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  • 1. Appelgren, Alva
    et al.
    Osika, Walter
    Theorell, Töres
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Horwitz, Eva
    Tuning in on motivation: Differences between non-musicians, amateurs, and professional musicians2019In: Psychology of Music, ISSN 0305-7356, E-ISSN 1741-3087Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The drive to learn and engage in music varies among individuals. Global motivation to do something can be intrinsic, for example, the joy and satisfaction in an activity. But motivation behind our action can also be extrinsic, such as the desire for fame, status or increased financial resources. The type of motivation probably influences to what degree individuals engage in musical activities. In this study, we examined the associations between the level of musical engagement and self-rated global motivation, factoring in age and sex, in a sample of 5,435 individuals. Musical engagement ranged from no music activity to amateurs and professional musicians. We found that intrinsic motivation increases with level of music activity and that motivation differs depending on sex, with females scoring higher on intrinsic motivation than males. Such differences may be considered in adjusting the forms of support offered to young musicians in music education. The phenomenon of motivation is complex, and we have highlighted areas that require further investigation, but this study has elucidated some differences in motivation types found in men and women, and between non-musicians, amateurs and professional musicians.

  • 2.
    Ramji, Rathi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Aasa, Ulrika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Paulin, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Musical information increases physical performance for synchronous but not asynchronous running2016In: Psychology of Music, ISSN 0305-7356, E-ISSN 1741-3087, Vol. 44, no 5, p. 984-995Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given that physical performance is enhanced by listening to music, what information in the music is the active ingredient? Here, we varied the amount of music information in an otherwise identical piece of music, from only the rhythm, through a synthesized and scaled down version, to the full original version. Twenty-two university students (11 males and 11 females) ran for 10 minutes to each of eight conditions, two with white noise, three with music that facilitated synchronization with the running pace, and three with tempi where synchronization was impossible. Dependent variables were distance run and the number of steps, from which stride length was computed. Heart rate and mood (PANAS) were also measured for control purposes. Participants tended to run a greater distance when there was more music information, which was mainly an effect of longer strides rather than a faster stride rate. This effect was stronger in the synchronous conditions. The results suggest that the motivational effects of music information during running is mostly related to richer temporal information conveyed by faster metrical levels, when attempting to synchronize with the beat in the music

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