most from labour mobility, while the benefits of mobility for plants in smaller, more peripheral regions are more diverse and dependent on both the type and origin of new workers.

  • 50.
    Forsman, Hampus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    ”It is a huge wealth with languages and cultures”: Administrative Municipalities and Minority Languages in Sweden2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis will focus on the seven Swedish administrative municipalities that administer at least two of the three official minority languages in Sweden. Those languages are Finnish Meänkieli (Torne Valley Finnish) and Saami languages and all of these languages are territorially bound to the northernmost area in Sweden. The thesis depart from a new law (SFS 2009:724) that went into practice in 2010. The new law is based on new directives from the European Council to promote and protect regional- and minority languages which is part of a change of paradigm where the value of minority languages has been emerging. This will be investigated by using the ecology of languages-theory which is both described in a global setting and in the Swedish context as well. Language planning is also included to illustrate what is needed to increase status for minority languages. The data collection method for this thesis has been interviews where minority language officials from all seven municipalities included in this thesis are represented.

                          From this thesis it become evident that the language planning theory is important when studying this subject. To some extent also the ecology of language theory can be applied regarding these issues on minority languages in the Swedish setting. The respondents in this thesis only had positive opinions on the new legislation even though there are some things which could develop. For instance the respondents said that they could see minorities that have become more proud and willing to show their minority language and culture. Some of the most important conclusions from this thesis are that an overall perspective is important for the minority languages. Also, the majority population should get the opportunity to understand the minority situation and learn about their language and culture.

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