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  • 1.
    Asaro, Peter M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    A Body to Kick, but Still No Soul to Damn: Legal Perspectives on Robotics2012In: Robot Ethics: The Ethical and Social Implications of Robotics / [ed] Patrick Lin, Keith Abney and George A. Bekey, CAMBRIDGE: MIT Press, 2012, 169-186 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Björnsson, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Outsourcing the deep self: Deep self discordance does not explain away intuitions in manipulation arguments2016In: Philosophical Psychology, ISSN 0951-5089, E-ISSN 1465-394X, Vol. 29, no 5, 637-653 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to manipulation arguments for incompatibilism, manipulation might undermine an agent's responsibility even when the agent satisfies plausible compatibilist conditions on responsibility. According to Sripada (2012), however, empirical data suggest that people take manipulation to undermine responsibility largely because they think that the manipulated act is in discord with the agent's “deep self”, thus violating the plausible compatibilist condition of deep self concordance. This paper defends Sripada's methodological approach but presents data from an experiment that corrects for crucial weaknesses in his study. These data strongly suggest that, contrary to Sripada’s contention, most of the effect of manipulation on attributions of moral responsibility is unmediated by worries about inadequate information or deep self discordance. Instead, it depends largely on worries that the action is ultimately explained by factors outside the agent’s control, just as proponents of manipulation arguments have proposed. More generally, data suggest that judgments of deep self discordance are themselves explained by worries about responsibility, and that the everyday notion of what an agent wants or is “deep down” is sensitive not only to the agent’s internal psychological structure, but also its source. This casts doubt on recent claims about the explanatory role of deep self judgments.

  • 3.
    Björnsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University.
    The significance of ethical disagreement for theories of ethical thought and talk2017In: The Routledge handbook of metaethics / [ed] Tristram McPherson and David Plunkett, New York: Routledge, 2017, 275-291 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Björnsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Brülde, Bengt
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Normative responsibilities: structure and sources2017In: Parental responsibility in the context of neuroscience and genetics / [ed] Kristien Hens, Daniela Cutas, Dorothee Horstkötter, Cham: Springer, 2017, 13-33 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Normative responsibilities have a central role in everyday moral thinking, largely because they are taken to ground requirements to act and react in certain ways. If parents are responsible for the wellbeing of their children, for example, this might mean that they are morally required to feed them, attend to their emotional needs, or make sure that someone else does. But normative responsibilities are not well understood as lists of requirements to act or react, for such requirements will depend on what options and information the agent has available. In the first part of the paper, we instead propose to understand normative responsibilities as requirements to care about what one is responsible for: about the wellbeing of one’s child, about performing a certain action, or about playing the sort of role that one’s profession requires. Such requirements, we argue, are just the sort of things that will give rise to requirements to act and react given the right context. In the second part, we survey and discuss a variety of considerations that might give rise to normative responsibilities: capacities and costs; retrospective and causal responsibility; benefits; promises, contracts and agreements; laws and norms; and roles and special relationships.

  • 5.
    Björnsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Francén Olinder, Ragnar
    Enoch’s Defense of Robust Meta-Ethical Realism2016In: Journal of Moral Philosophy, ISSN 1740-4681, E-ISSN 1745-5243, Vol. 13, no 1, 101-112 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Taking Morality Seriously is David Enoch’s book-length defense of meta-ethical and meta-normative non-naturalist realism. After describing Enoch’s position and outlining the argumentative strategy of the book, we engage in a critical discussion of what we take to be particularly problematic central passages. We focus on Enoch’s two original posi-tive arguments for non-naturalist realism, one argument building on first order moral implications of different meta-ethical positions, the other attending to the rational commitment to normative facts inherent in practical deliberation. We also pay special attention to Enoch’s handling of two types of objections to non-naturalist realism, objec-tions having to do with the possibility of moral knowledge and with moral disagreement.

  • 6.
    Björnsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. University of Gothenburg.
    Hess, Kendy
    Corporate Crocodile Tears?: On the Reactive Attitudes of Corporations2017In: Philosophy and phenomenological research, ISSN 0031-8205, E-ISSN 1933-1592, Vol. 94, no 2, 273-298 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, a number of people have argued that certain entities embodied by groups of agents themselves qualify as agents, with their own (analogs of) beliefs, desires, and intentions; even, some claim, as moral agents. However, others have independently argued that fully-fledged moral agency involves a capacity for reactive attitudes such as guilt and indignation, and these capacities might seem beyond the ken of “collective” or “corporate” agents. Individuals embodying such agents can of course be ashamed, proud, or indignant about what the agent has done. But just as an entity needs to have its own beliefs, desires, and intentions to qualify as a bona fide agent, the required capacity for reactive attitudes is a capacity to have one’s own reactive attitudes. If fully-fledged moral agency requires reactive attitudes, the corporate agent must itself be capable of (analogs of) guilt and indignation. In this paper, we argue that at least certain corporate agents are. Or, more precisely, we argue that if there are bona fide corporate agents, these agents can have the capacities that are both associated with guilt and indignation and plausibly required for moral agency; in particular certain epistemic and motivational capacities.

  • 7.
    Bortolotti, Lisa
    et al.
    University of Birmingham, Department of Philosophy.
    Cutas, Daniela
    University of Gothenburg,Department of Philosophy, Linguistics and Theory of Science.
    Reproductive and parental autonomy: an argument for compulsory parental education2009In: Reproductive Biomedicine Online, ISSN 1472-6483, Vol. 19, no 1, 5-14 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we argue that comprehensive and systematic parental education has the potential to equip young adults with the necessary information for the responsible exercise of their autonomy in choices about reproduction and parenting. Education can allow young adults to acquire largely accurate beliefs about reproduction and parenting and about the implications of their reproductive and parental choices. Far from being a limitation of individual freedom, the acquisition of relevant information about reproduction and parenting and the acquisition of self-knowledge with respect to reproductive and parenting choices can help give shape to individual life plans. We make a case for compulsory parental education on the basis of the need to respect and enhance individual reproductive and parental autonomy within a culture that presents contradictory attitudes towards reproduction and where decisions about whether to become a parent are subject to significant pressure and scrutiny.

  • 8.
    Brauer, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Dygdig socionom: Om möjligheten att införliva dygdetik inom socialtjänsten2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Socionomer verksamma inom socialtjänsten möter ofta svåra etiska dilemman, hur kan dessa lösas på bästa sätt? Socialtjänsten som institution är baserad på en upplysningsbaserad moralfilosofisk tradition med hänvisning till mänskliga rättigheter. Ett förslag på alternativ professionsetisk grund är dygdetik, inte sällan med hänvisning till Alasdair Macintyres verk After Virtue. Denna uppsats syftar till att utreda möjligheten till att införliva Macintyres tolkning av dygdetik inom socialtjänsten. Slutsatsen är att ett sådant införlivande krockar med de universella anspråk som är grunden för socialtjänsten vilket blir problematiskt i ett mångkulturellt samhälle som Sverige. Att förorda dygdetik för socionomer som grupp eller enskilda praktiker skulle innebära att de arbetade i ständig opposition mot socialtjänsten vilket i längden bedöms vara ohållbart. Av dessa anledningar förkastas dygdetiken i Macintyres tolkning. Dock skulle det vara möjligt att införliva en mindre radikal tolkning av dygdetik vilken inte krockar med rättighetsbaserade teorier.

  • 9.
    Cutas, Daniela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Ai cui sunt embrionii?2015In: Think Outside the BoxArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 10.
    Cutas, Daniela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Casatoria intre persoane de acelasi sex, perpetuarea speciei umane si cresterea de copii2013In: Think Outside the BoxArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 11.
    Cutas, Daniela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Göteborgs universitet, Göteborg.
    Ce se intampla cu ovulele?: Cand parintii care si-au pierdut fiica ar putea deveni bunici2015In: Think Outside the BoxArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 12.
    Cutas, Daniela
    University of Gothenburg.
    Children with Gender Identity Disorder: a Clinical, Ethical, and Legal Analysis. Author: Simona Giordano, 2013, Published by Routledge2015In: Analize – Journal of Gender and Feminist Studies, Vol. 4, no 18, 117-125 p.Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Cutas, Daniela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Clone, gene şi nemurire, authored by John Harris, Bucureşti: Curtea Veche, 20032003In: Romanian Journal of Society and Politics, Vol. 3, no 2, 236-238 p.Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Cutas, Daniela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Cum a devenit un barbat tatal fratelui sau: aspecte etice si legale2015In: Think Outside the BoxArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 15.
    Cutas, Daniela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Etica reproducerii umane cu gameti creati in laborator2014In: Dilema Veche, ISSN 1841-3587, no 536Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 16.
    Cutas, Daniela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Framtidens familjer: definitioner, etik och politik2015In: Filosofisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0348-7482, Vol. 36, no 3, 12-19 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Cutas, Daniela
    University of Gothenburg, Philosophy Department.
    Illegal Beings. Human Cloning and the Law2008In: Journal of Medical Ethics, ISSN 0306-6800, E-ISSN 1473-4257, Vol. 34, no 6, 510-510 p.Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Cutas, Daniela
    University of Gothenburg, Philosophy Department.
    Immortal Fetuses2008In: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, ISSN 0963-1801, E-ISSN 1469-2147, Vol. 17, no 3, 322-329 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Cutas, Daniela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Infertility, ethics, and the future: an exploration2017In: The Palgrave handbook of infertility in history: approaches, contexts and perspectives / [ed] Gayle Davis, Tracey Loughran, Palgrave Macmillan, 2017, 609-624 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter explores current and prospective reproductive technologies and some of their likely implications for reproductive and family ethics and policymaking. The technologies discussed include uterus transplants, mitochondrial transfer, ectogenesis, the development of in vitro gametes, and solo reproduction. The chapter considers the impact of these developments on the content of concepts such as 'infertility', 'mother', or 'father'. Another layer to this process of redefinition originates in ongoing socio-cultural changes that shift the focus in parenting from the way in which children have come into the world, to relationships within the family. Considering these scenarios beforehand can help to clarify some of the current challenges in defining and regulating infertility. The chapter therefore aims to raise a number of questions rather than provide answers.

  • 20.
    Cutas, Daniela
    University of Gothenburg, Philosophy Department.
    Life extension, overpopulation and the right to life: against lethal ethics2008In: Journal of Medical Ethics, ISSN 0306-6800, E-ISSN 1473-4257, Vol. 34, no 9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some of the objections to life-extension stem from a concern with overpopulation. I will show that whether or not the overpopulation threat is realistic, arguments from overpopulation cannot ethically demand halting the quest for, nor access to, life-extension. The reason for this is that we have a right to life, which entitles us not to have meaningful life denied to us against our will and which does not allow discrimination solely on the grounds of age. If the threat of overpopulation creates a rights conflict between the right to come into existence, the right to reproduce, the right to more opportunities and space (if, indeed, these rights can be successfully defended), and the right to life, the latter ought to be given precedence.

  • 21.
    Cutas, Daniela
    Faculty of Political Science, National School of Political Studies and Public Administration, Bucharest, Romania / NSPSPA, Bucharest .
    Looking for the meaning of dignity in the bioethics convention and the cloning protocol2005In: Health Care Analysis, ISSN 1065-3058, E-ISSN 1573-3394, Vol. 13, no 4, 303-313 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is focused on the analysis of two documents (the Council of Europe's Bioethics Convention and the Additional Cloning Protocol) inasmuch as they refer to the relationship between human dignity and human genetic engineering. After presenting the stipulations of the abovementioned documents, I will review various proposed meanings of human dignity and will try to identify which of these seem to be at the core of their underlying assumptions. Is the concept of dignity proposed in the two documents coherent? Is it morally legitimate? Is it, as some might assume, of Kantian origin? Does it have any philosophical roots?

  • 22.
    Cutas, Daniela
    Department of Philosophy, University of Gothenburg.
    On a Romanian attempt to legislate on medically assisted human reproduction2008In: Bioethics, ISSN 0269-9702, E-ISSN 1467-8519, Vol. 22, no 1, 56-63 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents and briefly analyses some of the provisions of a Romanian legislative proposal which arrived at the Presidency for ratification twice, in slightly different forms, and which was rejected twice: the first time at the Presidency in October 2004, and the second at the Constitutional Court in July 2005. The proposal was finally dropped in February 2006. My intention here is to point to some of the most problematic deficiencies of the legislative document in the hope that this may assist with future debates and regulations on assisted reproduction either in Romania or elsewhere. I have isolated the features to be discussed under two headings: (1) whose are the rights to reproduce, that the document claimed to 'acknowledge, regulate and guarantee' and (2) what is the status of the embryo, the child and the surrogate mother?

  • 23. Cutas, Daniela
    On triparenting. Is having three committed parents better than having only two?2011In: Journal of Medical Ethics, ISSN 0306-6800, E-ISSN 1473-4257, Vol. 37, no 12, 735-738 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although research indicates that single parenting is not by itself worse for children than their being brought up by both their parents, there are reasons why it is better for children to have more than one committed parent. If having two committed parents is better, everything else being equal, than having just one, I argue that it might be even better for children to have three committed parents. There might, in addition, be further reasons why allowing triparenting would benefit children and adults, at least in some cases. Whether or not triparenting is on the whole preferable to bi- or monoparenting, it does have certain advantages (as well as shortcomings) which, at the very least, warrant its inclusion in debates over the sorts of family structures we should allow in our societies, and how many people should be accepted in them. This paper has the modest aim of scratching the surface of this wider topic by challenging the necessity of the max-two-parents framework.

  • 24.
    Cutas, Daniela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Polyamory2016In: The International Encyclopedia of Ethics / [ed] Hugh LaFollette, John Wiley & Sons, 2016Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The term “polyamory” stands for love relationships between more than two romantic or sexual partners, or loving more than one person. It means being open to engaging in consensual non-monogamous love relationships at the same time and in this way it is different from serial monogamy (having only one romantic partner at a time, but several during one's lifetime). In a broader sense, polyamory is also taken to denote a willingness to accept that romantic love may involve more than two partners. A core tenet of polyamory is that loving one person does not need to exclude loving another, and that love is, or should be, inclusive.

  • 25.
    Cutas, Daniela
    School of Law, University of Manchester, UK.
    Postmenopausal motherhood: immoral, illegal? A case study2007In: Bioethics, ISSN 0269-9702, E-ISSN 1467-8519, Vol. 21, no 8, 458-463 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper explores the ethics of post-menopausal motherhood by looking at the case of Adriana Iliescu, the oldest woman ever to have given birth (so far). To this end, I will approach the three most common objections brought against the mother and/or against the team of healthcare professionals who made it happen: the age of the mother, the fact that she is single, the appropriateness of her motivation and of that of the medical team.

  • 26.
    Cutas, Daniela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Primul copil nascut in urma unui transplant de uter. Cateva implicatii etice2014In: Think Outside the BoxArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 27.
    Cutas, Daniela
    University of Gothenburg,Department of Philosophy, Linguistics and Theory of Science.
    Sex is overrated: On the right to reproduce2009In: Human Fertility, ISSN 1464-7273, Vol. 12, no 1, 45-52 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    I will show that what is respected the most in human reproduction and parenting is not a right to reproduce in the way in which this right is explicitly proposed. The only way in which people can become, and function as, parents without having to submit themselves to anyone else’s judgments and decisions, is by having reproductive sex. Whatever one’s intentions, social status, standard of living, income etc., so long as assistance is not required, that person’s reproductive decisions will not be interfered with in any way, at least not until neglect or abuse of their offspring becomes known. Moreover, none of the features that are said to back the right to reproduce (such as bodily integrity or personal autonomy) can justify one’s unquestioned access to the relationship with another unable to consent (the child). This indicates that the discourse in terms of the right to reproduce as is currently used so as to justify non-interference with natural reproduction and parenting coupled with the regulation of assisted forms of reproduction and parenting, is at best self-deluding and that all it protects is people’s freedom to have reproductive sex and handle the consequences.

  • 28.
    Cutas, Daniela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Department of Philosophy, Linguistics and Theory of Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Should parents take active steps to preserve their children's fertility?2017In: Parental responsibility in the context of neuroscience and genetics / [ed] Kristien Hens, Daniela Cutas, Dorothee Horstkötter, Cham: Springer, 2017, 189-205 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been argued that, when there is a probable imminent risk of loss of children's fertility, their parents should take active steps to preserve their reproductive potential if possible – or even that children have a right to such interventions being undertaken on them on their behalf, as an expression of their right to an open future. In this chapter, I explore these proposals and some of their implications. I place the discussion of fertility preservation for children into the more general context of the choices that parents might have to help keep their children's future reproductive (and parenting) choices open. I discuss the role of desert and fairness in arguments for fertility preservation and their relevance for framings of infertility in general, as well as the relation between having a (slight) possibility to reproduce and becoming a parent.

  • 29.
    Cutas, Daniela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Undervisning i forskningsetik kräver praktisk relevans och moralfilosofisk teori2016Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 30.
    Cutas, Daniela
    The Centre for Social Ethics and Policy School of Law, University of Manchester.
    Whose Body is it Anyway? Justice and the Integrity of the Person2007In: Medical Law Review, ISSN 0967-0742, E-ISSN 1464-3790, Vol. 15, no 3, 419-425 p.Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Cutas, Daniela
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Bortolotti, Lisa
    University of Birmingham, Department of Philosophy.
    Natural versus Assisted Reproduction: In Search of Fairness2010In: Studies in Ethics, Law, and Technology, ISSN 1941-6008, Vol. 4, no 1, 1-18 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we are concerned with the ethical implications of the distinction between natural reproduction (via sexual intercourse) and reproduction that requires assistance (either medical or social). We argue that the current practice of enforcing regulations on the latter but not on the former means of reproduction is ethically unjustified. It is not defensible to tolerate parental ignorance or abuse in natural reproduction and subsequently in natural parenting, whilst submitting assisted reproduction and parenting to invasive scrutiny. Our proposal is to guarantee equal (ethical and legal) treatment to people engaging in either form of reproduction or parenting.

  • 32.
    Cutas, Daniela
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Department for Health, Ethics and Society, Maastricht University, and The Department of Philosophy, Linguistics and Theory of Science, University of Gothenburg , Sweden.
    Chan, SarahUniversity of Manchester, Institute for Ethics, Science and Innovation.
    Families - Beyond the Nuclear Ideal2012Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book examines, through a multi-disciplinary lens, the possibilities offered by relationships and family forms that challenge the nuclear family ideal, and some of the arguments that recommend or disqualify these as legitimate units in our societies. That children should be conceived naturally, born to and raised by their two young, heterosexual, married to each other, genetic parents; that this relationship between parents is also the ideal relationship between romantic or sexual partners; and that romance and sexual intimacy ought to be at the core of our closest personal relationships - all these elements converge towards the ideal of the nuclear family. The authors consider a range of relationship and family structures that depart from this ideal: polyamory and polygamy, single and polyparenting, parenting by gay and lesbian couples, as well as families created through current and prospective modes of assisted human reproduction such as surrogate motherhood, donor insemination, and reproductive cloning.

  • 33.
    Cutas, Daniela
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. The Department for Health, Ethics and Society, Maastricht University, and The Department of Philosophy, Linguistics and Theory of Science, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Chan, Sarah
    University of Manchester, UK.
    Introduction: perspectives on private and family life2012In: Families – Beyond the Nuclear Ideal / [ed] Daniela Cutas and Sarah Chan, London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2012, 1-12 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Cutas, Daniela
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Department of Health, Ethics and Society, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands .
    Dondorp, Wybo
    Department of Health, Ethics and Society, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands .
    Swierstra, Tsjalling
    Department of Philosophy, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands .
    Repping, Sjoerd
    Centre for Reproductive Medicine, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    de Wert, Guido
    Department of Health, Ethics and Society, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
    Artificial gametes: perspectives of geneticists, ethicists and representatives of potential users2014In: Medicine, Health care and Philosophy, ISSN 1386-7423, E-ISSN 1572-8633, Vol. 7, no 3, 339-345 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several threads of research towards developing artificial gametes are ongoing in a number of research labs worldwide. The development of a technology that could generate gametes in vitro has significant potential for human reproduction, and raises a lot of interest, as evidenced by the frequent and extensive media coverage of research in this area. We have asked researchers involved in work with artificial gametes, ethicists, and representatives of potential user groups, how they envisioned the use of artificial gametes in human reproduction. In the course of three focus groups, the participants commented on the various aspects involved. The two recurring themes were the strength of the claim of becoming a parent genetically, and the importance of responsible communication of science. The participants concurred that (a) the desire or need to have genetic offspring of one’s own does not warrant the investment of research resources into these technologies, and that (b) given the minefield in terms of moral controversy and sensitivity that characterises the issues involved, how information is communicated and handled is of great importance.

  • 35.
    Cutas, Daniela
    et al.
    Department of Health, Ethics and Society, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
    Giordano, Simona
    CSEP/ISEI, School of Law, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.
    Is it a boy or a girl?: Who should (not) know children’s sex and why?2012In: Journal of Medical Ethics, ISSN 0306-6800, E-ISSN 1473-4257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present the case of a couple who refused to disclose the sex of their child to others, and some of the responses that this case prompted in the international media. We outline the ethical issues that this case raises, and we place it into the more general context of parental preferences regarding the gender (development) of their children and of the impact on children of parental choices in the matter. Based on current knowledge of gender identity development, we identify some of the potential pitfalls of such a course of action and we briefly present some alternative strategies that could be implemented in order to ensure more freedom of gender formation in children.

  • 36.
    Cutas, Daniela
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Harris, John
    University of Manchester, Institute for Science, Ethics and Innovation.
    Le clonage humain est-il un mal?2005In: Un homme nouveau par le clonage reproductif? Fantasmes, raisons, défis / [ed] D. Müller and H. Poltiers, Genève: Labor & Fides , 2005Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Cutas, Daniela
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Department of Philosophy, Linguistics and Theory of Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hens, Kristien
    Department of Health, Ethics and Society, Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
    Preserving children's fertility: two tales about children's right to an open future and the margins of parental obligations2015In: Medicine, Health care and Philosophy, ISSN 1386-7423, E-ISSN 1572-8633, Vol. 18, no 2, 253-260 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sources, extent and margins of parental obligations in taking decisions regarding their children’s medical care are subjects of ongoing debates. Balancing children’s immediate welfare with keeping their future open is a delicate task. In this paper, we briefly present two examples of situations in which parents may be confronted with the choice of whether to authorise or demand non-therapeutic interventions on their children for the purpose of fertility preservation. The first example is that of children facing cancer treatment, and the second of children with Klinefelter syndrome. We argue that, whereas decisions of whether to preserve fertility may be prima facie within the limits of parental discretion, the right to an open future does not straightforwardly put parents under an obligation to take actions that would detect or relieve future infertility in their children—and indeed in some cases taking such actions is problematic.

  • 38.
    Cutas, Daniela
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Munthe, Christian
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Philosophy, Linguistics and Theory of Science.
    Legal imperialism in the regulation of stem cell research and therapy: the problem of extraterritorial jurisdiction2010In: Contested Cells: Global Perspectives on the Stem Cell Debates / [ed] B. Capps and A. Campbell, Singapore and London: World Scientific and Imperial College Press , 2010Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Cutas, Daniela
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Department of Philosophy, Linguistics and Theory of Science, Göteborgs Universitet, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Shaw, David
    Basel, Switzerland; Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
    Writers blocked: on the wrongs of research co-authorship and some possible strategies for improvement2015In: Science and Engineering Ethics, ISSN 1353-3452, E-ISSN 1471-5546, Vol. 21, no 5, 1315-1329 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The various problems associated with co-authorship of research articles have attracted much attention in recent years. We believe that this (hopefully) growing awareness is a very welcome development. However, we will argue that the particular and increasing importance of authorship and the harmful implications of current practices of research authorship for junior researchers have not been emphasised enough. We will use the case of our own research area (bioethics) to illustrate some of the pitfalls of current publishing practices – in particular, the impact on the evaluation of one’s work in the area of employment or funding. Even where there are explicit guidelines, they are often disregarded. This disregard, which is often exemplified through the inflation of co-authorship in some research areas, may seem benign to some of us; but it is not. Attribution of co-authorship for reasons other than merit in relation to the publication misrepresents the work towards that publication, and generates unfair competition. We make a case for increasing awareness, for transparency and for more explicit guidelines and regulation of research co-authorship within and across research areas. We examine some of the most sensitive areas of concern and their implications for researchers, particularly junior ones, and we suggest several strategies for future action.

  • 40.
    Cutas, Daniela
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Department of Philosophy, Linguistics and Theory of Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Smajdor, Anna
    Norwich School of Medicine, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK .
    “I am your mother and your father!”: in vitro derived gametes and the ethics of solo reproduction2016In: Health Care Analysis, ISSN 1065-3058, E-ISSN 1573-3394, 1-16 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we will discuss the prospect of human reproduction achieved with gametes originating from only one person. According to statements by a minority of scientists working on the generation of gametes in vitro, it may become possible to create eggs from men’s non-reproductive cells and sperm from women’s. This would enable, at least in principle, the creation of an embryo from cells obtained from only one individual: ‘solo reproduction’. We will consider what might motivate people to reproduce in this way, and the implications that solo reproduction might have for ethics and policy. We suggest that such an innovation is unlikely to revolutionise reproduction and parenting. Indeed, in some respects it is less revolutionary than in vitro fertilisation as a whole. Furthermore, we show that solo reproduction with in vitro created gametes is not necessarily any more ethically problematic than gamete donation - and probably less so. Where appropriate, we draw parallels with the debate surrounding reproductive cloning. We note that solo reproduction may serve to perpetuate reductive geneticised accounts of reproduction, and that this may indeed be ethically questionable. However, in this it is not unique among other technologies of assisted reproduction, many of which focus on genetic transmission. It is for this reason that a ban on solo reproduction might be inconsistent with continuing to permit other kinds of reproduction that also bear the potential to strengthen attachment to a geneticised account of reproduction. Our claim is that there are at least as good reasons to pursue research towards enabling solo reproduction, and eventually to introduce solo reproduction as an option for fertility treatment, as there are to do so for other infertility related purposes.

  • 41.
    Cutas, Daniela
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Smajdor, Anna
    Postmenopausal Motherhood Reloaded: Advanced Age and In Vitro Derived Gametes2015In: Hypatia, ISSN 0887-5367, E-ISSN 1527-2001, Vol. 30, no 2, 386-402 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we look at the implications of a prospective emerging technology for the case in favor of, or against, postmenopausal motherhood. Technologies such as in vitro derived gametes (sperm and eggs derived from non-reproductive cells) have the potential to influence the ways in which reproductive medicine is practiced, and will bring new dimensions to debates in this area. We explain what in vitro derived gametes are and how their development may impact on the case of postmenopausal motherhood. We briefly review some of the concerns that postmenopausal motherhood has raised – and the implications that the successful development, and use in reproduction, of artificial gametes might have for such concerns. The concerns addressed include arguments from nature, risks and efficacy, reduced energy of the mother, and maternal life expectancy. We also consider whether the use of in vitro derived gametes to facilitate postmenopausal motherhood would contribute to reinforcing a narrow geneticized account of reproduction and a pro-reproductive culture that encourages women to produce genetically related offspring at all costs. 

  • 42.
    Cutas, Daniela
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Smajdor, Anna
    The moral status of the (nuclear) family2017In: Etikk i praksis, ISSN 1890-3991, E-ISSN 1890-4009, Vol. 11, no 1, 5-15 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The family is commonly regarded as being an important social institution. In several policy areas, evidence can be found that the family is treated as an entity towards which others can have moral obligations; it has needs and interests that require protection; it can be ill and receive treatment. The interests attributed to the family are not reducible to those of its members – and may even come into conflict with them. Using Warren's criteria for moral status, we show that, although the status of the family is not explicitly described in terms of moral status, the way in which it is treated implies that it has such status. 

  • 43.
    Cutas, Daniela
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Department of Philosophy, Linguistics and Theory of Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Smajdor, Anna
    Hens, Kristien
    Procreative procrastination: the ethics of postponed parenthood2017In: Preventing age related fertility loss / [ed] Dominic Stoop, Springer Publishing Company, 2017, 141-156 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, there has been growing concern over the perceived tendency of women to postpone childbearing. In this chapter, we show that some of the responses to the phenomenon of postponed reproduction are deeply problematic. The question of whether it is accurate to construe later motherhood as postponement at all is far from clear. Moreover, public health messages tend to recommend earlier motherhood as a way of avoiding risks, but this is a crude oversimplification: reproduction involves risks whenever it is undertaken. The focus on risk calls into question some of the strategies intended to remedy postponement of parenthood. There is also the question of where men feature in these decisions: they are all but absent in the public health material and media debates. We consider whether technology could offer a solution to postponement of parenthood, whether there are any benefits to postponement, and finally, whether postponed parenthood could itself be seen as part of a broader trend towards neoteny (the delaying of maturity) in human evolution.

  • 44.
    Drugge, Anna-Lill
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Ethics in Indigenous Research: Past Experiences - Future Challenges2016Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethics in research related to Indigenous peoples has, over recent decades, been increasingly discussed in a global context. Decolonizing theories and methods have gained legitimacy and prestige, and Indigenous scholarship has challenged mainstream research by adding novel perspectives and critical standpoints that encourage researchers of all origins to reflect upon their own positions within the colonial academic and social structures in which they work. This development has taken different directions and occurred at different speeds depending on local, regional and national settings. In a Swedish Sami research context, we are now in a time when it is clear that things are moving and discussions on research ethics are taking place on a more regular basis. This publication is one example of that. In Sweden, it is the first one in English that addresses ethics in Sami and indigenous research and this will, hopefully, facilitate collaborations, comparisons and discussions on an international scale.

    The book is based on some of the contributions to the international workshop Ethics in Indigenous Research, Past Experiences – Future Challenges that was held in Umeå in March 2014. The workshop gathered together around fifty scholars from different parts of Sápmi and abroad, and aimed to move forward Indigenous research ethics in Sweden by highlighting and addressing research ethics related to the Sami and Indigenous research field. It is hoped that this book will serve as an inspiration, a critique, and an illustration of where discussions are heading in a Nordic, and more specifically, Swedish context. It is intended to function as a foundation for future ethical discussions at different levels, in national and international settings both within and outside academia.

  • 45.
    Drugge, Anna-Lill
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    How can we do it right?: ethical uncertainty in Swedish Sami research2016In: Journal of Academic Ethics, ISSN 1570-1727, E-ISSN 1572-8544Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research related to indigenous peoples in Sweden and elsewhere has a history marked by discriminatory practice and unequal research processes. Sweden has still not been very visible in terms of openly debating, developing and implementing ethical strategies specifically suited for indigenous research. The present study explores how research ethics is discussed among scholars within the Sami research field in contemporary Sweden. Fifty-six research proposals deriving from eight different research institutions and 160 individual researchers are analyzed, discovering how scholars relate to research ethics when planning for new research projects related to the indigenous Sami. The results demonstrate that ethical guidelines for research are often referred to, but that a common view on what guidelines to use is lacking, leading to a notable variety between different researchers. Ethical discussions are present in the vast majority of the proposals, however there are notable differences between the theories around how to proceed in a culturally safe, ethical manner, and the proposed methods that are to be used to implement theory in practice. In conclusion, there exists a great uncertainty among scholars on where to seek ethical guidance, how to relate to current legislation around research ethics and at the same time act ethically in a culturally appropriate manner. This uncertainty leads to questioning whether discussions of ethics are relevant in the first place, what they are supposed to include, how they are meant to be undertaken and what consequences can be expected from the presence or absence of ethics in indigenous research.

  • 46.
    Drugge, Anna-Lill
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Introduction2016In: Ethics in Indigenous Research: Past Experiences - Future Challenges / [ed] Anna-Lill Drugge, Umeå: Vaartoe - Centre for Sami Research , 2016, 1, 9-17 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Elenius, Lars
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Hur äkta kan man bli som tornedaling?2006In: Met-aviisi, ISSN 1104-0939, no 1, 6-7 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 48.
    Fjellström, Roger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Philosophy and Linguistics.
    Etik och moral i högre utbildning: ett diskussionsunderlag1999Book (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Fjellström, Roger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Philosophy and Linguistics.
    Lärares yrkesetik2006Book (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Fjellström, Roger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Philosophy and Linguistics.
    Skolområdets etik: en studie i skolans fostran2004Book (Other academic)
123 1 - 50 of 111
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