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  • 1. De Frenne, P.
    et al.
    Blondeel, H.
    Brunet, J.
    Caron, M. M.
    Chabrerie, O.
    Cougnon, M.
    Cousins, S. A. O.
    Decocq, G.
    Diekmann, M.
    Graae, B. J.
    Hanley, M. E.
    Heinken, T.
    Hermy, M.
    Kolb, A.
    Lenoir, J.
    Liira, J.
    Orczewska, A.
    Shevtsova, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Vanneste, T.
    Verheyen, K.
    Atmospheric nitrogen deposition on petals enhances seed quality of the forest herb Anemone nemorosa2018In: Plant Biology, ISSN 1435-8603, E-ISSN 1438-8677, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 619-626Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Elevated atmospheric input of nitrogen (N) is currently affecting plant biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. The growth and survival of numerous plant species is known to respond strongly to N fertilisation. Yet, few studies have assessed the effects of N deposition on seed quality and reproductive performance, which is an important life-history stage of plants. Here we address this knowledge gap by assessing the effects of atmospheric N deposition on seed quality of the ancient forest herb Anemone nemorosa using two complementary approaches. By taking advantage of the wide spatiotemporal variation in N deposition rates in pan-European temperate and boreal forests over 2years, we detected positive effects of N deposition on the N concentration (percentage N per unit seed mass, increased from 2.8% to 4.1%) and N content (total N mass per seed more than doubled) of A.nemorosa seeds. In a complementary experiment, we applied ammonium nitrate to aboveground plant tissues and the soil surface to determine whether dissolved N sources in precipitation could be incorporated into seeds. Although the addition of N to leaves and the soil surface had no effect, a concentrated N solution applied to petals during anthesis resulted in increased seed mass, seed N concentration and N content. Our results demonstrate that N deposition on the petals enhances bioaccumulation of N in the seeds of A.nemorosa. Enhanced atmospheric inputs of N can thus not only affect growth and population dynamics via root or canopy uptake, but can also influence seed quality and reproduction via intake through the inflorescences.

  • 2. Fernie, A. R.
    et al.
    Bauwe, H.
    Eisenhut, M.
    Florian, A.
    Hanson, D. T.
    Hagemann, M.
    Keech, Olivier
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Mielewczik, M.
    Nikoloski, Z.
    Peterhaensel, C.
    Roje, S.
    Sage, R.
    Timm, S.
    von Cammerer, S.
    Weber, A. P. M.
    Westhoff, P.
    Perspectives on plant photorespiratory metabolism2013In: Plant Biology, ISSN 1435-8603, E-ISSN 1438-8677, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 748-753Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Being intimately intertwined with (C3) photosynthesis, photorespiration is an incredibly high flux-bearing pathway. Traditionally, the photorespiratory cycle was viewed as closed pathway to refill the Calvin-Benson cycle with organic carbon. However, given the network nature of metabolism, it hence follows that photorespiration will interact with many other pathways. In this article, we review current understanding of these interactions and attempt to define key priorities for future research, which will allow us greater fundamental comprehension of general metabolic and developmental consequences of perturbation of this crucial metabolic process.

  • 3. Peterhansel, C.
    et al.
    Krause, K.
    Braun, H-P
    Espie, G. S.
    Fernie, A. R.
    Hanson, D. T.
    Keech, Olivier
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Maurino, V. G.
    Mielewczik, M.
    Sage, R. F.
    Engineering photorespiration: current state and future possibilities2013In: Plant Biology, ISSN 1435-8603, E-ISSN 1438-8677, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 754-758Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reduction of flux through photorespiration has been viewed as a major way to improve crop carbon fixation and yield since the energy-consuming reactions associated with this pathway were discovered. This view has been supported by the biomasses increases observed in model species that expressed artificial bypass reactions to photorespiration. Here, we present an overview about the major current attempts to reduce photorespiratory losses in crop species and provide suggestions for future research priorities.

  • 4. Sečenji, M
    et al.
    Lendvai, Á
    Miskolczi, Pal
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Institute of Plant Biology, Biological Research Center, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Szeged, Hungary.
    Kocsy, G
    Gallé, Á
    Szűcs, A
    Hoffmann, B
    Sárvári, É
    Schweizer, P
    Stein, N
    Dudits, D
    Györgyey, J
    Differences in root functions during long-term drought adaptation: comparison of active gene sets of two wheat genotypes2010In: Plant Biology, ISSN 1435-8603, E-ISSN 1438-8677, Vol. 12, no 6, p. 871-882Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In an attempt to shed light on the role of root systems in differential responses of wheat genotypes to long-term water limitation, transcriptional differences between two wheat genotypes (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Plainsman V and landrace Kobomugi) were identified during adaptation to moderate water stress at the tillering stage. Differences in organ sizes, water-use efficiency and seed production were detected in plants grown in soil, and root functions were characterised by expression profiling. The molecular genetic background of the behaviour of the two genotypes during this stress was revealed using a cDNA macroarray for transcript profiling of the roots. During a 4-week period of moderate water deficit, a set of up-regulated genes displaying transiently increased expression was identified in young plantlets, mostly in the second week in the roots of Kobomugi, while transcript levels remained constantly high in roots of Plainsman V. These genes encode proteins with various functions, such as transport, protein metabolism, osmoprotectant biosynthesis, cell wall biogenesis and detoxification, and also regulatory proteins. Oxidoreductases, peroxidases and cell wall-related genes were induced significantly only in Plainsman V, while induction of stress- and defence-related genes was more pronounced in Kobomugi. Real-time qPCR analysis of selected members of the glutathione S-transferase gene family revealed differences in regulation of family members in the two genotypes and confirmed the macroarray results. The TaGSTZ gene was stress-activated only in the roots of Kobomugi.

  • 5.
    Vidalis, Amaryllis
    et al.
    Department of Forest Genetics and Forest Tree Breeding, University of Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany.
    Curtu, A. L.
    Department of Forest Genetics and Forest Tree Breeding, University of Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany and Department of Forest Sciences, University of Transilvania, Brasov, Romania .
    Finkeldey, R.
    Department of Forest Genetics and Forest Tree Breeding, University of Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany.
    Novel SNP development and analysis at a NADP+ -specific IDH enzyme gene in a four species mixed oak forest2013In: Plant Biology, ISSN 1435-8603, E-ISSN 1438-8677, Vol. 15, no Supplement 1, p. 126-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Closely related Quercus species generally exhibit low levels of genetic differentiation despite their ecological and morphological differences. However, at a few so-called 'outlier' loci they seem to remain genetically distinct. Isocitrate dehydrogenases (IDH) are key enzymes involved in the metabolic pathway of the citrate cycle. IDH has also been characterised as an 'outlier' marker, significantly differentiating the closely related Q. robur and Q. petraea with the isozyme technique. This ability to differentiate the species was tested here at molecular level: 13 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were identified and developed within a NADP(+) -specific IDH gene in Quercus spp. and applied as molecular markers in a four species mixed oak forest in eastern Europe, where Q. robur, Q. petraea, Q. pubescens and Q. frainetto naturally co-exist. From the 13 developed SNPs, three groups were formed: non-synonymous, synonymous and non-coding SNPs. The levels of total gene diversity were moderate for all species investigated. The non-synonymous SNPs showed lower levels of gene diversity. Overall, the four closely related Quercus spp. were significantly differentiated (except Q. petraea with Q. frainetto). Analysis of non-random association of alleles revealed no clear physical clustering of the SNP sites in significant linkage disequilibrium (LD). However, separate LD analysis for each species showed a lower number of sites in significant LD for Q. robur than for the other species, possibly reflecting the history of the species in this specific geographical site and less efficient recombination effect due to the larger effective population size of Q. robur. Eleven statistically significant associations were found between seven SNPs and morphological traits that are commonly used to differentiate oak species.

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