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  • 1.
    Ahnlund, Petra
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Wikström, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Arbetslinjen i fokus. En analys av flykting- och etableringspolitiken.2015In: Book of Abstracts FALF 2015 Conference, 10-12 June 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I december 2010 sjösattes en ny reform för flyktingmottagandet i Sverige: Lagen om etableringsinsatser förvissa nyanlända (2009/10:197). Ett övergripande syfte med flyktingpolitiken är att ingen ska hamna i utanförskap,och därför fokuseras i reformen snabb arbetsmarknadsetablering genom betoningen på aktivering. Denna aktiveringspolitik återfinns i stora dela av Europa och inbegriper ’Welfare to work’, ett skifte från enpassiv välfärdslogik till en aktiv sådan för att förhindra beroende och passivitet främst för grupper som anses stå långt ifrån arbetsmarknaden. Den svenska versionen av en aktiv arbetsmarknadspolitik brukar benämnassom ”arbetslinje” och har ett tydligt fokus på att genom olika strategier stimulera alla med arbetsförmåga till sysselsättning. Dessa strategier kan handla om att öka anställbarhet men kan också innefatta villkorade ersättningar eller olika slags prestationsbelönande system.Syftet med presentationen är att beskriva hur etableringsinsatser för nyanlända legitimerar en arbetslinje i integrationen av flyktingar och deras anhöriga och hur flyktingen som subjekt konstrueras som en aktiv arbetare. Två centrala dokument, SOU 2008:58 och Regeringens proposition 2009/10:60, i vilken den nya lagen ingår, har analyserats med inspiration av kritisk diskursanalys och Bacchis problemdefinition (1999). Genom att ställa frågor om vad som utgör problemet, vilka dess orsaker är och hur lösningar konstrueras, med fokus på flyktingen, framkommer argumenten för flyktingpolitiken och dess inramning. Resultat från diskursanalysen visar bl.a. att lagen vilar på en princip om att snabbt komma till någon form av sysselsättning ses som en överordnat mål för att förebygga ett möjligt utanförskap och bidragsberoende. Det finns idag en tydlig markering i dokumenten att individen måste anpassa sig till arbetsmarknadens krav ochefterfrågan, ta ansvar för sitt deltagande och sin försörjning. Våra analyser visar en tydlig förskjutning från att betrakta ”flyktingen” som kategori grundat i ett humanrättsligt erkännande med ett visst behov av särskildastödinsatser, till att ses som en arbetssökande där arbete är en rättighet såväl som en skyldighet.

  • 2.
    Alers, Margret
    et al.
    Unit Gender and Women’s Health, Department of Primary and Community Care, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, the Netherlands .
    Pepping, Tess
    Unit Gender and Women’s Health, Department of Primary and Community Care, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.
    Bor, Hans
    Unit Gender and Women’s Health, Department of Primary and Community Care, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.
    Verdonk, Petra
    Department of Medical Humanities, School of Medical Sciences, EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, the Netherlands .
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Lagro-Janssen, Antoine
    Unit Gender and Women’s Health, Department of Primary and Community Care, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.
    Speciality preferences in Dutch medical students influenced by their anticipation on family responsibilities2014In: Perspectives on Medical Eduction, ISSN 2212-277X, Vol. 3, no 6, 443-454 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Physician gender is associated with differences in the male-to-female ratio between specialities and with preferred working hours. We explored how graduating students’ sex or full-time or part-time preference influences their speciality choice, taking work-life issues into account. Graduating medical students at Radboud University Medical Centre, the Netherlands participated in a survey (2008–2012) on career considerations. Logistic regression tested the influence of sex or working hour preference on speciality choice and whether work-life issues mediate. Of the responding students (N = 1,050, response rate 83, 73.3 % women), men preferred full-time work, whereas women equally opted for part time. More men chose surgery, more women family medicine. A full-time preference was associated with a preference for surgery, internal medicine and neurology, a part-time preference with psychiatry and family medicine. Both male and female students anticipated that foremost the career of women will be negatively influenced by family life. A full-time preference was associated with an expectation of equality in career opportunities or with a less ambitious partner whose career would affect family life. This increased the likelihood of a choice for surgery and reduced the preference for family medicine among female students. Gender specifically plays an important role in female graduates’ speciality choice making, through considerations on career prospects and family responsibilities.

  • 3.
    Bergsand Persson, Carin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Öberg, Tobias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Rast utan stress och stressad utan rast?: Sjuksköterskors upplevelser av rast2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Importance of breaks for health and recovery is a current issue for working conditions. Both employers and employees must relate to the law which regulates the basic capabilities of the break. Breaks is essential for the efficacy of recovery. The absence of recovery can lead to prolonged stress which can be unhealthy. In Sweden, nurses are a vulnerable group for stress. It may indicate high workload and stress if people are skipping breaks. Aim: The aim was to highlight nurses´ experience of their break at emergency care units. Method: Using a qualitative method, ten nurses at two acute care were interviewed. The interviews were analyzed into three main-categories with seven sub-categories. Results: The experience of breaks was characterized by circumstances before break, both nurses ' expectations on the break and the presence of a heavy workload. Environment for rest, length of breaks and place for rest characterizes the experience. Improved health and reduced stress were consequences of the break, while poor health and increased stress were consequences in the absence of a break. Conclusion: Breaks had importance to nurses because there was an expectation of getting relax, eat, get quiet and think of something else. Heavy workload affected nurses break habits. 

  • 4.
    Bolin, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Höckertin, C
    Organiseringens betydelse för sociala relationer2010In: Sociala relationer i arbetslivet: studier från föränderliga arbetsplatser / [ed] Härenstam, A. & Bejerot, E., Malmö: Gleerups förlag , 2010, 1Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Bolin, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Höckertin, C
    Marklund, Staffan
    Organizational effects on working conditions and health2010In: The dynamics of organizations and healthy work / [ed] Marklund, S. & Härenstam, A., Växjö : Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper , 2010, 1Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Bolinder, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Handlingsutrymmets betydelse för arbetslösas upplevelser, handlingsstrategier och jobbchanser2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main research problem in this thesis is how unemployed individuals experience and handle the situation of unemployment and how their actions are related to their action possibilities. These are determined by factors like level of education, vocational training, age, citizenship, handicap and level of unemployment on the local labour market. A common assumption is that search behaviour of unemployed individuals strongly affects their possibility to find a job. A central question in this thesis is if individuals’ behaviour has been overemphasised at the expense of real employment opportunities. The empirical part of this thesis is based on longitudinal data collected during a period of high unemployment. The sample is a national random sample existing of 3 500 Swedes interviewed by telephone in the beginning of 1996 and in the end of 1997.

    The results show that the expectations of the unemployed to find a job as well as their actual search behaviour are shaped by the situation they are in. The unemployed have job expectations that co-vary with their action possibilities, but as many as 31.3 per cent overestimate their chances and 10.5 per cent underestimate them. This result is based on questions about expectations to obtain a job related to the actual employment situation nearly two years later. Unemployed individuals’ job expectations co-vary with their experiences of the unemployment situation. Those who believe that their job chances are bad have a low mental sense of well-being, while the opposite is found among those who believe that their job chances are good. The sense of having control over the situation is important for an individual’s mental sense of well-being.

    Both strategies of activity and adaptation occur among the unemployed. Strategies that are meant to change the situation in an objective are most common, only a minority of the unemployed seem to have adapted to the situation of unemployment.

  • 7.
    Edlund, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Användning av sociala medier under arbetsdagen och skattad stressnivå: En del i gränsdragningen mellan arbete och familj2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Flexibiliteten i dagens arbetsliv bidrar till att en individs livsdomäner allt mer träder in i varandra, till stor del genom informations- och kommunikationsteknologin och sociala medier. Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka huruvida det finns ett samband mellan användningen av sociala medier på arbetet och skattad stressnivå hos arbetande individer. En elektronisk enkät innehållande bakgrundsvariabler, egenkonstruerade frågor kring sociala medier samt Perceived Stress Scale mailades ut till 111 deltagare, varav 93 personer besvarade den. Bland bakgrundsvariablerna återfanns inte några samband mellan varken skattad stressnivå eller användningen av sociala medier. Analys med korstabell och χ2-test visade på ett signifikant samband mellan skattad stressnivå och användning av sociala medier. Ett signifikant positivt samband hittades mellan skattad stressnivå och antal minuter per arbetsdag som ägnas åt att använda sociala medier (r = ,239, p < ,05). Sociala medier kan därmed fungera både som hjälpmedel för en individ när denna försöker balansera gränserna mellan sina livsdomäner, men även försvårande när användningen tar upp för mycket tid.

  • 8.
    Ericsson, Tom
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    I fosterlandets tjänst: en studie i den svenska arméunderbefälskårens fackliga strävanden 1901-19221978Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 9. Fejes, Andreas
    et al.
    Berglund, Gun
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Employability: Significant signs of the present2009In: Proceedings of the third International Conference on Training, Employability and Employment, 16-17 June 2009, Karlstad: Karlstad University , 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Fejes, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Berglund, Gun
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Employability: significant signs of the present2010In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 16, no 2, 11-23 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Employability has gained renewed attention in contemporary political discussions during the last ten years. The concept has emerged as a signifier which has replaced the previous way of describing the workforce, thereby producing different kinds of pictures of whom is a desirable worker. This article aims to gain a broader understanding of how discourses on employability position care workers in elderly care as responsible for their own employability. Drawing on the Foucauldian concept of governmentality, transnational policy texts and interview transcripts from interviews with care workers are analysed and compared. The main questions are: How are care workers in elderly care made responsible for their own employability and how does this relate to the responsibility assigned to entities such as employers and the state?

  • 11.
    Forsberg, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Umeå Centre for Evaluation Research (UCER).
    Arbetsgivarattityder till Nätuniversitetet: en förstudie2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna förstudie undersöker arbetsgivares attityder till högre utbildning på distans med ITstöd, samt till att anställa personer utbildade vid Nätuniversitetet. Arbetsgivarna representerartre yrkesområden: skola- vård- samt dataingenjörsyrken. Urvalet är begränsat till nio arbetsgivare. Intervjupersonernas bedömningar rörande rekryteringav nätuniversitetsutbildade är överlag av hypotetisk karaktär, d.v.s. de har inga egna erfarenheter att falla tillbaka på. Detta sammantaget gör att slutsatserna måste tolkas med viss försiktighet. Det faktum att de intervjuade arbetsgivarna i viktiga avseenden delar sammauppfattningar, trots att de representerar olika yrkesområden, regioner m.m., indikerar dock en bredare giltighet för rapportens centrala slutsatser.

    Samtliga arbetsgivare gör gällande att nätuniversitetsutbildning och vanlig campusutbildning skulle bedömas likvärdiga i en rekryteringssituation. Skälen till detta är:(1) En positiv syn på IT-stödda utbildningsformer. Trots att yrkesutbildning via IT-stöd är en ny företeelse som arbetsgivarna har ytterst begränsad kunskap om, förväntar de sig att nätuniversitetsutbildade har jämförbara kvalifikationer med campusutbildade. Flera av arbetsgivarna har dock erfarenheter av IT-stöd i fortbildning, vilket bidrar till deras positiva inställningtill nätuniversitetsutbildning.(2) Arbetsgivarna lägger i allmänhet inte någon värdering kring frågan genom vilken studieformeller vid vilken högskoleort den arbetssökande tillgodogjort sig sin utbildning, så länge denne har relevant examen. De faktorer som arbetsgivarna tillmäter betydelse är främst desökandes personliga egenskaper samt arbetslivserfarenhet.

    Arbetsgivarnas positiva inställning till rekrytering av nätuniversitetsutbildade är emellertid villkorad: flera av dem framhåller att detta förutsätter att utbildningen ger motsvarande färdigheter som ordinarie campusstudier. Här vädrar några arbetsgivare en oro över att nödvändiga gruppövningar och liknande blir lidande vid nätbaserade studier. Vad som kanske är något överraskande är den likartade bilden inom de undersökta yrkesområdena, att det inte uppträder några tydliga yrkesrelaterade skillnader i arbetsgivarnas attityder. Möjligen döljs eventuella skillnader bakom en annan faktor – klyftan mellan glesbygd och stad. Trots att samtliga arbetsgivare delar en positiv grundsyn kring olika aspekter av IT-stödd utbildning, värderas denna i än högre grad bland studiens glesbygdsarbetsgivare. Detta är direkt relaterat till en större upplevd nytta av IT-stöd i glesbygden. Berörda arbetsgivare framhåller här både en nytta för själva arbetsplatsen – t.ex. hur IT-stödd distansutbildning kan underlätta i samband med anställdas fortbildning – och för den egna orten i stort.

    Att döma av studiens empiri tenderar inställningen till IT-stödda utbildningsformer att bli mer positiv, ju mer egna erfarenheter arbetsgivaren har inom området. Detta leder inte automatiskt till slutsatsen att växande erfarenheter ger en mer positiv inställning till IT-stöd. Arbetsgivarna med de största kunskaperna kring dessa frågor företräder nämligen också de arbetsplatser som tydligast har nytta av IT-stödda utbildningsformer. Arbetsgivarna vägleds i huvudsak av en pragmatisk syn på såväl yrkesutbildning som fortbildning. De gör som regel inte heller någon markant åtskillnad mellan vanlig distansutbildningoch IT-stödd dito. Snarare betraktar studiens arbetsgivare IT-stöd i termer av ett hjälpmedel inom ramen för vanlig distansutbildning.

  • 12.
    Grönberg, Per-Olof
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Lundh Nilsson, Fay
    Sandström, Glenn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Desirable skills?: Non-Nordic citizens applying for work permits in Sweden, 1947–19502015In: Labor history, ISSN 0023-656X, E-ISSN 1469-9702, Vol. 56, no 4, 481-498 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden's rapid economic growth after the Second World War meant that the native labour supply was incapable of meeting the high demand, especially for industrial labourers. Three agreements on organised collective transfers were signed, but a large majority of the labour migrants came on their own initiative. Not all applicants were equally welcomed. In this article, logistic regressions are used to investigate a sample of 2830 (every fifth) applications to the National Labour Market Board (AMS) from the years 1947–1950; 1367 had an arrangement with a future Swedish employer, while 1463 applicants lacked such an arrangement. The likelihood of being granted a permit was 11 times higher for the first category. Our hypothesis that the chances were better for high-skilled workers proved true only in part; it was valid if they had an employer agreement. Contrary to our assumptions, women had a better chance than men, partly because domestic servants were always permitted and partly because women did not compete with male labour. However, our assumptions with regard to better chances for the young but experienced, and for those applying for the occupation wherein they had their experience held true. A number of official documents revealed the desirability of Sudeten German labourers. They were viewed as skilled, reliable and loyal by employers, labour unions and governmental authorities. This assumption only held true for applicants lacking an employer. This can be viewed as a prolongation of the practice of helping Sudeten German Social Democrats, established in 1938. The intention to help refugees was, however, also evident in the treatment of Baltic and Polish applicants.

  • 13.
    Haake, Ulrika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Löfgren Martinsson, Maria
    Pedagogiska institutionen, Lunds Universitet.
    Mellan verktygslåda och kritisk reflektion: Om personalvetares anställningsbarhet2009In: Anställningsbarhet: perspektiv från utbildning och arbetsliv / [ed] Gun Berglund, Andreas Fejes, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2009, 55-69 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Haake, Ulrika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Rantatalo, Oscar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Lindberg, Ola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Police leaders make poor change agents: leadership practice in the face of a major organisational reform2017In: Policing & society, ISSN 1043-9463, E-ISSN 1477-2728, Vol. 27, no 7, 764-778 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present article examines expectations on police leaders during major organisational change pressures. Based on policy analysis and interviews with 28 police leaders, the paper seeks to answer the following question: How do police leaders' accounts of leadership practice relate to expectations from higher ranks (above), subordinates (below) and police policies concerning leadership? The results of the paper indicate that police leaders are squeezed into a position between demands from above (top  management) and demands from below (lower organisational tiers). Some of the perceived expectations and practiced leadership actions are also gendered. For example, women feel the need to prove their credibility as leaders and to act in both a caring and daring manner, something that is not evident for male police leaders. Furthermore, the material indicates a considerable mismatch between the different sets of demands expressed in interviews and expectations regarding leadership expressed in police policy discourse, wherein core values and leadership criteria are articulated. In conclusion, the findings indicate a discrepancy between official rhetoric and practice, where the leadership constructed at a policy level deviates from leadership constructed in practice. This discrepancy is argued to represent an effective barrier for change initiatives, and hence the idea that police leaders will be able to function as agents of change promoting organisational reform is highly uncertain.

  • 15.
    Halleröd, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Larsson, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    In-work poverty in a transitional labour market: Sweden, 1988-20032008In: The Working Poor in Europe: Employment, Poverty and Globalization, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2008, 155-178 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Hansson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Evaluation Research (UCER).
    Utvärdering av Jobba friskt: delrapport 20062006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten behandlar arbetsmiljösatsningen Jobba friskts förutsättningar och relevans för att bidra till ett hållbart arbetsliv med bättre livskvalitet och hög produktivitet inom åtta myndigheter. Jobba friskts målsättning är att inom två år kunna redovisa resultat som visar att en positiv trendförskjutning har uppnåtts på de arbetsplatser som deltar i projektet. Inom ramen för tre utbildningsmoduler erbjuds deltagarna i Jobba friskt praktiska verktyg och konkreta åtgärdspaket för att åstadkomma förändringar på sina arbetsplatser. Två av utbildningsmodulerna kan beskrivas som inriktade mot förebyggande och hälsofrämjande insatser. Inom dessa prioriteras faktorer som ska inspirera till att utveckla ett förebyggande och hälsofrämjande arbetsmiljöarbete. Den tredje modulen kretsar kring efterhjälpande åtgärder genom rehabilitering av långtidssjukskrivna. I rapporten rekonstrueras projektets underliggande antaganden och satsningen relateras till aktuell forskning och erfarenhet inom området. Med utbildningsinsatser i projektform framstår satsningens förutsättningar som goda. Utbildningsinnehållets generella nedtoning av verksamheternas specifika mål och krav riskerar att försämra förutsättningarna för hur man vid respektive arbetsplats inom de olika myndigheterna ska lösa den grundläggande samordningsfrågan med exempelvis kvalitets- och ekonomifrågor på grupp- och organisationsnivå. Bland slutsatserna framhålls att resultatet kan medföra ett ökat behov av partsgemensamma insatser för att underlätta överföringen och anpassningen av deltagarnas kunskap till de ordinarie verksamheternas krav.

  • 17.
    Haugen, Katarina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    'Not a Problem Until it Becomes a Problem': A Qualitative Study of Values and Risks of In-house Family Ties in Swedish Workplaces2016In: Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, ISSN 2245-0157, E-ISSN 2245-0157, Vol. 6, no 4, 67-86 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In-house family ties at workplaces occur in most contexts, and are associated with both advantages and disadvantages. On the basis of 40 interviews with human resource managers at Swedish workplaces, the values and risks of in-house family ties and their importance within the workplace are analyzed jointly, thus allowing for a holistic perspective. The interviews reveal values and risks on a strategic level, for day-to-day operations, for the social work environment, and on the level of individuals. Crucially, even when in-house family ties are perceived as uncomplicated, there is a latent risk that problems might arise. The interpretation of the role of in-house family ties is also strongly related to whether they are paired with asymmetrical (vertical) power relations. It also depends heavily on the chosen perspective-that of the organization, the social work environment, the individual, or the broader society-and the perceived advantages tend to come with corresponding inverted disadvantages.

  • 18.
    Högman, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    Ageing in a changing society: Elderly men and women in urban Sweden 1830-19301999Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study deals with the impact of industrialisation and urbanisation on the living conditions of aged men and women. By studying labour force participation, savings and pensions, the role of the family, and the extent of dependency of aged men and women from a gender and class perspective, continuities and changes between pre-industrial and industrial times are examined. The main focus is placed on the situation of elderly persons living in the town of Sundsvall between 1830 and 1930. This town became the commercial centre of one of the largest saw-mill districts in the world at the end of the nineteenth century. The residence patterns of old men and women in Sundsvall are also compared with those in two other Swedish industrialised urban areas; the capital Stockholm and the textile centre Norrköping.

    According to modernisation theorists, industrialisation and urbanisation led to an increase in dependency in old age, due to weakening family ties and unemployment. This study shows the complexity of the issue. It is true that some sources reveal a declining proportion of men participating in the labour force at the very end of the period of observation, but this was primarily due to the introduction of the national pension system in 1914. On the other hand, other records show a stability or even an increasing proportion of elderly men and women in the labour market.

    By contrast with previous studies of the residence patterns of aged persons, this dissertation shows a very high percentage of elderly women living alone in all three urban areas selected for study. However, this was not solely a sign of isolation, since the vast majority of those elderly living in households of their own had children residing in the vicinity. Furthermore, many old men and women shared households with their children, although this pattern was less common among the working class. The role of off-spring appears to have been important both in pre-industrial and industrial times. The residence patterns of the urban elderly were probably influenced by traditional rural living arrangements, to the extent that old couples and their married children often lived close to each other but usually maintained households of their own. Old parents and their adult children might have preferred to live in separate households instead of crowding in with each other.

    The unmarried elderly were probably most affected by the transformations taking place at the end of the nineteenth century. A considerable number of them migrated late in life, leaving all their relatives behind. Therefore, they became highly vulnerable. Unmarried men tended to be more exposed to the dangers of urban life. They probably experienced tougher working conditions, had weaker social networks, and could not manage on their own to the same extent as women. Therefore, a larger propor-tion of men than women ended up in the workhouse.

  • 19.
    Johansson, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    From calling to a scheduled vocation: Swedish male and female students' reflections on being a doctor2007In: Medical teacher, ISSN 0142-159X, E-ISSN 1466-187X, Vol. 29, no 1, e1-8 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: All over the world an increasing number of women are entering medical schools. Soon women will constitute half of the physician workforce in Scandinavia. However, specialty segregation persists. Reports have shown different motives among male and female doctors to be, but the impact of gender, i.e. how ongoing social constructions of femininity and masculinity influence the development of professionalism, is not fully described.

    AIM: The purpose of this study was to explore views and visions among second-year students at a Swedish Medical School, and to identify challenges for education and workforce planning.

    METHODS: After receiving research ethics board approval, all students participating in the course 'Professional development', including a task to write a free-text essay on the theme 'to be a doctor', were invited to share their essays for analysis. Of 138 (40% men) students in 2002, 104 (39% men) accepted. The texts were analysed according to grounded theory.

    RESULTS: Students held 'doctorship' to be an outstanding profession of commitment, authority and duty. Fears were exposed, especially among women, regarding how to fit demands of self-sacrifices and balancing a private life. Belonging to a new generation, they conceived gender equity as self-evident. Actual working conditions were met with disapproval, as did an all-embracing calling. A scheduled vocation was hoped for. They relied on the mass of women to implement change. Women's 'other' values, alluding to family orientation, were expected to alter working conditions and also give men more leisure time. Despite equity conviction, segregating gender patterns in students' representations, interactions with tutors and future prospects were disclosed.

    CONCLUSIONS: Students' arguments raise challenges for medical educators and planners regarding professional values, medical socialization and specialty recruitment. The new generation requires a renewed Hippocratic Oath, gender-aware role models and practice sites. Swedish students' arguments are compared with current international literature.

  • 20.
    Johansson-Lewis, Josefin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    "Just nu är det lite trafikstockning.....": En studie om hur studie- och yrkesvägledare upplever sin psykosociala miljö.2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 60 credits / 90 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie berör frågor som handlar om hur studie- och yrkesvägledare upplever sin psykosociala arbetsmiljö. Genom intervjuer har studie- och yrkesvägledare på grundskole- och gymnasienivå beskrivit sin arbetsmiljö. Fokus ligger på hur studie- och yrkesvägledarna upplever sin arbetssituation utifrån de för studien relevanta områden som behandlas i främst arbetsmiljöundersökningen som presenterades av Lärarnas riksförbund 2011. Resultatet har analyserats utifrån Karaseks krav-kontroll-stöd modell. Min undersökning visar att de intervjuade studie- och yrkesvägledarna i stort sett upplever sig ha rimliga krav och en hög grad av beslutsutrymme. Men en jämförelse mellan arbetsmiljön på grundskola och gymnasiet pekar på att studie- och yrkesvägledarna på grundskolan upplever sig ha större krav på grund av hur deras arbete är organiserat med delade tjänster och med fler elever att ha ansvar för. Denna organisation påverkar också deras möjligheter till stöd ute på arbetsplatserna. Dock är båda grupperna ett litet skrå i skolans värld och de uttrycker att de har behov av stöd från överordnade och genom att ha tydligare styrdokument.

  • 21.
    Keisu, Britt-Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Dignity: A Prerequisite for Attractive Work in Elderly Care2017In: Society, health and vulnerability, E-ISSN 2002-1518, Vol. 8, no 1, 1-13 p., UNSP 1322455Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores discourses of new public management (NPM) and dignity at work by considering how attractive work is represented by managers and professionals in Swedish elderly care. The analysis, guided by critical discursive psychology, uses qualitative interviews with 31 managers, nurses, physiotherapists and occupational therapists at nine workplaces. Three storylines of how attractive work is represented were identified: salary and status, high-quality care, and working conditions and competence. These storylines revealed two strategies by which dignity is attained and defended: strategies of resistance and strategies of organizational citizenship. A conclusion is that identity, power and position are key aspects for interpreting how managers and professionals navigate between discourses of dignity. Work in elderly care is under pressure from the major shift towards neoliberalism and the techniques of NPM. Discourses upholding NPM are present to only a limited extent, whilst discourses rejecting NPM principles and safeguarding dignity at work and dignity as care providers constitute the basis of the representations. Hence, another conclusion is that the consequences of NPM undermine prior conceptions of the importance of care work. Although dignity at work appears to be a prerequisite for attractive work, it may be an unattainable goal for organizations.

  • 22.
    Keisu, Britt-Inger
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Öhman, Ann
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Enberg, Birgit
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    What is a good workplace?: Tracing the logics of NPM among managers and professionals in Swedish elderly care2016In: Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, ISSN 2245-0157, E-ISSN 2245-0157, Vol. 6, 27-46 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neoliberal policies such as new public management (NPM) have been pivotal to the Swedish elderly care system for two decades. This article explores the discourses of NPM and work by focusing on how a good workplace is represented by professionals and managers in Swedish elderly care. Using qualitative interviews with 31 managers, nurses, physiotherapists, and occupational therapists at nine workplaces, we identified four competing meanings (“storylines”) of how a good workplace is constructed among the interviewees within an ongoing struggle between two discourses. Three storylines, i.e., striving to achieve the mission, a desire to work in elderly care, and striving for good working relationships, are linked to the neoliberal discourse of organizational effectiveness. In contrast, the fourth storyline, support and better working conditions, is related to a welfare-state discourse of traditional labor relations with strong historical roots. Four subject positions available to the managers and professionals were identified: the bureaucrat, the passionate, the professional, and the critic. We conclude that NPM is translated on top of existing discourses, such as those of traditional labor relations, care ideals, and practices, that are already established in elderly care workplaces and that counteract the new policy.

  • 23.
    Lindberg, Ola
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Rantatalo, Oscar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Competence in professional practice: a practice theory analysis of police and doctors2015In: Human Relations, ISSN 0018-7267, E-ISSN 1741-282X, Vol. 68, no 4, 561-582 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article outlines a theoretical understanding of competence as the inferred potential for desirable activity within a professional practice. By employing the concept of ‘teleoaffective structure’ as developed in Schatzki’s practice theory, our study investigates how notions of competent and excellent professionals are defined in two separate practices in which highly qualified professionals share formal qualifications. The study is comparative and based on a total of 39 interviews carried out in the Swedish National Police Counter-Terrorist Unit (police) and with recruiters of medical interns (doctors) in Swedish healthcare. Results indicate that, despite obvious differences between the professional groups in the study, some remarkable similarities are apparent in what are regarded as high levels of competence. Surprisingly, technical expertise was downplayed as an indicator of high levels of competence in both practices. The professional groups emphasized flexibility, drive/ambition and social competence, as well as the ability to balance between being highly capable and being humble before others, including other groups of professionals as characteristics of excellence. Based on the results, the authors discuss a ‘logic of excellence’ that can be used to describe mechanisms of competence differentiation in professional practices from a practice theory perspective.

  • 24.
    Lindberg, Ola
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Rantatalo, Oscar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Hällgren, Markus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Making sense through false syntheses: Working with paradoxes in the reorganization of the Swedish police2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Management, ISSN 0956-5221, E-ISSN 1873-3387, Vol. 33, no 3, 175-184 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses how a working group in the Swedish police made sense of their task in the wake of reorganization. It aims to describe how inputs from top management prompted processes of sensemaking within the group, and their subsequent results in responding to latent paradoxes. The police group’s work was studied through participant observation, interviews and documents. The findings illustrate how the group made latent paradoxes salient and how they worked with these paradoxes to ultimately make them latent again by what we call “false syntheses”. Through this process, the group achieved its task, but the paradoxes were reproduced, made latent and pushed away to another part of the organization. Thus, sensemaking transforms paradoxes from latent to salient, from macro to micro levels of the organization.

  • 25.
    Lundström, Ulf
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Child and Youth education, Special Education and Counselling.
    Parding, Karolina
    Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle. Luleå tekniska universitet..
    Marknadslogikens inflytande på lärares arbete och villkor: Lärares uppfattningar om effekter av skolvalsreformerna2011In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 17, no 4, 59-77 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Friskolereformen har på kort tid fått starkt genomslag i Sverige. Lärarna är nyckelpersoner när det gäller att genomföra reformer i skolan vilket medför att deras förståelse av arbetsvillkor och policykontext påverkar hela skolverksamheten. Detta gör det angeläget att belysa hur lärarna uppfattar friskolereformen, hur den påverkar deras arbete och profession och hur de själva agerar i relation till reformen. Resultaten av fokusgruppsintervjuer med 58 gymnasielärare visar att marknadens logik fått betydelse i de flesta lärares arbetsvardag, vilket innebär nya arbetsuppgifter och arbetsvillkor samt att maktförhållanden, yrkesidentiteter och skolkulturer utmanas. Många lärare anpassar sig motvilligt till marknadslogiken medan andra adopterar den.

  • 26.
    Löfström, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Betygsgapet mellan flickor och pojkar - konsekvenser för framtidens arbetsmarknad2012Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 27.
    Löfström, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    För mycket eller för lite?: Om utbildningsvägen mot lägre ungdomsarbetslöshet2014In: Den långa vägen till arbetsmarknaden: om unga utanför / [ed] Jonas Olofsson, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2014, 1, 91-108 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Löfström, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Könslönegap och glastak: en studie av kvinnor och män i ekonomyrket2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En mycket vanlig förklaring till att det finns en löneskillnad mellan kvinnor och män är att de inte har samma yrke och samma utbildning. Kan denna förklaring därmed tolkas som att lönegapet är lika med noll i yrken där det både finns kvinnor och män? För att få svar på detta analyserade vi en grupp kvinnliga och manliga ekonomer med högskoleutbildning. Trots denna likhet var den könsrelaterade löneskillnaden inte försumbar. En närmare granskning av lönestrukturen i yrket visade dock att lönegapets storlek varierade. Det var större högre upp i fördelningen och mindre i den undre delen. Trots att könsfördelningen på de olika stegen i karriärtrappan är jämnare idag än tidigare och trots att ”glastaket” börjat krackelera på sina håll är löneskillnaden mellan kvinnor och män fortfarande stora. Sett i ett livscykelperspektiv betyder det också att männens livsinkomst blir högre vilket i sin tur kommer att de dom en tryggare ålderdom, via högre pension, än vad kvinnor kommer att få. Eftersom det länge sagts att ”bara” kvinnor utbildar sig, ”bara” kvinnor kommit ikapp männen och ”bara” de engagerar sig mer i sina jobb då kommer också deras löne- och karriärvillkor att bli som männens. Frågan man därför kan ställa sig idag är om denna förväntan snarare är att likna vid en illusion, en livslögn, än en faktisk möjlighet?

  • 29.
    Löfström, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Lön, livslön och livslögn: en studie av könslönegapet i ekonomyrket2012In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, no 7, 36-46 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den könssegregerade arbetsmarknaden har länge fått klä skott för det könsrelaterade lönegapet, men innebär det att gapet är noll i yrken som är könsintegrerade? I denna artikel studeras ekonomyrket. Resultatet visar en skillnad mellan män och kvinnor på sju procent. Gapet varierar dock med yrkets lönestruktur och är mer än tio procent i den övre delen av lönefördelningen mot knappt fyra i den undre. Att likhet i utbildning och yrke skulle borga för ett noll-gap verkar ha stannat vid en förhoppning, en förhoppning som kanske är på väg att utvecklas till en livslögn med konsekvenser för kvinnors livslön.

  • 30.
    Löfström, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Time for men to catch up on women?: A study of the Swedish gender wage gap 1973-20122014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish gender wage gap decreased substantially from the 1960s until the beginning of the 1980s. At the same time women had been narrowing men in employment experience and education. While women continued to catch up on men the average wage gap remained almost the same as in the 1980s. The catch-up hypothesis was obviously not the sole answer to the wage-gap. The purpose here was to discuss other factors of relevance for the evolution of the average pay gap. Data for the period 1972-2012 is used in the analysis: The results are mixed and firm conclusions are scarce. Some indications though, the older the women are at first birth the smaller the pay gap and the same for female union membership while unemployment, economic growth, fertility and time made the gap larger. It seems as “time”, often reliable on issues such as changes in attitudes and prejudices, cannot settle this. One finding, common in other studies as well, is the influence “children” may have on the wage gap. If postponement of motherhood and/or fewer children is necessary to reduce the gender wage gap the question whether this is desirable or not must be addressed more seriously. If the answer is “no” it may be high time for men to catch up on women - through sharing the full responsibility for children and household duties.

  • 31.
    Lönnerskog Nilsson, Hanna
    Umeå University.
    Kapitel 1: Om projektet och den här boken2011In: Projekt Storytelling: kvinnliga forskares och forskarstuderandes berättelser om hur det är att vara kvinna i akademin och vid Umeå universitet / [ed] Hanna Lönnerskog Nilsson, Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2011, 8-9 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Lönnerskog Nilsson, Hanna
    Umeå University.
    Kapitel 2: Om berättelserna, författarna och kopplingen till befintlig forskning2011In: Projekt Storytelling: kvinnliga forskares och forskarstuderandes berättelser om hur det är att vara kvinna i akademin och vid Umeå universitet / [ed] Hanna Lönnerskog Nilsson, Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2011, 10-13 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Lönnerskog Nilsson, Hanna
    Umeå University.
    Kapitel 24: Några återkommande teman och slutsatser2011In: Projekt Storytelling: kvinnliga forskares och forskarstuderandes berättelser om hur det är att vara kvinna i akademin och vid Umeå universitet / [ed] Hanna Lönnerskog Nilsson, Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2011, 131-133 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Lönnerskog Nilsson, Hanna
    Umeå University.
    Kapitel 25: Vad kan du göra för att bidra till reellt lika villkor för kvinnor och män?2011In: Projekt Storytelling: kvinnliga forskares och forskarstuderandes berättelser om hur det är att vara kvinna i akademin och vid Umeå universitet / [ed] Hanna Lönnerskog Nilsson, Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2011, 134-137 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Lönnerskog Nilsson, Hanna
    Umeå University.
    Kapitel 26: Projektets egen story och framtidsvision2011In: Projekt Storytelling: Kvinnliga forskares och forskarstuderandes berättelser om hur det är att vara kvinna i akademin och vid Umeå universitet / [ed] Hanna Lönnerskog Nilsson, Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2011, 138-144 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Lönnerskog Nilsson, Hanna
    Umeå University.
    Kapitel 27: En berättelse om snö och om varför du är så viktig för att skapa förändring2011In: Projekt Storytelling: Kvinnliga forskares och forskarstuderandes berättelser om hur det är att vara kvinna i akademin och vid Umeå universitet / [ed] Hanna Lönnerskog Nilsson, Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2011, 145-146 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Lönnerskog Nilsson, Hanna
    Umeå University.
    Storytelling - att skriva om berättelsen om akadmin: Slutrapport för projekt Storytelling2011Report (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Magnusson, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Vardagens könsinnebörder under förhandling: om arbete, familj och produktion av kvinnlighet1998Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The subject of this study was Swedish women's experiences of their everyday lives as lived between the demands of work and family. Twenty female civil servants were interviewed six times each over a three and a half year period when their work places underwent organizational changes.

    One purpose of the study was to investigate how women while managing everyday demands reproduce or transform the meanings of gender in their own lives. A second purpose was to discuss the impact of these processes on women's self-understandings and ways of relating to power and issues of gender equality, as well as the meanings of "femininity" in their lives.

    The repeated semi-structured interviews were analysed using two qualitative approaches: the first focused on the ways individual women understood and negotiated their everyday lives. It yielded four main areas of negotiation: the personal biography as a dynamic context in which a woman understands her experiences; the balancing between work and family generally managed by women; women's often somewhat ambiguous personal fit at work; and the striving for subject positions at work. In the second approach discourse analysis was used to study how gender is locally reproduced or transformed from personal experiences set in specific discursive contexts. Modes of understanding were in focus; i.e. the different ways women may integrate experiences as parts of their sense of self, depending mainly on social positionings. Important discursive themes were the women's self-presentations, their experiences of gender equality and power differentials, and their ways of relating to femininity.

    The dissertation also discusses the types of psychological theory best suited to the historically changeable contents of "femininity", in contrast to its more stable relational qualitites of subordination vs. superordination, and argues for theory situated in a feminist social constructionist framework.

  • 39.
    Neumann, Patrick
    et al.
    Ryerson Univ, Dept Mech & Ind Engn, Toronto, ON M5B 2K3, Canada.
    Dixon, Shane
    Ryerson Univ, Dept Mech & Ind Engn, Toronto, ON M5B 2K3, Canada.
    Nordvall, Anna-Carin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Consumer demand as a driver of improved working conditions: the 'Ergo-Brand' proposition2014In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 57, no 8, 1113-1126 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper develops and explores the “Ergo-Brand” proposition; which posits that consumersmay prefer to buy goods that are made under good working conditions (GWC). This preferencewould enhance a differentiation strategy for companies, thereby fostering the application ofergonomics in production. This proposition is developed in the context of a narrative review ofthe literature on ‘ethical consumerism’. This is supplemented with a small pilot survey study,conducted in both Canada and Sweden (n=141) to explore this proposition. Results indicate thatconsumers would prefer goods made under GWC, but not unconditionally as quality and priceconcerns were ranked higher. Access to information on the working conditions in productionwas seen as a barrier. Nevertheless, the Ergo-Brand concept may be a viable avenue topromoting attention to ergonomics in companies – particularly if consumer habits are subject tointervention by advertising. Further research on this strategy is warranted.

  • 40.
    Nordlund, Christer
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts.
    Granéli, Annette
    Kön, karriär och kvalitet på möjligheternas universitet2014In: Thule: Kungl. Skytteanska Samfundets Årsbok 2014 / [ed] Roger Jacobsson, Umeå: Kungl. Skytteanska Samfundet , 2014, 149-159 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Gender, Quality and Career at the University of Possibilities. This essay introduces the Young Academy of Sweden, established by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 2011, and highlights three challenges in the current national academic system: gender inequality, the external funding bodies' focus on "excellence" (environments and individuals), and lack of a trasparent tenure track system. In order to attract the most promising young researchers, both men and women, and to create better opportunities for new groundbreaking research in a long-term perspective, the Young Acadmey of Sweden has proposed a tenure track model (funded primarely by block grants), which is also presented in the essay. 

  • 41.
    Overud, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Integration to segregation: activating women workers in 1960s Swedish labour market programmes, from centre to periphery2013In: Tracing the women-friendly welfare state: gendered politics of everyday life in Sweden / [ed] Åsa Gunnarsson, Göteborg: Makadam Förlag, 2013, 1, 193-213 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Pettersson, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Research cooperation, learning processes, and trust among plant scientists: fictive kinship, academic mobility, and scientists' careers2015In: Domesticity in the making of modern science / [ed] Donald Opitz, Staffan Bergwik & Brigitte van Tiggelen, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015, 241-258 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Rantatalo, Oscar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Media representations and police officers’ identity work in a specialised police tactical unit2016In: Policing & society, ISSN 1043-9463, E-ISSN 1477-2728, Vol. 26, no 1, 97-113 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A growing body of research has highlighted how media representations of policing and contemporary police work are interconnected and influence each other. An under- explored dimension of this relation is how mediated representations of policing transfer meaning to police officers’ sensemaking of their occupational identities. With the aim of advancing knowledge on this issue, the following article reports a case study of a tactical police unit and explores what roles media representations of the unit play in serving police officers’ narrative ‘identity work’ relative to their work and their organisation. Methodologically, the article draws on an analysis of newspaper articles about the studied police unit and interviews with police officers working within the unit. The findings indicate that positively biased representations depicting the unit as heroic and elite had self-enhancing effects on police officers’ identifications, whilst critically oriented media narratives spurred reframing and projection of local counter- images of occupational work identity. These findings add to the present understanding of how the media affect real-life policing, by highlighting how these representations convey meanings to police practice and occupational identification.

  • 44.
    Rantatalo, Oscar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Using police bicycle patrols to manage social order in bicycle and pedestrian traffic networks: a Swedish case study2016In: The Police Journal, ISSN 0032-258X, E-ISSN 1740-5599, Vol. 89, no 1, 18-30 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines how bicycle police units perceive their impact on social norms of rule compliance and risk behaviours in bicycle and pedestrian traffic networks. Using qualitative methods, a police bicycle patrol was analysed. Findings indicate that bicycle patrols are promising as an innovative measure to target bicycle and pedestrian traffic enforcement. Police reported that the bicycle patrol allowed increased accessibility and that police presence on bicycles had a positive normative impact on the behaviours of bike riders and pedestrians. The discussion encompasses the way in which bicycle patrol units hold important tacit knowledge of street life that could play a key role in policy making.

  • 45.
    Reiman, Magdalena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Matsson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Mindfulness i arbetet: En intervjustudie om upplevelser av att utöva mindfulness i arbetet2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Mindfulness can be a method in health promotion for the prevention of work-related stress. In the current study six informants provide their experiences, through semi-structured interviews, how mindfulness can be practiced at work, what conditions are considered to increase and decrease implementation in everyday work and how mindfulness changed the individual in their way of work. The thematic analysis resulted in  four themes; become a lifestyle, focused presence, the organization's role and perception of mindfulness. To enable implementation of mindfulness in everyday work, it is important that the individual is motivated and that the organization creates conditions for implementation. There’s a need for further research, of how psychological organization factors and conditions enable the implementation of mindfulness in everyday work.

  • 46.
    Stattin, Mikael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Larsson, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    The labour market in agening Sweden: lifecourse influences on workforce participation2015In: Population ageing from a lifecourse perspective: critical and international approaches / [ed] Kathrin Komp & Stina Johansson, Bristol: Policy Press, 2015, 203-220 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Strandh, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Varying unemployment experiences?: the economy and mental well-being2000Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    From being an unemployment success story, Sweden was during the 1990s thrown into a European normality, with apparent high and persistent unemployment. This has made unemployment a central issue in the Swedish public debate as a social problem directly affecting hundreds of thousands of individuals. In the public debate there is however no consensus on what characterises the experience of unemployment. One perspective emphasises the role of employment for self-realisation. Unemployment here becomes a very destructive experience, due to the psychosocial value attached to employment. An alternative perspective instead views employment as a necessary evil that brings little satisfaction to those who participate in it. From this perspective unemployment mean very little to those struck by it outside the possible negative effects on income (which are minimised by the welfare state).

    The objective of this thesis has been to move beyond the postulated truths of what the experience of unemployment means. It uses an empirical approach in order to investigate the consequences of unemployment for mental well-being, and to develop an understanding of the reasons for this relationship.

    The following conclusions can be drawn from the five articles that make up the thesis. In line with previous international and Swedish research, the thesis shows that unemployment as compared to employment is in general a distressing experience. This does however not mean that we can draw the simple conclusion that unemployment represents misery and employment represents the absence of misery. The thesis finds the relationship to be more complex than so. There is a need to take into account more of the possible variations in status available both on and outside the labour market. Different exit routes from unemployment were found to have different consequences for the mental well-being of the unemployed individual. Further, the evidence in the thesis shows that there is variation in the impact of unemployment on mental well-being within the unemployment group. We should, thus, not talk about the experience of unemployment, but rather about varying unemployment experiences.

    The general effect of unemployment on mental well-being, and the variation in the unemployment experience, was in turn shown to be mainly dependent on two factors. Firstly on the psychosocial need for employment in a society where employment is the norm. Secondly, on the economic need for employment in a society where employment, as the thesis also shows, for many still is necessary for adequate economic resources.

  • 48.
    Strandh, Mattias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Nordlund, Madelene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Active Labour market policy and unemployment scarring: A ten-year Swedish panel study2008In: Journal of Social Policy, ISSN 0047-2794, E-ISSN 1469-7823, Vol. 37, no 3, 357-382 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have shown mixed results concerning the effects of participation in active labour market policy programmes (ALMPs) on the longer term scars in the form of poor income development and low job stability following the end of an unemployment spell. Most previous studies, however, have been limited both in the time frame used and to particular programmes. We argue that human capital investments are long-term investments and should therefore also be investigated from a long-term perspective. ALMP training and ALMPs as subsidized employment also represent different types of human capital investments that may produce effects that are differently distributed over time. In order to handle these issues, this article uses a longitudinal register-based dataset in which all long-term (more than six months) unemployed Swedes in 1993, who had no labour market problems in 1992, are followed for ten years. We found positive effects of ALMP participation concerning both the probability of reaching pre-unemployment incomes and a reduction in the hazard of exiting the labour market, while the effect on the probability of having an unemployment-free year was mixed. The effects of the two forms of ALMPs were differently distributed over time, with ALMP employment having an immediate effect that decreased relatively quickly and ALMP training having a longer-term effect.

  • 49.
    Strömberg, Helén
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Makt, sjukvård och diskriminering2017In: Genusperspektiv på vård och omvårdnad / [ed] Helén Strömberg, Henrik Eriksson, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, 3, 185-198 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 50. Wilkinson, Andra
    et al.
    Pettifor, Audrey
    Rosenberg, Molly
    Halpern, Carolyn T.
    Thirumurthy, Harsha
    Collinson, Mark A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt), School of Public Health, University of the Witwatersrand, Faculty of Health Sciences, Johannesburg, South Africa; Indepth Network, Accra, Ghana.
    Kahn, Kathleen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt), School of Public Health, University of the Witwatersrand, Faculty of Health Sciences, Johannesburg, South Africa; Indepth Network, Accra, Ghana.
    The employment environment for youth in rural South Africa: A mixed-methods study2017In: Development Southern Africa, ISSN 0376-835X, E-ISSN 1470-3637, Vol. 34, no 1, 17-32 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    South Africa has high youth unemployment. This article examines the predictors of youth employment in rural Agincourt, Mpumalanga Province. A survey of 187 out-of-school 18 to 24 year olds found that only 12% of women and 38% of men were currently employed. Men with skills/training were significantly more likely to report employment, mostly physical labour (adjusted odds ratio: 4.5; confidence interval: 1.3, 15.3). In-depth interviews with 14 of the youth revealed that women are perceived more suitable for formal employment, which is scarce, informing why women were more likely to pursue further education and yet less likely to be employed. Ten key informants from local organisations highlighted numerous local youth employment resources while, in contrast, all youth in the sample said no resources were available, highlighting a need for the organisations to extend their services into rural areas. Because these services are focused on entrepreneurship, programmes to increase financial literacy and formal employment opportunities are also needed.

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