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  • 1.
    Danielsson Niemi, Liza
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Cariology.
    Hernell, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Cariology.
    Human milk compounds inhibiting adhesion of mutans streptococci to host ligand-coated hydroxyapatite in vitro2009In: Caries Research, ISSN 0008-6568, E-ISSN 1421-976X, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 171-178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Acquisition of mutans streptococci at an early age is a risk factor for later caries development. Following our recent finding that human milk may inhibit adhesion of Streptococcus mutans the aim of the present study was to identify compounds in human milk preventing adhesion of mutans streptococci to saliva- or gp340-coated hydroxyapatite (s-HA and gp340-HA) using an in vitro model system. Superdex 200 fractions of human milk and purified proteins were screened for binding inhibition of the S. mutans strain Ingbritt. Avid inhibition was seen to both s-HA and gp340-HA for caseins, lactoferrin, IgA and IgG, and moderate inhibition for alpha-lactalbumin and bile salt-stimulated lipase, whereas albumin and lysozyme had no effect. The inhibitory epitope in beta-casein was delineated to its C-terminal LLNQELLNPTHQIYPVTQPLAPVHNPISV stretch by use of synthetic peptides. Similarly, a peptide (SCKFDEYFSQSCA) corresponding to the human lactoferrin stretch that is highly homologous to the previously shown inhibitory stretch of bovine lactoferrin was found to inhibit S. mutans Ingbritt binding. Inhibition by human milk, IgA, and the inhibitory beta-casein peptide was universal among 4 strains of S. mutans (Ingbritt, NG8, LT11, JBP) and 2 strains of S. sobrinus (6715 and OMZ176). IgG inhibited 4, alpha-lactalbumin 3 and lactoferrin 2 of these 6 strains. It was also confirmed that none of the milk components coated on HA mediated S. mutans Ingbritt adhesion, which was consistent with the finding that no milk protein was recognized on Western blots by gp340/DMBT1 monoclonal antibodies.

  • 2.
    Hasslöf, Pamela
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    West, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Karlsson Videhult, Frida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Brandelius, Charlotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Stecksén-Blicks, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Early intervention with probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei F19 has no long-term effect on caries experience2013In: Caries Research, ISSN 0008-6568, E-ISSN 1421-976X, Vol. 47, no 6, p. 559-565Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to evaluate possible long-term effects of a cereal diet supplemented with Lactobacillus paracasei F19 (LF19) during weaning on caries experience, mutans streptococci (MS) and lactobacilli (LBC) in a group of 9-year-old children. A secondary aim was to evaluate if the intervention resulted in the permanent integration of LF19 as part of the oral microbiota. The study followed up on a double-blind placebo-controlled randomised trial. Among 179 infants that were randomised to a daily diet that included cereals with or without LF19 from 4 to 13 months of age, 56 from the probiotic group and 62 from the placebo group participated in the follow-up at 9 years. Data were collected by oral clinical examination and questionnaires. MS and LBC levels were assessed with conventional cultivation; LF19 was detected by using randomly amplified polymerase chain reactions (RAPD-PCR). At the follow-up, neither decayed, missing and filled surfaces for primary teeth (dmfs) nor decayed, missing and filled surfaces for permanent teeth (DMFS) differed significantly between the probiotic and placebo groups (p > 0.05). MS and LBC levels were similar in both groups (p > 0.05). RAPD-PCR showed no evidence of oral colonisation with LF19 in the study group. It is concluded that an early intervention with LF19 did not affect the frequency of dental caries, MS or LBC. LF19 did not establish itself as a permanent facet of the oral microbiota in any of the subjects included in this study.

  • 3.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Holgerson, Pernilla Lif
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Cariology.
    Kressin, NR
    Nunn, ME
    Tanner, AC
    Snacking habits and caries in young children2010In: Caries Research, ISSN 0008-6568, E-ISSN 1421-976X, Vol. 44, no 5, p. 421-430Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dental caries is caused by a combination of infection and diet. This disease, if left untreated, may lead to pain, and impair the quality of life, nutritional status and development of young children. The objective was to investigate the association between snacking and caries in a population at high risk of dental caries. American preschool children (n = 1,206) were recruited in the offices of paediatricians. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, oral hygiene, breast-feeding, use of bottle and snacking were collected by questionnaire. Plaque presence, the number of teeth and their caries status (deft) were scored. The children sampled were 61% Black, 27% White and 10% Asian. Of the 1- to 2-, 2- to 3- and 3- to 4-year-old children, 93.8, 82.4 and 77.3% were caries free, and their mean caries scores were 0.16, 0.58 and 0.93, respectively. Multivariate partial least squares (PLS) modelling revealed plaque presence, lowest income, descriptors for tooth exposure time (number of teeth and age) and cariogenic challenge (total intake of sugar-containing snacks and chips/crisps, and chips intake with a sugar-containing drink) to be associated with more caries. These differences were also found in univariate analyses; in addition, children who continued breast-feeding after falling asleep had significantly higher deft values than those who did not. PLS modelling revealed that eating chips clustered with eating many sweet snacks, candies, popcorn and ice cream. We conclude that, in addition to the traditional risk indicators for caries - presence of plaque, sugar intake and socioeconomic status -, consumption of chips was associated with caries in young children.

  • 4. Karlsson, L
    et al.
    Johansson, E
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Tranaeus, S
    Validity and reliability of laser-induced fluorescence measurements on carious root surfaces in vitro.2009In: Caries Research, ISSN 0008-6568, E-ISSN 1421-976X, Vol. 43, no 5, p. 397-404Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to assess the validity of laser fluorescence (LF), visual inspection and surface texture on root caries lesions in vitro, related to histological lesion depths. Agreement on interdevice, interexaminer and intra-examiner levels as well as the influence of discolouration and surface texture on LF readings were investigated. Calibrated examiners assessed lesion colour and surface texture and performed measurements with 2 LF devices in 3 separate series at intervals of 1 week. Sections (300 mum thick) of 64 out of 93 teeth were obtained and examined under the microscope. Lesion depth was assessed with 2 references: from the delineated borderline of the original exposed root surface (ref. I), or if loss of surface continuity, the absolute lesion depth (ref. II). The correlation (Spearman rho) between LF readings and histological depth was low with values ranging from 0.22 (p > 0.05) to 0.31 (p < 0.05). LF 1 and LF 2 were significantly correlated with discolouration (rho = 0.52 and 0.46, respectively) and with surface texture denoted as hard (rho = 0.34 and 0.33, respectively). A significant correlation between colour and histological depth ref. I (rho = 0.51) and ref. II (rho = 0.56) was found. No significant correlation between surface texture and histological depth was found. The reliability, evaluated as intraclass correlation coefficient was for intra-examiner 0.99, interexaminer 0.97 and interdevice level 0.98. Large differences were found between 2 consecutive measurements, and high measurement errors indicated considerable deviation of individual measurements. Based on these findings, the LF device is not suitable as a diagnostic tool for root caries.

  • 5. Keller, MK
    et al.
    Hasslöf, Pamela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Pediatric Dentistry.
    Dahlen, G
    Stecksen-Blicks, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Pediatric Dentistry.
    Twetman, S
    Probiotic supplements (Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 and ATCC PTA 5289) do not affect regrowth of mutans streptococci after full-mouth disinfection with chlorhexidine: a randomized controlled multicenter trial2012In: Caries Research, ISSN 0008-6568, E-ISSN 1421-976X, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 140-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of tablets containing two probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri strains in inhibiting regrowth of salivary mutans streptococci (MS) after full-mouth disinfection (FMD) with chlorhexidine. The null hypothesis was that the levels of MS would not differ in comparison with a placebo protocol. The study population was comprised of 62 young adults (mean age 23 years) with moderate or high counts of salivary MS who volunteered after informed consent. The study was a double-blinded randomized controlled trial with two parallel groups. After a 3-day chlorhexidine regimen, the subjects were randomly assigned to a test group (n = 32) with probiotic lozenges (2/day) or a placebo group (n = 30). The intervention period was 6 weeks, and stimulated whole saliva was collected at baseline and after 1, 6, and 12 weeks. The samples were processed for MS by a chair-side test and DNA-DNA hybridization as an estimate of 19 bacterial strains associated with oral health and disease. There was no significant difference between the groups at inclusion, and FMD reduced the salivary MS levels significantly in both groups. The MS suppression lasted less than 6 weeks and there were no statistical differences in salivary MS regrowth between the test and control groups at any of the follow-ups. Likewise, there were no major differences in the regrowth patterns of the checkerboard panel between the two groups. We conclude that daily oral administration of L. reuteri did not seem to affect or delay the regrowth of salivary MS after FMD with chlorhexidine. Copyright (c) 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel

  • 6.
    Källestål, Carina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Public Health Sciences. National Institute of Public Health, Stockholm.
    The effect of five years' implementation of caries-preventive methods in Swedish high-risk adolescents2005In: Caries Research, ISSN 0008-6568, E-ISSN 1421-976X, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 20-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To study the effectiveness of four different preventive programmes within a group of adolescents at high risk of caries.

    Subjects and Methods: In 1995, a cohort of 12-year-olds was examined for caries and completed a questionnaire. Subjects identified as being at high risk were examined every year until 2000 when they were 17 years old. This high-risk group was subdivided into four groups, each individual randomly assigned to one of four preventive programmes: ( A) information on tooth-brushing techniques; ( B) prescription of fluoride lozenges; ( C) semi-annual applications of fluoride varnish; ( D) quarterly appointments where participants were given individualised information on oral hygiene and diet as well as an application of fluoride varnish. The outcomes examined were the caries increment in dentine, enamel and fillings. Poisson regression was used to assess the influence of background, preventive factors and habits.

    Results: The number of 12-year-olds in the high-risk group was 1,134 in 1995, of which 925 were still participants in 2000. The differences between the programmes in mean 5-year increment were not significant. Less risk of caries increment was shown for those who had at least one sealant and for those who belonged to the fluoride varnish group ( C). A higher risk was observed for adolescents from working-class homes, and for those who reported often eating sweets and not brushing their teeth twice a day at all examinations during the whole study period.

    Conclusions: The preventive programmes tested were equal in showing low efficiency in adolescents with high caries risk.

  • 7.
    Lif Holgerson, Pernilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Stecksén-Blicks, Christina
    Sjöström, Inger
    Öberg, Monika
    Twetman, Svante
    Xylitol concentration in saliva and dental plaque after use of various xylitol-containing products2006In: Caries Research, ISSN 0008-6568, E-ISSN 1421-976X, Vol. 40, no 5, p. 393-397Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study consisted of two sets of experiments, one in saliva and one in dental plaque. The xylitol concentration in saliva was determined enzymatically in 12 children (mean age 11.5 years) after a standardised use of various xylitol products: (A) chewing gums (1.3 g xylitol), (B) sucking tablets (0.8 g xylitol), (C) candy tablets (1.1 g xylitol), (D) toothpaste (0.1 g xylitol), (E) rinse (1.0 g xylitol), and (F) a non-xylitol paraffin. Unstimulated saliva was sampled 1, 3, 8, 16 and 30 min after use. The concentration in dental plaque was determined after mouthrinses with contrasting amounts of xylitol (LX = 2.0 g, HX = 6.0 g, and control) and supragingival plaque was collected and pooled after 5, 15 and 30 min. The mean xylitol concentration in saliva at baseline was approximately 0.1 mg/ml. All xylitol-containing products resulted in significantly increased levels (p < 0.05) immediately after intake and remained elevated for 8-16 min in the different groups. The highest mean value in saliva was obtained immediately after use of chewing gums (33.7 +/- 16.4 mg/ml) and the lowest was demonstrated after using toothpaste (8.2 +/- 4.9 mg/ml). No significant differences were demonstrated between chewing gums (A), sucking tablets (B), candy (C) and rinses (E). In dental plaque, the mean values were 8.6 +/- 5.4 and 5.1 +/- 4.0 mg/ml 5 min after HX and LX rinses. Concerning the higher concentration, the values remained significantly elevated (p < 0.05) during the entire 30-min follow-up. In conclusion, commonly advocated xylitol-containing products gave elevated concentrations of xylitol in unstimulated whole saliva and dental plaque for at least 8 min after intake. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  • 8.
    Persson, Anitha
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology, Dental Hygiene.
    Lingström, P
    van Dijken, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology, Dental Hygiene.
    Effect of a hydroxyl ion-releasing composite resin on plaque acidogenicity2005In: Caries Research, ISSN 0008-6568, E-ISSN 1421-976X, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 201-206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this in vivo study was to evaluate the neutralizing capacity, registered as change of plaque acidogenicity, on aged proximal restorations of an ion-releasing composite resin (IRCR), which releases hydroxyl, calcium, and fluoride ions at low pH. Twenty patients, with a mean age of 63 years (range 43-85), participated. All had one aged proximal IRCR restoration (mean age 15 months) and one nonrestored enamel surface to make an intraindividual comparison possible. The neutralizing effect of the IRCR was evaluated by measuring plaque pH, using the microtouch method, after a mouthrinse with 10% sucrose. The plaque pH measurements were repeated 1.5 years later on the IRCR (mean age 34 months), the enamel surfaces and a universal hybrid composite resin (CR). At both 15 and 34 months, the plaque on the IRCR surfaces showed the least acidogenic potential for the whole 60-min time interval. The largest differences between the IRCR, CR and enamel were found during the first 15 min. At 15 months, the total areas under the plaque pH curve (AUC(5.7) and AUC(6.2)) differed significantly between the IRCR and enamel surfaces for the time periods 0-5 min and 5-15 min. At 34 months, significant differences were found between IRCR and CR at the 0- to 5-min time period. It can be concluded that IRCR restorations countered the plaque pH fall and maintained it at levels where less enamel and dentin demineralization can occur. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  • 9.
    Stecksen-Blicks, Christina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology, Pediatric Dentistry.
    Sunnegårdh, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology, Cariology.
    Borssen, Eva
    Caries experience and background factors in 4-year-old children: time trends 1967-2002.2004In: Caries Research, ISSN 0008-6568, E-ISSN 1421-976X, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 149-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In cross-sectional studies conducted in 1967, 1971, 1976, 1980, 1987, 1992, 1997 and 2002, 4-year-old children in Umea, a city in northern Sweden, were examined for dental caries and background factors such as oral hygiene habits, use of fluorides, and sugar consumption. The same methods and criteria have been used in each of the studies from 1967 to 2002. The number of children with caries had declined from 87% in 1967 to 42% in 1987, but then the decline levelled out. In 2002, 46% of the children had caries with a mean dmfs value of 2.0 +/- 3.6. Six percent of the children had 10 or more dmfs. Immigrant children had a higher caries prevalence (p < 0.01). A significant difference in the dmfs values was found in children according to tooth-brushing frequency (p < 0.01). Although the consumption of sugary products between meals increased between 1987 and 1997, no changes were noted from 1997 to 2002. In conclusion, no important changes in caries prevalence have taken place during the last 15 years. The frequency of tooth-brushing and immigrant background had a significant association with caries prevalence.

  • 10.
    Stecksén-Blicks, C
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Pediatric Dentistry.
    Sjöström, I
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Pediatric Dentistry.
    Twetman, S
    Effect of Long-Term Consumption of Milk Supplemented with Probiotic Lactobacilli and Fluoride on Dental Caries and General Health in Preschool Children: A Cluster-Randomized Study.2009In: Caries Research, ISSN 0008-6568, E-ISSN 1421-976X, Vol. 43, no 5, p. 374-381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of milk supplemented with probiotic bacteria and fluoride on caries development and general health in preschool children. Children 1-5 years of age (n = 248) attending 14 day care centres with 27 units in northern Sweden entered the study. The centres were randomly assigned to two parallel groups: children in the intervention group were served 150 ml milk supplemented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus LB21 (10(7) CFU/ml) and 2.5 mg fluoride per litre for lunch while the control group received standard milk. The double-blind intervention lasted for 21 months (weekdays) and data were collected through clinical examinations and questionnaires. The primary outcome was caries increment and secondary outcomes were measures of general health. The dropout rate was 25%. The mean baseline caries experience was 0.5 dmfs in the intervention units and 0.6 in the control units and after 21 months 0.9 and 2.2 (p < 0.05). The number of days with sick leave was similar in both groups but the children of the intervention units displayed 60% fewer days with antibiotic therapy (mean 1.9 vs. 4.7 days) and 50% less days with otitis media (0.5 vs. 1.0) (p > 0.05). In children who had participated during the whole 21-month intervention, fewer days with otitis media were reported (0.4 vs. 1.3 days, p < 0.05). No serious side effects were reported. It is concluded that daily consumption of milk containing probiotic bacteria and fluoride reduced caries in preschool children with a prevented fraction of 75%. Additional beneficial health effects were evident.

  • 11. Twetman, Svante
    et al.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology, Cariology.
    Birkhed, D
    Nederfors, T
    Caries incidence in young type 1 diabetes mellitus patients in relation to metabolic control and caries-associated risk factors.2002In: Caries Research, ISSN 0008-6568, E-ISSN 1421-976X, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 31-5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the caries incidence in a group of young patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus over a 3-year period from the onset of the disease in relation to metabolic control and to caries-associated risk factors. Sixty-four children and adolescents (8-15 years of age) had their diabetes treated and monitored according to a standard medical protocol and received extensive preventive oral health care based on individual needs. Data on blood glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin (Hb A(Ic)) were collected from the medical records. Whole saliva was collected every 3rd month and secretion rate, buffer capacity, glucose concentration, mutans streptococci and lactobacilli counts were determined. Dental examinations, including radiographs, were carried out once a year. Patients with less good metabolic control (>8.0% Hb A(Ic)) exhibited higher glucose levels in resting saliva (p < 0.05) and a significantly higher caries incidence (p < 0.05) compared to those with good metabolic control. The most influential determinants for high caries development during the 3-year follow-up period were metabolic control (odds ratio, OR = 5.7), poor oral hygiene (OR = 6.5), previous caries experience (OR = 5.3) and high levels of salivary lactobacilli (OR = 5.0). The findings suggest that the level of metabolic control and traditional caries risk markers are important factors for caries development in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  • 12.
    Vestman, Nelly Romani
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, School of Dentistry.
    Hasslöf, Pamela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, School of Dentistry.
    Keller, Mette K
    Granström, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, School of Dentistry.
    Roos, Stefan
    Twetman, Svante
    Stecksen-Blicks, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, School of Dentistry.
    Lactobacillus reuteri influences regrowth of mutans streptococci after full-mouth disinfection: a double-blind, randomised controlled trial2013In: Caries Research, ISSN 0008-6568, E-ISSN 1421-976X, Vol. 47, no 4, p. 338-345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study assessed whether the persistence of Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 and ATCC PTA 5289 in saliva could delay the regrowth of mutans streptococci (MS) after a full-mouth disinfection with chlorhexidine (CHX). A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with a 6-week intervention period and 3- and 6-month follow-up was performed. 62 healthy subjects with moderate to high counts of MS were randomly assigned to a test group (n = 32) or a placebo group (n = 30). Before onset of the intervention, subjects received two sessions of professional cleaning, flossing, and application of CHX varnish and rinsed their mouth with a CHX solution between the sessions (2 days). Thereafter, the test group used probiotic lozenges (2/day) containing L. reuteri (DSM 17938 and ATCC PTA 5289; 1 × 108 CFU of each strain), and the placebo group used identical lozenges lacking the lactobacilli. Saliva samples were collected and cultured onto selective media, and isolates of L. reuteri as well as DNA directly extracted from saliva were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with specific primers. Presence of salivary MS was analysed with a chair-side test. L. reuteri was frequently detected by culture during the intervention period but in only 3 test group subjects at follow-ups. Regrowth of MS statistically significantly differed depending on the presence or absence of L. reuteri DSM 17938 detected by PCR. We conclude that cultivable L. reuteri strains may only sporadically be confirmed after termination of the intervention, but subjects with PCR-detected L. reuteridemonstrated slower regrowth of MS.

  • 13.
    Wernersson, Josephine
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology.
    Danielsson Niemi, Liza
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology.
    Einarson, S
    Hernell, O
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology.
    Effects of human milk on adhesion of Streptococcus mutans to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite in vitro2006In: Caries Research, ISSN 0008-6568, E-ISSN 1421-976X, Vol. 40, no 5, p. 412-417Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adhesion of bacteria to pellicle-coated tooth surfaces is the first step in biofilm formation on teeth. The aim of this study was to explore whether human milk prevents or promotes adhesion of cariogenic Streptococcus mutans to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite (HA) using an in vitro model system. S. mutans binding to HA coated with human parotid saliva (s-HA) or human milk was studied, in addition to binding inhibition to s-HA by human milk. S. mutans did not bind to HA coated with milk. S. mutans binding to s-HA was inhibited by milk from 15 (71 %) of 21 women, whereas milk from the remaining 6 mothers enhanced binding of S. mutans to s-HA. Inhibition of S. mutans binding correlated with bacterial binding to s-HA (r = 0.76). Human milk does not mediate adhesion of S. mutans to HA in vitro, but affects adhesion in an individually varying fashion. Phenotypic variations in milk and saliva glycosylation may explain the inhibitory capacity and possibly affect susceptibility to colonization by S. mutans in childhood. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  • 14.
    Öhlund, Inger
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Lif Holgerson, Pernilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Pediatric Dentistry.
    Lind, Torbjörn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Hernell, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Cariology.
    Bäckman, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Pediatric Dentistry.
    Diet intake and caries prevalence in four-year-old children living in a low-prevalence country.2007In: Caries Research, ISSN 0008-6568, E-ISSN 1421-976X, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 26-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Preventive measures have dramatically decreased the prevalence of dental caries in children. However, risk factors for the disease in children living in low-prevalence areas remain elusive. In the present study we evaluated associations between dental caries, saliva levels of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli, and diet with special emphasis on the intake of fermentable carbohydrates and dairy products in 4-year-old children living in an area where the overall caries prevalence was low. Dietary intake was recorded in 234 infants as part of the Study of Infant Nutrition in Umea, Sweden (SINUS). Of these the parents of 124 children gave consent to participate in a follow-up at 4 years of age. Dietary intake, height and weight, dental caries, oral hygiene, including tooth brushing habits, presence of plaque and gingival inflammation, fluoride habits and numbers of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli in saliva were recorded. Using multivariate stepwise logistic regression, caries experience was negatively associated with intake frequency of cheese (OR = 0.67; 95% CI = 0.44-0.98) and positively associated with the salivary level of mutans streptococci (OR = 1.57; 95% CI = 1.21-2.03). Caries experience was not correlated with intake frequency or amounts of carbohydrate-containing foods, with any other particular food, or with daily intake of energy, carbohydrate or any other macro- or micronutrient. We conclude that cheese intake may have a caries-protective effect in childhood populations where the overall caries prevalence and caries experience are low and the children are regularly exposed to fluoride from toothpaste.

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