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  • 1. Aalto, Sirpa
    et al.
    Lehtola, Veli-Pekka
    The Sami Representations Reflecting the Multi-Ethnic North of the Saga Literature2017In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 7-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on contextualizing the Sami (finnar) representations in Old Norse saga literature. The purpose is to show that the Sami representations reflect multi-layered Old Norse textual and oral traditions, and complex interaction between the Sami and the Norwegians in the Middle Ages. The stereotypes of the Sami tell us more about the society that created them than about real, historical events. We can be sure that behind them lie very mundane phenomena such as trade and marriages.

    The ultimate goal of the article is therefore to reveal the multi-ethnic North that provided the background for the saga sources, a North whose history is not as homogeneous as sources suggest and quite unlike the modified version which found its way into the histories of nation states. The literary conventions of sagas are not just imaginary tales—their use in various contexts can reveal something essential in otherwise schematic images or configurations. Even researchers of the sagas have certain personal conceptions of what the “real” lives of the Sami were like at the time, and how the sagas depict this. In fact, they participate in a continuum of saga literature that generates representations of the Sami in history.

  • 2. Adcock, Tina
    et al.
    Roberts, Peder
    Nations, Natures, and Networks: The New Environments of Northern Studies2015In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 7-11Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Agdahl, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Krigets kugghjul.: En undersökning av den svenska militära resursstrategins mål, medel och resultat under perioden 1776-1810.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Gears of War

    The study of states, their expansion and interaction has always been an important part of political history and often involves military as well as economic perspectives. Relations between economic capital and means of coercion is according to Charles Tilly an integral part of the state and the security policies of early modern states included a high degree of resource mobilisation, preparation for and making of war. How were these problems meant to be solved and what really happened? These historical problems are brought together in this thesis to examine the Swedish government's intentions in the form of military and resource strategic objectives, how these were implemented in the form of rules and regulations and how this was followed by the armed forces in reality. By analysing strategical and operational plans, regulatory documents and muster-rolls with the help of Tillys statemaking theories as well as Lars Wedins strategical analysis model, the thesis sets out to define the swedish states' foreign  policy, military doctrine and strategy, compare regulations with reality and evaluate the ties between theory and practice.The study shows that geopolitical factors created demands for a new general military strategy that was based on warfare with higher mobility in the border provinces of the swedish realm. The security policy seems to have been an expression of the unity of the swedish state, however, the conflict between aristocratic and royal interests shows an interesting dynamic within the political system that is characteristic for the period. The resource strategy that supported the developing doctrine of mobile warfare in Sweden was based on a well equipped fleet, a smaller and more manageble baggage train for the infantry and a military storage system that together would enable faster responses, better transport and supply capability and a more agile defence that differed from the previous fortification doctine. The strategy for procuring and maintaining of outfitting and equipment of the infantry was decentralised during the early 1800's and the civil society became more involved in the resource mobilisation. This constituted a nationalisation of resource strategical means that aimed to alleviate the natural economic limitations in Sweden.The muster-rolls of Västerbottens' infantry regiment shows that the regulations were implemented in reality but that a deficient transport capability caused by disrupted supply lines and slow aquisition of new equipment led to a sometimes severe shortage of equipment and uniforms. Apart from the deficiencies there were substantial changes to more practical equipment in line with the mobile military doctrine and security policy of Sweden. In conclusion, a clear connection between political goals, regulatory documents and implemented changes are seen and an organic relationship between intention, regulation and reality. Further investigation of these historical problems, with ample source material and useful theoretic models in a swedish context, is encouraged. 

  • 4. Ahl-Waris, Eva
    et al.
    Nordlund, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Om tillkomsten och användningen av en fornlämningsplats: arkeologibruk kring Kökars franciskankonvent2014In: Historisk Tidskrift för Finland, ISSN 0046-7596, E-ISSN 2343-2888, Vol. 99, no 2, p. 147-190Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Ahnlund, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, History and Theory of Art.
    Norrbyskär: om tillkomsten av ett norrländskt sågverkssamhälle på 1890-talet1978Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 6. Allard, Christina
    et al.
    Axelsson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Brännlund, Isabelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Cocq, Coppélie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Hjortfors, Lis-Mari
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Jacobsson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences.
    Ledman, Anna-Lill
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Löf, Annette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Johansson Lönn, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Moen, Jon
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Nilsson, Lena Maria
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Nordin, Gabriella
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Nordlund, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Norlin, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Outakoski, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Reimerson, Elsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Sandström, Moa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Sehlin MacNeil, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Stoor, Krister
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Storm Mienna, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Svonni, Charlotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Vinka, Mikael
    Össbo, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Rasbiologiskt språkbruk i statens rättsprocess mot sameby2015In: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Statens hantering av forskningsresultat i rättsprocessen med Girjas sameby utgör ett hot mot Sverige som rättsstat och kunskapsnation. Åratal av svensk och internationell forskning underkänns och man använder ett språkbruk som skulle kunna vara hämtat från rasbiologins tid. Nu måste staten ta sitt ansvar och börja agera som en demokratisk rättsstat, skriver 59 forskare.

  • 7.
    Alm, Anita
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Forsgren, Tuuli
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts.
    Henrysson, Sten
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    "Catalogus discentium vid Jockmocks schola, ifrån åhr 1732. tå hon tog sin början": en bearbetad och kompletterad elevmatrikel över Jokkmokks lappskola1989Report (Other academic)
  • 8. Alm, Göran
    et al.
    Houltz, Anders
    Johansson, Björn Axel
    Snickars, Pelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    Stendahl, Jenny
    I världsutställningarnas tid: kungahus, näringsliv & medier2017Book (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Almbjär, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Brandenburg-Prussia, 1466-1806: Karin Friedrich2013In: Scandia, ISSN 0036-5483, Vol. 79, no 2, p. 171-172Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Almbjär, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Makt och människor. Europeisk statsbildning från medeltiden till franska revolutionen: Harald Gustafsson2012In: Scandia, ISSN 0036-5483, Vol. 78, no 2, p. 140-141Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Almbjär, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Sweden's Participation in the Seven Years War in the Mirror of the Day Register of Loitz City 1757-17592017In: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, Vol. 137, no 1, p. 151-153Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Almbjär, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    The voice of the people?: Supplications submitted to the Swedish Diet in the Age of Liberty, 1719–17722016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation is devoted to the study of who used the formal channels of interaction in the early modern era and why. It examines the full range of the political conversation in early modern Sweden, as seen in the supplications to the Diet in the Age of Liberty (1719–1772), and more specifically the supplications submitted to the parliamentary committee tasked with handling them, the Screening Deputation. The literature yields few systematic studies of this official channel, and supplications have long been terra incognita in the early modern political landscape. Their exact importance is uncertain, to say the least.

    Using a database built on three samples from the beginning, middle, and end of the Age of Liberty, the Diet's supplication channel is shown to have been used by two groups: supplicants from state-affiliated households primarily tried to use it to pursue their claims on the state, to settle various issues related to employment, or to receive some sort of support through hard times; and, increasingly, commoners, especially delegates in the Estate of the Burghers, used the channel for their gravamina concerning commerce, taxation, and the like, and state support for public amenities, a group for whom the Screening Deputation offered an alternative route to getting their grievances heard by the Diet. Both groups increasingly used the Diet's supplication channel was appeal the verdicts of the King in Council (Kungl. Maj:t). Although most were not appeals against the Judicial Audit, the results reveal an active use of appeals, and thus a de facto erosion of Kungl. Maj:t's supremacy. The results also show that as many as three-fifths of all supplicants had their supplications accepted by the Screening Deputation for further examination by the Diet. Although the acceptance rate was definitely lower in the 1730s and 1740s, the committee seems to have been fairly benevolent in its interpretation of the rules on petitioning.

    The results, lastly, show that although the Diet's supplication channel allowed excluded groups direct access to the Diet - including women of all classes, commoners of rank, and unrepresented groups - it mainly catered to men with the social status or wealth that put them in the middle and upper strata of society. Although this supplication channel stood open to anyone, its egalitarian potential was seemingly never realized. The use of March and Olsen's institutional theory about the logic of appropriateness, has revealed that certain institutional templates and norms that would have enabled these groups more access to the channel succumbed and made room for other institutional foundations.

    Supplications were part of the medieval and early modern centralization of legal and political power, the formation of the state, the protection of the privileges of Swedish subjects, and, during the Age of Liberty, the power struggle between the Diet and the kings. Each supplication viewed by itself might seem trivial, but nonetheless played a part in each and every one of these major processes. An ordinary Swede could have an impact on early modern politics when acting in concert with other supplicants, like rain eating away at rock.

  • 13.
    Almbjär, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Tidigmodern statsformering2013In: Scandia, ISSN 0036-5483, Vol. 79, no 2, p. 145-146Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Almbjär, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    War, Money and the English State, 1688-1783: John Brewer2013In: Scandia, ISSN 0036-5483, Vol. 79, no 2, p. 150-151Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Almqvist Nielsen, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Förhistorien som kulturellt minne: historiekulturell förändring i svenska läroböcker 1903-20102014Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Scandinavian prehistory has hitherto received little attention in the field of history didactics. In Swedish schools, it is taught in the lower grades in accordance with traditional periodization: the Stone Age, Bronze Age, Iron Age and the Viking Age. The aim of the present thesis is to provide an overview of Scandinavian prehistory as presented by 20th- and early 21st-century history textbooks and to trace its development and revisions.

    These revisions are situated in relation to contemporary society and concurrent developments in archaeological research. This study attempts to demonstrate the extent to which history textbooks and archaeological research correspond. In a long-term perspective, the textbooks form a developmental chain in which the gradual revision of historical culture is made manifest.

    As presented in the textbooks, prehistoric history expresses a historical culture valid in the context of a particular era. The concept of cultural memory, a memory that extends so far back in history that it can only be mediated by someone with expert knowledge (e.g. teachers, journalists or scholars), is applied in order to observe changes in its description. Cultural memory reveals how some stories constantly recur, while others are neglected or forgotten.

    The textbooks have been compared to standard archaeological works and their development and revisions have been examined from dual perspectives - "story" as cultural memory and gender. The present thesis reveals that most of the stories have been remembered and repeated for more than a century, though interpretations sometimes change along with changes in society and progress in research. A gender perspective elucidates the chores and activities ascribed to prehistoric men and women, respectively, and the changes they have undergone. Although archaeological findings have been influenced by gender research, this study indicates that society itself has had the greatest impact on the treatment of gender in the textbooks. Perceptions of "male" and "female" have changed and women have been become visible after previously being as good as ignored.

    Both history textbooks and archaeological research are clearly affected by general trends in society and the textbooks under investigation have evolved from focusing on nationalistic aspects and the predominance of men to assigning equal value to people of all cultures and to the sexes.

  • 16.
    Almqvist Nielsen, Lena
    Grundskolan, Uddevalla kommun, Uddevalla; Lärarutbildningen, Göteborgs universitet, Göteborg.
    Förhistorien utifrån genus och kulturellt minne: kontinuitet och förändring i svenska läroböcker under 1900-talet och början av 2000-talet2016In: Medier i historieundervisningen: Historiedidaktisk forskning i praktiken / [ed] Anna Larsson, Umeå: Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Umeå universitet , 2016, 1, p. 112-132Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 17. Alter, Georg
    Comments on the Session Prostitution and Exploitation of Sexuality2000In: Sex, State and Society: Comparative Perspectives on the History of Sexuality / [ed] Lars-Göran Tedebrand, Umeå: Nyheternas tryckeri KB i Umeå , 2000, p. 329-334Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Aléx, Peder
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    The Swedish craving: centuries of luxury consumption2017In: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, Vol. 137, no 2, p. 327-329Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Ambrosiani, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Pogostnamnen i Ockupationsarkivet från Novgorod: några metodologiska aspekter på sammanställandet av index över geografiska namn2012In: Novgorodiana Stockholmiensia / [ed] Gennadij Kovalenko, Elisabeth Löfstrand, Stockholm: Stockholms universitet, Slaviska institutionen , 2012, p. 40-50Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Ambrosiani, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Названия погостов в документах Новгородского Оккупационного архива: методологические аспекты составления указателя топонимов2012In: Novgorodiana Stockholmiensia: Стокгольмская Новгородика / [ed] Э. Лёфстранд, Г.М. Коваленко, Stockholm: Stockholms universitet, Slaviska institutionen , 2012, p. 51-62Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 21. Amirell, Stefan
    et al.
    Lindström, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Tjugoandra världshistorikerkongressen, Jinan, 23-29 augusti 20152016In: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, Vol. 136, no 1, p. 131-134Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Andersen, Eeva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Comparative Literature and Scandinavian Languages.
    Teaterspridningen till Skellefteå 1852-19112003Report (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Andersson, Bengt Hjalmar
    Umeå University.
    Ett bidrag till historien om byn Satter/Järämä i Lule Lappmark1992Report (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Andersson, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Cocq, Coppélie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    Från kolonisation till gruvexploatering: nyttoperspektiv på naturen i Sápmi förr och nu2016In: Kulturella perspektiv - Svensk etnologisk tidskrift, ISSN 1102-7908, Vol. 1, p. 42-49Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Andersson, Ingemar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Historieundervisningens syfte: En undersökning av Västerbottens gymnasieelevers syftesförståelse och intresse i historia2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 26.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Järnvägen omistlig del av Umeåregionens utveckling2013In: Umeå 1314-2014: 100 berättelser om 700 år / [ed] Lars-Gunnar Olsson, Susanne Haugen; Lars-Erik Edlund och Lars-Göran Tedebrand, Skellefteå: Artos & Norma bokförlag, 2013, p. 142-143Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Andersson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Vem var sexman?: En studie av förtroendeuppdragens representation i Anundsjö församling 1800-18502014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 28.
    Andersson, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    Ett högt och ädelt kall: kalltankens betydelse för sjuksköterskeyrkets formering 1850-19332002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis describes the impact of the notion of a calling on the development of the nursing profession during the period 1850–1933. The focus of the study is on how perceptions andnotions of a calling were altered over time, and in which way this historically shaped conceptinfluenced the professionalisation of the female health care work. Some contexts of relevancefor the notion of a calling and which are emphasised in the thesis are the women’s rights movement, the expansion of the civil servants’ movement, the professionalisation and modernisationof the health care system as well as the general secularisation of society.

    The study consists of three parts. The first part constitutes a conceptual background tothe notion of a calling and here the Christian heritage of ideas is examined. The second partof the thesis describes three leading institutions of nursing education: the Ersta Institution ofdeaconesses (1851), the Red Cross education (1867), and the Sophia Home (1884). The study shows how Lutheran features influenced these educational institutions, mainly the educationof the deaconesses. The meaning of the calling differed between the deaconesses and thenurses of the Sophia Home. The deaconnesses’ notion of a calling emphasised the value ofhumbly serving fellow beings, whereas the Sophia Home attached more importance to theelevated and noble aspect of the calling.

    The third part of the thesis is the most comprehensive one. It is here analysed how the circlearound the Swedish Nursing Association (SNA), used and related to the notion of a calling during the period 1910–1933. The description is structured under four themes. The first describes how the notion of a calling expresses a particular professional ideal and an ethical attitude characterised by a Lutheran work ethics with strong altruistic features. Under the second theme, the gendered perception of the vocation is discussed. It is claimed that the nursingprofession was not unambiguously permeated by feminine gendered perceptions. Instead the nurses’ professional ideal espoused a mixture of masculine and feminine gendered metaphors.Under the third theme, it becomes clear that the nurses’ proclamation of a calling strengthened and increased the status of the profession. Under the fourth theme, the nurses’notion of a calling is related to two male professional groups, doctors and clergymen, and thepessimistic and sombre spirit of time at the turn of the century, 1900. The general secularisation of society, and the gradual modernisation of the health care sector seemed to have contributedto a need for a professional corps, marked by strong tradition, apparently considereda guarantee for a health care system that would still comprise Christian love.

  • 29.
    Andersson, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Successful ageing in modern social gerontology: a historical perspective on theories of activity and disengagement2013In: Social science in context: historical, sociological, and global perspectives / [ed] Rickard Danell, Anna Larsson & Per Wisselgren, Lund: Nordic Academic Press, 2013, p. 132-144Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 30. André, Per
    Skogshistoriska studier i Skelleftetrakten: sex uppsatser om Skellefteskogens och den tidiga skogsindustrins historia1998Book (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Arell, Nils
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences.
    Rennomadismen i Torne lappmark: markanvändning under kolonisationsepoken i fr.a. Enontekis socken1977Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Arvidsson, Alf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Musik och politik hör ihop: diskussioner, ställningstaganden och musikskapande 1965-19802008Book (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Arvidsson, Viktor
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS). Swedish Center for Digital Innovation.
    Foka, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    Digital gender: perspective, phenomena, practice2015In: First Monday, ISSN 1396-0466, E-ISSN 1396-0466, Vol. 20, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Past research on gender online has made important land gains but under-theorizes the Internet as a passive, fixed, and somewhat insubstantial space or context. By contrast, this special issue draws on new material thinking to put into questions the very notion of “cyberspace” as a distinct realm. In this vein, the contents of this issue critically examine how the Internet and related digital technologies actively “work” to maintain or transform systems of oppression, as displayed, for example, in the digital doing(s) of gender. They also show how digital technologies and related concepts can be used to challenge current understandings of race, class, and gender and to produce and provoke new forms of knowledge. While the contents of this issue are drawn from different fields and display great diversity, the individual contributions of each author helps to chart out three potent venues for future Internet research: namely digital gender as perspective, phenomena, and practice.

  • 34.
    Attius Sohlman, Margareta
    Slaviska språk, Uppsala universitet.
    Hos gossen Onfim i Novgorod2003In: Scriptum, ISSN 0284-3161, Vol. 52, p. 126-127Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Axelsson, Einar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    "I barn, warer hörighe idhra föräldrar": Barn, föräldrar och auktoritetskonflikter i stormaktstidens Sverige2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 36.
    Axelsson, Einar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Samerna och statsmakten: Vardagligt motstånd och kulturell hybriditet i Torne lappmark under perioden 1639-17322015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines the everyday resistance, and its interaction with cultural hybridity, of the Saami population in the administrative unit of Torne lappmark during the period 1639–1732. To do this, the thesis uses theoretical concept of everday resistance as it has been described by JamesC. Scott and the theories of cultural hybridity as they have been described by Peter Burke. Primary source material used in this thesis consists of the court records from Torne lappmark, specifically from the courts at Jukkasjärvi and Enontekis.The results of this thesis present a picture of the everyday resistance in early modern Torne lappmark. The states control was most prominent at the annual markets and court proceedings. The everyday resistance of the Saamis became more subtle when the supervision by the Swedish state became more significant, for example by cutting off pieces from the reindeer hides that they sold or taxed with. Further away from the courts the Saamis could use more drastic options, for example fleeing to Norway. The Swedish state did not want to implement hard punishments on the Saamis because the mining operations in the lappmarks were dependent on Saamis and reindeers to carry ore, wood and food in order to keep the mines operational. This is used by the Saamis as an argument against material domination. The insults and rumours concerning state officials that can be found in the source material often concern abuse of power. The lack of control outside the yearly court proceedings also led to harassments of state and church officials.The Swedish state had political reasons to present the Saamis as chris- tian subjects while trying to exterminate the Saami religion. The Saamis therefore learned a sufficient amount of christianity to make interaction with the state easier and to use as a tool in court proceedings to avoid punishment. This normalised and legitimised the states use of power. The fact that Saamis carried christian ideas and could reproduce them when they needed also led to a cultural hybridisation. They also adapted these ideas in accordance to their own worldview. Some Saamis also hybridised the two religions in different religious practises.The use of these theoretical models offers a new perspective on the interaction between the Swedish state and the Saamis. It also gives a new perspective on the power relationships in Torne lappmark during the early modern period.

    Keywords: Saami history, everyday resistance, cultural hybridity, 17th century, 18th century 

  • 37.
    Axelsson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Abandoning "the Other": Statistical Enumeration of Swedish Sami, 1700 to 1945 and Beyond2010In: Berichte zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte, ISSN 0170-6233, E-ISSN 1522-2365, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 263-279Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has one of the world's most eminent and exhaustive records of statistical information on its population. As early as the eighteenth century, ethnic notations were being made in parish registers throughout the country, and by the early nineteenth century a specific category for the Sami population had been added to the forms used to collect data for the Tabellverket (National Population Statistics). Beginning in 1860, the Sami were also counted in the first official census of the Swedish state. Nonetheless – and in contrast to many other countries – Sweden today lacks separate statistical information not only about its sole recognized indigenous population but also about other ethnic groups. The present paper investigates Sweden's attempts to enumerate its indigenous Sami population prior to World War II and the cessation of ethnic enumeration after the war. How have the Sami been identified and enumerated? How have statistical categories been constructed, and how have they changed over time? The aim of this essay is not to assess the validity of the demographic sources. Instead the paper will explore the historical, social, and cultural factors that have had a bearing on how a dominant administrative structure has dealt with the statistical construct of an indigenous population.

  • 38.
    Axelsson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Continuity or change?: science and Sami during the 20th century2006In: Minority policies, culture & science: papers I from the conference the use and abuse of history in the Barents region, Luleå: Luleå University of Technology , 2006, p. 113-123Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Axelsson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    ‘Do not eat those apples; they’ve been on the ground!’: – polio epidemics and preventive measures, Sweden 1880s-1940s2009In: Asclepio. Revista de Historia de la Medicina y de la Ciencia, ISSN 0210-4466, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 23-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article addresses how Swedish scientists, physicians and public health officers tried to combat the polio epidemics in the pre-vaccine era. It shows that once polio was considered as an epidemic disease the preventive measures used were based on the hindrance of other infectious diseases. It also illustrates how epidemiological and laboratory studies to some degree affected the thoughts of how polio should be prevented, and that Swedish ideas and experiences differed fromthose put forward in the USA.

  • 40.
    Axelsson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Från barnförlamade till polioskadade2004In: Befolkningshistoriska perspektiv: Festskrift till Lars-Göran Tedebrand, Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2004, p. 279-292Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Axelsson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    Historien om polio i Sverige: från barnförlamning till poliovaccin2004In: Svensk Medicinhistorisk Tidskrift, Supplement, ISSN 1403-1035, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 57-66Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Axelsson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    Höstens spöke: de svenska polioepidemiernas historia2004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Polio epidemics appeared in Sweden in 1881 and at the turn of the 20th century the disease became an annual feature in the epidemiological pattern. Due to vaccination starting in 1957 epidemics ceased to exist in Sweden around 1965. This thesis deals with the history polio epidemics in Sweden, 1880-1965 and studies the demographical influence of polio, how the medical authorities investigated and tried to combat it, and the care of those who contracted the disease.

    A study of polio mortality and incidence in Sweden at the national level during 1905-1962 reveals that the disease caused 6,000 deaths out of the 51,000 cases reported. At the beginning of the 20th century polio primarily attacked children up to 10 years of age. At the end of the period victims were represented in all age groups, but mainly in the ages 15-39. Moreover, a regional incidence study shows considerable regional differences.

    Sweden and the USA developed different ways of investigating and explaining the causes of polio thinking that led to diverse preventive measures. Moreover, in the 1950’s Sweden developed its own vaccine, different in choice of methods and materials from the widely used Salk-vaccine.

    When polio was classified as an epidemic in 1905, those infected by polio were usually taken to an isolation hospital. These hospitals were owned and financed by the state. The aftercare of polio victims was organized by philanthropist organizations.

    Polio was associated with dirt and unhygienic circumstances until the 1950’s when the theory of polio epidemics as a backlash of good hygiene and sanitary standards was established. The theory is built upon the correlation between neonatal mortality and polio incidence. However, correlation analysis at the regional level reveals no significant relationship between these variables. In Sweden, the hygienic movement had been very influential, and this study suggests that the theory quickly was accepted, because it explained why Sweden could be hit by epidemics and still be considered a welfare state with good hygienic and sanitary standards.

  • 43.
    Axelsson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts.
    Ivar Wickman akademiska motgång: om en tjänstetillsättning och en akademiskt defekt2003In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 100, no 3, p. 140-142Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Axelsson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Kyrkan, folkbokföringen och samerna2016In: De historiska relationerna mellan Svenska kyrkan och samerna: en vetenskaplig antologi, bd 2 / [ed] Daniel Lindmark och Olle Sundström, Skellefteå: Artos & Norma bokförlag, 2016, 1, p. 915-942Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Axelsson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Kyrkans och statens kategoriseringar2016In: Samiska rötter: släktforska i svenska Sápmi / [ed] Per Axelsson, Elisabeth Engberg, Patrik Lantto & Maria J. Wisselgren, Sveriges släktforskarförbund , 2016, p. 19-27Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Axelsson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Patterns of Polio: Incidence and Mortality at the National Level in Sweden 1905-19602001In: Nordic Demography in History and Present-Day Society / [ed] Lars-Göran Tedebrand and Peter Sköld, Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2001, p. 309-326Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Axelsson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Polioepidemier och postpolio2012In: Utanförskapets historia: om funktionsnedsättning och funktionshinder / [ed] Kristina Engwall och Stig Larsson, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2012, 1, p. 73-82Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Axelsson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Preconceived opinions: Iñupiat and Swedish Sami populations in polio research2012In: Rivers to cross: Sami land use and the human dimension / [ed] Peter Sköld & Krister Stoor, Umeå: Vaartoe, Centrum för samisk forskning, Umeå universitet , 2012, p. 169-177Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Axelsson, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Engberg, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Lantto, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Wisselgren, Maria J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Inledning2016In: Samiska Rötter: släktforska i svenska Sápmi / [ed] Per Axelsson, Elisabeth Engberg, Patrik Lantto & Maria J. Wisselgren, Solna: Sveriges släktforskarförbund , 2016, p. 5-7Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 50.
    Axelsson, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Engberg, ElisabethUmeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).Lantto, PatrikUmeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.Wisselgren, Maria J.Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Samiska rötter: släktforska i svenska Sápmi2016Collection (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
1234567 1 - 50 of 1464
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