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  • 1. Adam, Zach
    et al.
    Adamska, Iwona
    Nakabayashi, Kazumi
    Ostersetzer, Oren
    Haussuhl, Kirsten
    Manuell, Andrea
    Zheng, Bo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Vallon, Olivier
    Rodermel, Steven
    Shinozaki, Kazuo
    Chloroplast and mitochondrial proteases in Arabidopsis: a proposed nomenclature2001In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 125, no 4, p. 1912-1918Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The identity and scope of chloroplast and mitochondrial proteases in higher plants has only started to become apparent in recent years. Biochemical and molecular studies suggested the existence of Clp, FtsH, and DegP proteases in chloroplasts, and a Lon protease in mitochondria, although currently the full extent of their role in organellar biogenesis and function remains poorly understood. Rapidly accumulating DNA sequence data, especially from Arabidopsis, has revealed that these proteolytic enzymes are found in plant cells in multiple isomeric forms. As a consequence, a systematic approach was taken to catalog all these isomers, to predict their intracellular location and putative processing sites, and to propose a standard nomenclature to avoid confusion and facilitate scientific communication. For the Clp protease most of the ClpP isomers are found in chloroplasts, whereas one is mitochondrial. Of the ATPase subunits, the one ClpD and two ClpC isomers are located in chloroplasts, whereas both ClpX isomers are present in mitochondria. Isomers of the Lon protease are predicted in both compartments, as are the different forms of FtsH protease. DegP, the least characterized protease in plant cells, has the most number of isomers and they are predicted to localize in several cell compartments. These predictions, along with the proposed nomenclature, will serve as a framework for future studies of all four families of proteases and their individual isomers.

  • 2.
    Bajhaiya, Amit K.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Univ Manchester, Fac Life Sci, Manchester, Lancs, England.
    Dean, Andrew P.
    Zeef, Leo A. H.
    Webster, Rachel E.
    Pittman, Jon K.
    PSR1 Is a Global Transcriptional Regulator of Phosphorus Deficiency Responses and Carbon Storage Metabolism in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii2016In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 170, no 3, p. 1216-1234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many eukaryotic microalgae modify their metabolism in response to nutrient stresses such as phosphorus (P) starvation, which substantially induces storage metabolite biosynthesis, but the genetic mechanisms regulating this response are poorly understood. Here, we show that P starvation-induced lipid and starch accumulation is inhibited in a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutant lacking the transcription factor Pi Starvation Response1 (PSR1). Transcriptomic analysis identified specific metabolism transcripts that are induced by P starvation but misregulated in the psr1 mutant. These include transcripts for starch and triacylglycerol synthesis but also transcripts for photosynthesis-, redox-, and stress signaling-related proteins. To further examine the role of PSR1 in regulating lipid and starch metabolism, PSR1 complementation lines in the psr1 strain and PSR1 overexpression lines in a cell wall-deficient strain were generated. PSR1 expression in the psr1 lines was shown to be functional due to rescue of the psr1 phenotype. PSR1 overexpression lines exhibited increased starch content and number of starch granules per cell, which correlated with a higher expression of specific starch metabolism genes but reduced neutral lipid content. Furthermore, this phenotype was consistent in the presence and absence of acetate. Together, these results identify a key transcriptional regulator in global metabolism and demonstrate transcriptional engineering in microalgae to modulate starch biosynthesis.

  • 3.
    Benedict, Catherine
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Geisler, Matt
    Trygg, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Huner, Norman
    Hurry, Vaughan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Consensus by democracy. Using meta-analyses of microarray and genomic data to model the cold acclimation signaling pathway in Arabidopsis.2006In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 141, no 4, p. 1219-1232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The whole-genome response of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) exposed to different types and durations of abiotic stress has now been described by a wealth of publicly available microarray data. When combined with studies of how gene expression is affected in mutant and transgenic Arabidopsis with altered ability to transduce the low temperature signal, these data can be used to test the interactions between various low temperature-associated transcription factors and their regulons. We quantized a collection of Affymetrix microarray data so that each gene in a particular regulon could vote on whether a cis-element found in its promoter conferred induction (+1), repression (–1), or no transcriptional change (0) during cold stress. By statistically comparing these election results with the voting behavior of all genes on the same gene chip, we verified the bioactivity of novel cis-elements and defined whether they were inductive or repressive. Using in silico mutagenesis we identified functional binding consensus variants for the transcription factors studied. Our results suggest that the previously identified ICEr1 (induction of CBF expression region 1) consensus does not correlate with cold gene induction, while the ICEr3/ICEr4 consensuses identified using our algorithms are present in regulons of genes that were induced coordinate with observed ICE1 transcript accumulation and temporally preceding genes containing the dehydration response element. Statistical analysis of overlap and cis-element enrichment in the ICE1, CBF2, ZAT12, HOS9, and PHYA regulons enabled us to construct a regulatory network supported by multiple lines of evidence that can be used for future hypothesis testing.

  • 4.
    Benlloch, Reyes
    et al.
    Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, SLU.
    Shevela, Dmitriy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Hainzl, Tobias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Grundström, Christin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Shutova, Tatyana
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Messinger, Johannes
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Samuelsson, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Sauer-Eriksson, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Crystal structure and functional characterization of Photosystem II-associated carbonic anhydrase CAH3 in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii2015In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 167, no 3, p. 950-962Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In oxygenic photosynthesis, light energy is stored in the form of chemical energy by converting CO2 and water into carbohydrates.The light-driven oxidation of water that provides the electrons and protons for the subsequent CO2 fixation takes place inphotosystem II (PSII). Recent studies show that in higher plants, HCO3– increases PSII activity by acting as a mobile acceptor ofthe protons produced by PSII. In the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a luminal carbonic anhydrase, CrCAH3, was suggested toimprove proton removal from PSII, possibly by rapid reformation of HCO3– from CO2. In this study, we investigated the interplaybetween PSII and CrCAH3 by membrane inlet mass spectrometry and x-ray crystallography. Membrane inlet mass spectrometrymeasurements showed that CrCAH3 was most active at the slightly acidic pH values prevalent in the thylakoid lumen underillumination. Two crystal structures of CrCAH3 in complex with either acetazolamide or phosphate ions were determined at 2.6- and2.7-Å resolution, respectively. CrCAH3 is a dimer at pH 4.1 that is stabilized by swapping of the N-terminal arms, a feature notpreviously observed in a-type carbonic anhydrases. The structure contains a disulfide bond, and redox titration of CrCAH3 functionwith dithiothreitol suggested a possible redox regulation of the enzyme. The stimulating effect of CrCAH3 and CO2/HCO3– on PSIIactivity was demonstrated by comparing the flash-induced oxygen evolution pattern of wild-type and CrCAH3-less PSIIpreparations. We showed that CrCAH3 has unique structural features that allow this enzyme to maximize PSII activity at lowpH and CO2 concentration.

  • 5. Bergman, Anders
    et al.
    Gardeström, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Ericson, Ingemar
    Method to Obtain a Chlorophyll-free Preparation of Intact Mitochondria from Spinach Leaves.1980In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 66, no 3, p. 442-445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mitochondria from green leaves of spinach have been prepared using a three-step procedure involving differential centrifugation, partition in an aqueous dextran polyethylene glycol two-phase system and Percoll gradient centrifugation. The mitochondrial fractions after the different steps of purification were compared. The final mitochondrial preparation was totally free from chloroplast material measured as chlorophyll content. The enrichment of mitochondria in relation to peroxisomes and microsomes was approximately 12 and 33 times, respectively, based on NAD:isocitrate dehydrogenase activity, glycolate oxidase activity, and NADPH:cytochrome c oxidoreductase activity. The apparent intactness of the inner and the outer mitochondrial membranes was higher than 90% as measured by latency of enzyme activities. The mitochondria showed high respiratory rates with respiratory control and the ADP/O ratios approached the theoretical limits.

  • 6.
    Bhalerao, Rupali
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Keskitalo, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Sterky, Fredrik
    Erlandsson, Rikard
    Björkbacka, Harry
    Birve, Simon Jonsson
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Gardeström, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Gustafsson, Petter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Lundeberg, Joakim
    Jansson, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Gene expression in autumn leaves2003In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 131, no 2, p. 430-442Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two cDNA libraries were prepared, one from leaves of a field-grown aspen (Populus tremula) tree, harvested just before any visible sign of leaf senescence in the autumn, and one from young but fully expanded leaves of greenhouse-grown aspen (Populus tremula x tremuloides). Expressed sequence tags (ESTs; 5,128 and 4,841, respectively) were obtained from the two libraries. A semiautomatic method of annotation and functional classification of the ESTs, according to a modified Munich Institute of Protein Sequences classification scheme, was developed, utilizing information from three different databases. The patterns of gene expression in the two libraries were strikingly different. In the autumn leaf library, ESTs encoding metallothionein, early light-inducible proteins, and cysteine proteases were most abundant. Clones encoding other proteases and proteins involved in respiration and breakdown of lipids and pigments, as well as stress-related genes, were also well represented. We identified homologs to many known senescence-associated genes, as well as seven different genes encoding cysteine proteases, two encoding aspartic proteases, five encoding metallothioneins, and 35 additional genes that were up-regulated in autumn leaves. We also indirectly estimated the rate of plastid protein synthesis in the autumn leaves to be less that 10% of that in young leaves.

  • 7.
    Blanco, Nicolas E.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Ceccoli, Romina D.
    Dalla Via, Maria V.
    Voss, Ingo
    Segretin, Maria E.
    Bravo-Almonacid, Fernando F.
    Melzer, Michael
    Hajirezaei, Mohammad-Reza
    Scheibe, Renate
    Hanke, Guy T.
    Expression of the Minor Isoform Pea Ferredoxin in Tobacco Alters Photosynthetic Electron Partitioning and Enhances Cyclic Electron Flow2013In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 161, no 2, p. 866-879Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ferredoxins (Fds) are ferrosulfoproteins that function as low-potential electron carriers in plants. The Fd family is composed of several isoforms that share high sequence homology but differ in functional characteristics. In leaves, at least two isoforms conduct linear and cyclic photosynthetic electron transport around photosystem I, and mounting evidence suggests the existence of at least partial division of duties between these isoforms. To evaluate the contribution of different kinds of Fds to the control of electron fluxes along the photosynthetic electron transport chain, we overexpressed a minor pea (Pisum sativum) Fd isoform (PsFd1) in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants. The transplastomic OeFd1 plants exhibited variegated leaves and retarded growth and developmental rates. Photosynthetic studies of these plants indicated a reduction in carbon dioxide assimilation rates, photosystem II photochemistry, and linear electron flow. However, the plants showed an increase in nonphotochemical quenching, better control of excitation pressure at photosystem II, and no evidence of photoinhibition, implying a better dynamic regulation to remove excess energy from the photosynthetic electron transport chain. Finally, analysis of P700 redox status during illumination confirmed that the minor pea Fd isoform promotes enhanced cyclic flow around photosystem I. The two novel features of this work are: (1) that Fd levels achieved in transplastomic plants promote an alternative electron partitioning even under greenhouse light growth conditions, a situation that is exacerbated at higher light intensity measurements; and (2) that an alternative, minor Fd isoform has been overexpressed in plants, giving new evidence of labor division among Fd isoforms.

  • 8. BRUNES, L
    et al.
    Öquist, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    ELIASSON, L
    ON THE REASON FOR THE DIFFERENT PHOTOSYNTHETIC RATES OF SEEDLINGS OF PINUS-SILVESTRIS AND BETULA-VERRUCOSA1980In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 66, no 5, p. 940-944Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9. Campbell, D
    et al.
    Eriksson, Mats-Jerry
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Gustafsson, Petter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Oquist, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Clarke, A K
    A cyanobacterium resists UV-B by exchanging Photosystem II D1 proteins.1997In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 114, no 3, p. 30004-30004Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10. Campbell, D
    et al.
    OQUIST, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Predicting light acclimation in cyanobacteria from nonphotochemical quenching of photosystem II fluorescence, which reflects state transitions in these organisms1996In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 111, no 4, p. 1293-1298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An important factor in photosynthetic ecophysiology is the light regime that a photobiont is acclimated to exploit. In a wide range of cyanobacteria and cyano-lichens, the easily measured fluorescence parameters, coefficient of nonphotochemical quenching of photosystem II variable fluorescence (q(N)) and nonphotochemical quenching, decline to a minimum near the acclimated growth light intensity. This characteristic pattern predicts the integrated light regime to which populations are acclimated, information that is particularly useful for cyanobacteria or cyano-lichens from habitats with highly variable light intensities. q(N) reflects processes that compete with photosystem II photochemistry for absorbed excitation energy. In cyanobacteria, we find no evidence for energy-dependent quenching mechanisms, which are the predominant components of q(N) in higher plants. Instead, in cyanobacteria, q(N) correlates closely with the excitation flow from the phycobilisome to photosystem I, indicating that q(N) reflects the state transition mechanism for equilibration of excitation from the phycobilisome to the two photosystems.

  • 11.
    Chrobok, Daria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Law, Simon R.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Brouwer, Bastiaan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Linden, Pernilla
    Ziolkowska, Agnieszka
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Liebsch, Daniela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Narsai, Reena
    Szal, Bozena
    Moritz, Thomas
    Rouhier, Nicolas
    Whelan, James
    Gardeström, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Keech, Olivier
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Dissecting the Metabolic Role of Mitochondria during Developmental Leaf Senescence2016In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 172, no 4, p. 2132-2153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The functions of mitochondria during leaf senescence, a type of programmed cell death aimed at the massive retrieval of nutrients from the senescing organ to the rest of the plant, remain elusive. Here, combining experimental and analytical approaches, we showed that mitochondrial integrity in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is conserved until the latest stages of leaf senescence, while their number drops by 30%. Adenylate phosphorylation state assays and mitochondrial respiratory measurements indicated that the leaf energy status also is maintained during this time period. Furthermore, after establishing a curated list of genes coding for products targeted to mitochondria, we analyzed in isolation their transcript profiles, focusing on several key mitochondrial functions, such as the tricarboxylic acid cycle, mitochondrial electron transfer chain, iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis, transporters, as well as catabolic pathways. In tandem with a metabolomic approach, our data indicated that mitochondrial metabolism was reorganized to support the selective catabolism of both amino acids and fatty acids. Such adjustments would ensure the replenishment of alpha-ketoglutarate and glutamate, which provide the carbon backbones for nitrogen remobilization. Glutamate, being the substrate of the strongly up-regulated cytosolic glutamine synthase, is likely to become a metabolically limiting factor in the latest stages of developmental leaf senescence. Finally, an evolutionary age analysis revealed that, while branched-chain amino acid and proline catabolism are very old mitochondrial functions particularly enriched at the latest stages of leaf senescence, auxin metabolism appears to be rather newly acquired. In summation, our work shows that, during developmental leaf senescence, mitochondria orchestrate catabolic processes by becoming increasingly central energy and metabolic hubs.

  • 12.
    de La Torre, Amanda R
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Birol, Inanc
    Bousquet, Jean
    Ingvarsson, Pär K
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Jansson, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Jones, Steven J. M
    Keeling, Christopher I
    MacKay, John
    Nilsson, Ove
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Ritland, Kermit
    Street, Nathaniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Yanchuk, Alvin
    Zerbe, Philipp
    Bohlmann, Jörg
    Insights into conifer giga-genomes2014In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 166, no 4, p. 1724-1732Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Insights from sequenced genomes of major land plant lineages have advanced research in almost every aspect of plant biology. Until recently, however, assembled genome sequences of gymnosperms have been missing from this picture. Conifers of the pine family (Pinaceae) are a group of gymnosperms that dominate large parts of the world's forests. Despite their ecological and economic importance, conifers seemed long out of reach for complete genome sequencing, due in part to their enormous genome size (20-30 Gb) and the highly repetitive nature of their genomes. Technological advances in genome sequencing and assembly enabled the recent publication of three conifer genomes: white spruce (Picea glauca), Norway spruce (Picea abies), and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda). These genome sequences revealed distinctive features compared with other plant genomes and may represent a window into the past of seed plant genomes. This Update highlights recent advances, remaining challenges, and opportunities in light of the publication of the first conifer and gymnosperm genomes.

  • 13. Dewez, David
    et al.
    Park, Sungsoon
    García Cerdan, Jose Gines
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Lindberg, Pia
    Melis, Anastasios
    Mechanism of REP27 protein action in the D1 protein turnover and Photosystem II repair from photodamage2009In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 151, no 1, p. 88-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The function of the REP27 protein (GenBank accession no. EF127650) in the photosystem II (PSII) repair process was elucidated. REP27 is a nucleus-encoded and chloroplast-targeted protein containing two tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) motifs, two putative transmembrane domains, and an extended carboxyl (C)-terminal region. Cell fractionation and western-blot analysis localized the REP27 protein in the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplast thylakoids. A folding model for REP27 suggested chloroplast stroma localization for amino- and C-terminal regions as well as the two TPRs. A REP27 gene knockout strain of Chlamydomonas, termed the rep27 mutant, was employed for complementation studies. The rep27 mutant was aberrant in the PSII-repair process and had substantially lower than wild-type levels of D1 protein. Truncated REP27 cDNA constructs were made for complementation of rep27, whereby TPR1, TPR2, TPR1+TPR2, or the C-terminal domains were deleted. rep27-complemented strains minus the TPR motifs showed elevated levels of D1 in thylakoids, comparable to those in the wild type, but the PSII photochemical efficiency of these strains was not restored, suggesting that the functionality of the PSII reaction center could not be recovered in the absence of the TPR motifs. It is suggested that TPR motifs play a role in the functional activation of the newly integrated D1 protein in the PSII reaction center. rep27-complemented strains missing the C-terminal domain showed low levels of D1 protein in thylakoids as well as low PSII photochemical efficiency, comparable to those in the rep27 mutant. Therefore, the C-terminal domain is needed for a de novo biosynthesis and/or assembly of D1 in the photodamaged PSII template. We conclude that REP27 plays a dual role in the regulation of D1 protein turnover by facilitating cotranslational biosynthesis insertion (C-terminal domain) and activation (TPR motifs) of the nascent D1 during the PSII repair process.

  • 14.
    Dubreuil, Carole
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Jin, Xu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Barajas-López, Juan de Dios
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Hewitt, Timothy C.
    Tanz, Sandra K.
    Dobrenel, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Schröder, Wolfgang P.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Hanson, Johannes
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Pesquet, Edouard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Arrhenius Laboratory, Department of Ecology, Environment, and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Grönlund, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Small, Ian
    Strand, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Establishment of Photosynthesis through Chloroplast Development Is Controlled by Two Distinct Regulatory Phases2018In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 176, no 2, p. 1199-1214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chloroplasts develop from undifferentiated proplastids present in meristematic tissue. Thus, chloroplast biogenesis is closely connected to leaf development, which restricts our ability to study the process of chloroplast biogenesis per se. As a consequence, we know relatively little about the regulatory mechanisms behind the establishment of the photosynthetic reactions and how the activities of the two genomes involved are coordinated during chloroplast development. We developed a single cell-based experimental system from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) with high temporal resolution allowing for investigations of the transition from proplastids to functional chloroplasts. Using this unique cell line, we could show that the establishment of photosynthesis is dependent on a regulatory mechanism involving two distinct phases. The first phase is triggered by rapid light-induced changes in gene expression and the metabolome. The second phase is dependent on the activation of the chloroplast and generates massive changes in the nuclear gene expression required for the transition to photosynthetically functional chloroplasts. The second phase also is associated with a spatial transition of the chloroplasts from clusters around the nucleus to the final position at the cell cortex. Thus, the establishment of photosynthesis is a two-phase process with a clear checkpoint associated with the second regulatory phase allowing coordination of the activities of the nuclear and plastid genomes.

  • 15. Eriksson, M
    et al.
    Villand, P
    Gardeström, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Samuelsson, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Induction and regulation of expression of a low-CO2-induced mitochondrial carbonic anhydrase in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii1998In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 116, no 2, p. 637-641Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The time course of and the influence of light intensity and light quality on the induction of a mitochondrial carbonic anhydrase (CA) in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was characterized using western and northern blots. This CA was expressed only under low-CO2 conditions (ambient air). In asynchronously grown cells, the mRNA was detected 15 min after transfer from air containing 5% CO2 to ambient air, and the 21-kD polypeptide was detected on western blots after 1 h. When transferred back to air containing 5% CO2, the mRNA disappeared within 1 h and the polypeptide was degraded within 3 d. Photosynthesis was required for the induction in asynchronous cultures. The induction increased with light up to 500 mu mol m(-2) s(-1), where saturation occurred. In cells grown synchronously, however, expression of the mitochondrial CA was also detected in darkness. Under such conditions the expression followed a circadian rhythm, with mRNA appearing in the dark 30 min before the light was turned on. Algae left in darkness continued this rhythm for several days.

  • 16. Eriksson, Mats
    et al.
    Gardeström, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Samuelsson, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    ISOLATION, PURIFICATION, AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MITOCHONDRIA FROM CHLAMYDOMONAS-REINHARDTII1995In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 107, no 2, p. 479-483Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mitochondria were isolated from autotrophically grown Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cell-wall-less mutant CW 92. The cells were broken by vortexing with glass beads, and the mitochondria were collected by differential centrifugation and purified on a Percoll gradient. The isolated mitochondria oxidized malate, pyruvate, succinate, NADH, and a-ketoglutarate. Respiratory control was obtained with malate (2.0) and pyruvate (2.2) but not with the other substrates. From experiments with KCN and salicylhydroxamic acid, it was estimated that the capacity of the cytochrome pathway was at least 100 nmol O-2 mg(-1) protein min(-1) and the capacity of the alternative oxidase was at least 50 nmol O-2 mg(-1) protein min(-1). A low sensitivity to oligomycin indicates some difference in the properties of the mitochondrial ATPase from Chlamydomonas as compared to higher plants.

  • 17. Felten, Judith
    et al.
    Kohler, Annegret
    Morin, Emmanuelle
    Bhalerao, Rishikesh P
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Palme, Klaus
    Martin, Francis
    Ditengou, Franck A
    Legue, Valerie
    The ectomycorrhizal fungus laccaria bicolor stimulates lateral root formation in poplar and arabidopsis through auxin transport and signaling2009In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 151, no 4, p. 1991-2005Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The early phase of the interaction between tree roots and ectomycorrhizal fungi, prior to symbiosis establishment, is accompanied by a stimulation of lateral root (LR) development. We aimed to identify gene networks that regulate LR development during the early signal exchanges between poplar (Populus tremula x Populus alba) and the ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria bicolor with a focus on auxin transport and signaling pathways. Our data demonstrated that increased LR development in poplar and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) interacting with L. bicolor is not dependent on the ability of the plant to form ectomycorrhizae. LR stimulation paralleled an increase in auxin accumulation at root apices. Blocking plant polar auxin transport with 1-naphthylphthalamic acid inhibited LR development and auxin accumulation. An oligoarray-based transcript profile of poplar roots exposed to molecules released by L. bicolor revealed the differential expression of 2,945 genes, including several components of polar auxin transport (PtaPIN and PtaAUX genes), auxin conjugation (PtaGH3 genes), and auxin signaling (PtaIAA genes). Transcripts of PtaPIN9, the homolog of Arabidopsis AtPIN2, and several PtaIAAs accumulated specifically during the early interaction phase. Expression of these rapidly induced genes was repressed by 1-naphthylphthalamic acid. Accordingly, LR stimulation upon contact with L. bicolor in Arabidopsis transgenic plants defective in homologs of these genes was decreased or absent. Furthermore, in Arabidopsis pin2, the root apical auxin increase during contact with the fungus was modified. We propose a model in which fungus-induced auxin accumulation at the root apex stimulates LR formation through a mechanism involving PtaPIN9-dependent auxin redistribution together with PtaIAA-based auxin signaling.

  • 18. Fracheboud, Yvan
    et al.
    Luquez, Virginia
    Björkén, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Sjödin, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Tuominen, Hannele
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Jansson, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    The control of autumn senescence in European aspen2009In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 149, no 4, p. 1982-1991Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The initiation, progression, and natural variation of autumn senescence in European aspen (Populus tremula) was investigated by monitoring chlorophyll degradation in (1) trees growing in natural stands and (2) cloned trees growing in a greenhouse under various light regimes. The main trigger for the initiation of autumn senescence in aspen is the shortening photoperiod, but there was a large degree of variation in the onset of senescence, both within local populations and among trees originating from different populations, where it correlated with the latitude of their respective origins. The variation for onset of senescence with a population was much larger than the variation of bud set. Once started, autumn senescence was accelerated by low temperature and longer nights, and clones that started to senescence late had a faster senescence. Bud set and autumn senescence appeared to be under the control of two independent critical photoperiods, but senescence could not be initiated until a certain time after bud set, suggesting that bud set and growth arrest are important for the trees to acquire competence to respond to the photoperiodic trigger to undergo autumn senescence. A timetable of events related to bud set and autumn senescence is presented.

  • 19.
    Ganeteg, Ulrika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Külheim, Carsten
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Andersson, Jenny
    Jansson, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Is each light-harvesting complex protein important for plant fitness?2004In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 134, no 1, p. 502-509Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many of the photosynthetic genes are conserved among all higher plants, indicating that there is strong selective pressure to maintain the genes of each protein. However, mutants of these genes often lack visible growth phenotypes, suggesting that they are important only under certain conditions or have overlapping functions. To assess the importance of specific genes encoding the light-harvesting complex (LHC) proteins for the survival of the plant in the natural environment, we have combined two different scientific traditions by using an ecological fitness assay on a set of genetically modified Arabidopsis plants with differing LHC protein contents. The fitness of all of the LHC-deficient plants was reduced in some of the growth environments, supporting the hypothesis that each of the genes has been conserved because they provide ecological flexibility, which is of great adaptive value given the highly variable conditions encountered in nature.

  • 20.
    Gardeström, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Bergman, A
    Ericson, I
    Oxidation of Glycine via the Respiratory Chain in Mitochondria Prepared from Different Parts of Spinach.1980In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 65, no 2, p. 389-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mitochondria were prepared from roots, stalks, leaves, and leaf veins of spinach. The mitochondrial preparations were examined for their ability to oxidize glycine via the respiratory chain. It is shown that the glycine-oxidizing capacity is restricted to photosynthetically active tissue. The activity is present in mitochondria from the green parts of the leaves, but not in mitochondria from roots, stalks, or leaf veins.

  • 21.
    Gardeström, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Edwards, G E
    Isolation of Mitochondria from Leaf Tissue of Panicum miliaceum, a NAD-Malic Enzyme Type C(4) Plant.1983In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 71, no 1, p. 24-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A mechanical isolation procedure was developed to study the respiratory properties of mitochondria from the mesophyll and bundle sheath tissue of Panicum miliaceum, a NAD-malic enzyme C(4) plant. A mesophyll fraction and a bundle sheath fraction were obtained from young leaves by differential mechanical treatment. The purity of both fractions was about 80%, based on analysis of the cross-contamination of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase activity and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity.Mitochondria were isolated from the two fractions by differential centrifugation and Percoll density gradient centrifugation. The enrichment of mitochondria relative to chloroplast material was about 75-fold in both preparations.Both types of mitochondria oxidized NADH and succinate with respiratory control. Malate oxidation in mesophyll mitochondria was sensitive to KCN and showed good respiratory control. In bundle sheath mitochondria, malate oxidation was largely insensitive to KCN and showed no respiratory control. The oxidation was strongly inhibited by salicylhydroxamic acid, showing that the alternative oxidase was involved. The bundle sheath mitochondria of this type of C(4) species contribute to C(4) photosynthesis through decarboxylation of malate. Malate oxidation linked to an uncoupled, alternative pathway may allow decarboxylation to proceed without the restraints which might occur via coupled electron flow through the cytochrome chain.

  • 22.
    Gardeström, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    WIGGE, B
    INFLUENCE OF PHOTORESPIRATION ON ATP/ADP RATIOS IN THE CHLOROPLASTS, MITOCHONDRIA, AND CYTOSOL, STUDIES BY RAPID FRACTIONATION OF BARLEY (HORDEUM-VULGARE) PROTOPLASTS1988In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 88, no 1, p. 69-76Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    HALLGREN, JE
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    FREDRIKSSON, SA
    EMISSION OF HYDROGEN-SULFIDE FROM SULFUR-DIOXIDE FUMIGATED PINE TREES1982In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 70, no 2, p. 456-459Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24. Hanson, D T
    et al.
    Franklin, L A
    Samuelsson, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Badger, M R
    The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cia3 mutant lacking a thylakoid lumen-localized carbonic anhydrase is limited by CO2 supply to rubisco and not photosystem II function in vivo2003In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 132, no 4, p. 2267-2275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cia3 mutant has a phenotype indicating that it requires high-CO2 levels for effective photosynthesis and growth. It was initially proposed that this mutant was defective in a carbonic anhydrase (CA) that was a key component of the photosynthetic CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM). However, more recent identification of the genetic lesion as a defect in a lumenal CA associated with photosystem II (PSII) has raised questions about the role of this CA in either the CCM or PSII function. To resolve the role of this lumenal CA, we re-examined the physiology of the cia3 mutant. We confirmed and extended previous gas exchange analyses by using membrane-inlet mass spectrometry to monitor O-16(2), O-18(2), and CO2 fluxes in vivo. The results demonstrate that PSII electron transport is not limited in the cia3 mutant at low inorganic carbon (Ci). We also measured metabolite pools sizes and showed that the RuBP pool does not fall to abnormally low levels at low Ci as might be expected by a photosynthetic electron transport or ATP generation limitation. Overall, the results demonstrate that under low Ci conditions, the mutant lacks the ability to supply Rubisco with adequate CO2 for effective CO2 fixation and is not limited directly by any aspect of PSII function. We conclude that the thylakoid CA is primarily required for the proper functioning of the CCM at low Ci by providing an ample supply of CO2 for Rubisco.

  • 25. Harrar, Y.
    et al.
    Bellec, Y.
    Bellini, C.
    Faure, J. D.
    Hormonal control of cell proliferation requires PASTICCINO genes2003In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 132, no 3, p. 1217-1227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PASTICCINO (PAS) genes are required for coordinated cell division and differentiation during plant development. In loss-of-function pas mutants, plant aerial tissues showed ectopic cell division that was specifically enhanced by cytokinins, leading to disorganized tumor-like tissue. To determine the role of the PAS genes in controlling cell proliferation, we first analyzed the expression profiles of several genes involved in cell division and meristem function. Differentiated and meristematic cells of the pas mutants were more competent for cell division as illustrated by the ectopic and enlarged expression profiles of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE A and CYCLIN B1. The expression of meristematic homeobox genes KNOTTED-LIKE IN ARABIDOPSIS (KNAT2, KNAT6), and SHOOT MERISTEMLESS was also increased in pas mutants. Moreover, the loss of meristem function caused by shoot meristemless mutation can be suppressed by pas2. The KNAT2 expression pattern defines an enlarged meristematic zone in pas mutants that can be mimicked in wild type by cytokinin treatment. Cytokinin induction of the primary cytokinin response markers, ARABIDOPSIS RESPONSE REGULATOR (ARR5 and ARR6), was enhanced and lasted longer in pas mutants, suggesting that PAS genes in wild type repress cytokinin responses. The expression of the cytokinin-regulated cyclin D, cyclin D3.1, was nonetheless not modified in pas mutants. However, primary auxin response genes were down-regulated in pas mutants, as shown by a lower auxin induction of IAA4 and IAA1 genes, demonstrating that the auxin response was also modified. Altogether, our results suggest that PAS genes are involved in the hormonal control of cell division and differentiation.

  • 26. Harrar, Yaël
    et al.
    Bellec, Yannick
    Bellini, Catherine
    Faure, Jean-Denis
    Hormonal control of cell proliferation requires PASTICCINO genes.2003In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 132, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PASTICCINO (PAS) genes are required for coordinated cell division and differentiation during plant development. In loss-of-function pas mutants, plant aerial tissues showed ectopic cell division that was specifically enhanced by cytokinins, leading to disorganized tumor-like tissue. To determine the role of the PAS genes in controlling cell proliferation, we first analyzed the expression profiles of several genes involved in cell division and meristem function. Differentiated and meristematic cells of the pas mutants were more competent for cell division as illustrated by the ectopic and enlarged expression profiles of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE A and CYCLIN B1. The expression of meristematic homeobox genes KNOTTED-LIKE IN ARABIDOPSIS (KNAT2, KNAT6), and SHOOT MERISTEMLESS was also increased in pas mutants. Moreover, the loss of meristem function caused by shoot meristemless mutation can be suppressed by pas2. The KNAT2 expression pattern defines an enlarged meristematic zone in pas mutants that can be mimicked in wild type by cytokinin treatment. Cytokinin induction of the primary cytokinin response markers, ARABIDOPSIS RESPONSE REGULATOR (ARR5 and ARR6), was enhanced and lasted longer in pas mutants, suggesting that PAS genes in wild type repress cytokinin responses. The expression of the cytokinin-regulated cyclin D, cyclin D3.1, was nonetheless not modified in pas mutants. However, primary auxin response genes were down-regulated in pas mutants, as shown by a lower auxin induction of IAA4 and IAA1 genes, demonstrating that the auxin response was also modified. Altogether, our results suggest that PAS genes are involved in the hormonal control of cell division and differentiation.

  • 27.
    Hellgren, Jenny M
    et al.
    Umeå Plant Science Centre, Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Olofsson, Kjell
    Umeå Plant Science Centre, Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Sundberg, Björn
    Umeå Plant Science Centre, Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Patterns of Auxin Distribution during Gravitational Induction of Reaction Wood in Poplar and Pine2004In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 135, no 1, p. 212-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gravistimulation of tree stems affects wood development by unilaterally inducing wood with modified properties, called reaction wood. Commonly, it also stimulates cambial growth on the reaction wood side. Numerous experiments involving applications of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) or IAA-transport inhibitors have suggested that reaction wood is induced by a redistribution of IAA around the stem. However, in planta proof for this model is lacking. Therefore, we have mapped endogenous IAA distribution across the cambial region tissues in both aspen (Populus tremula, denoted poplar) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) trees forming reaction wood, using tangential cryosectioning combined with sensitive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Moreover, we have documented the kinetics of IAA during reaction wood induction in these species. Our analysis of endogenous IAA demonstrates that reaction wood is formed without any obvious alterations in IAA balance. This is in contrast to gravitropic responses in roots and shoots where a redistribution of IAA has been documented. It is also of interest that cambial growth on the tension wood side was stimulated without an increase in IAA. Taken together, our results suggest a role for signals other than IAA in the reaction wood response, or that the gravitational stimulus interacts with the IAA signal transduction pathway.

  • 28.
    Henriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Turku Centre for Biotechnology, University of Turku, Åbo Academy University, Turku, Finland; Department of Physiological Botany, Evolutionary Biology Centre, University of Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Olsson, Anna S B
    Department of Physiological Botany, Evolutionary Biology Centre, University of Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Johannesson, Henrik
    Department of Physiological Botany, Evolutionary Biology Centre, University of Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Johansson, Henrik
    Department of Physiological Botany, Evolutionary Biology Centre, University of Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hanson, Johannes
    Department of Physiological Botany, Evolutionary Biology Centre, University of Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Molecular Plant Physiology, Utrecht University, NL-3584 CH Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Engström, Peter
    Department of Physiological Botany, Evolutionary Biology Centre, University of Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Söderman, Eva
    Department of Physiological Botany, Evolutionary Biology Centre, University of Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Homeodomain leucine zipper class I genes in Arabidopsis. Expression patterns and phylogenetic relationships2005In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 139, no 1, p. 509-518Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Members of the homeodomain leucine zipper (HDZip) family of transcription factors are present in a wide range of plants, from mosses to higher plants, but not in other eukaryotes. The HDZip genes act in developmental processes, including vascular tissue and trichome development, and several of them have been suggested to be involved in the mediation of external signals to regulate plant growth. The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genome contains 47 HDZip genes, which, based on sequence criteria, have been grouped into four different classes: HDZip I to IV. In this article, we present an overview of the class I HDZip genes in Arabidopsis. We describe their expression patterns, transcriptional regulation properties, duplication history, and phylogeny. The phylogeny of HDZip class I genes is supported by data on the duplication history of the genes, as well as the intron/exon patterning of the HDZip-encoding motifs. The HDZip class I genes were found to be widely expressed and partly to have overlapping expression patterns at the organ level. Further, abscisic acid or water deficit treatments and different light conditions affected the transcript levels of a majority of the HDZip I genes. Within the gene family, our data show examples of closely related HDZip genes with similarities in the function of the gene product, but a divergence in expression pattern. In addition, six HDZip class I proteins tested were found to be activators of gene expression. In conclusion, several HDZip I genes appear to regulate similar cellular processes, although in different organs or tissues and in response to different environmental signals.

  • 29. Henz, Stefan R.
    et al.
    Cumbie, Jason S.
    Kasschau, Kristin D.
    Lohmann, Jan U.
    Carrington, James C.
    Weigel, Detlef
    Schmid, Markus
    Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology, Department of Molecular Biology, Tuebingen, Germany.
    Distinct expression patterns of natural antisense transcripts in arabidopsis2007In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 144, no 3, p. 1247-1255Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Hernandez-Verdeja, Tamara
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Strand, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Retrograde Signals Navigate the Path to Chloroplast Development2018In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 176, no 2, p. 967-976Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Hiltonen, Thomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Bjorkbacka, H
    Forsman, C
    Clarke, A K
    Samuelsson, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Intracellular beta-carbonic anhydrase of the unicellular green alga Coccomyxa1998In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 117, no 4, p. 1341-1349Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) (EC 4.2.1.1) enzymes catalyze the reversible hydration of CO,, a reaction that is important in many physiological processes. We have cloned and sequenced a full length cDNA encoding an intracellular P-CA from the unicellular green alga Coccomyxa. Nucleotide sequence data show that the isolated cDNA contains an open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 227 amino acids. The predicted polypeptide is similar to beta-type CAs from Escherichia coli and higher plants, with an identity of 26% to 30%. The Coccomyxa cDNA was overexpressed in E. coli, and the enzyme was purified and biochemically characterized. The mature protein is a homotetramer with an estimated molecular mass of 100 kD. The CO2-hydration activity of the Coccomyxa enzyme is comparable with that of the pea homolog. However, the activity of Coccomyxa CA is largely insensitive to oxidative conditions, in contrast to similar enzymes from most higher plants. Fractionation studies further showed that Coccomyxa CA is extrachloroplastic.

  • 32.
    Hurry, Vaughan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Keerberg, O
    Parnik, T
    Öquist, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Gardeström, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Effect of cold hardening on the components of respiratory decarboxylation in the light and in the dark in leaves of winter rye1996In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 111, no 3, p. 713-719Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the dark, all decarboxylation reactions are associated with the oxidase reactions of mitochondrial electron transport. In the light, photorespiration is also active in photosynthetic cells. In winter rye (Secale cereale L.), cold hardening resulted in a P-fold increase in the rate of dark respiratory CO2 release from leaves compared with nonhardened (NH) controls. However, in the light, NH and cold-hardened (CH) leaves had comparable rates of oxidase decarboxylation and total intracellular decarboxylation, Furthermore, whereas CH leaves showed similar rates of total oxidase decarboxylation in the dark and light, NH leaves showed a 2-fold increase in total oxidase activity in the light compared with the dark. Light suppressed oxidase decarboxylation of end products of photosynthesis 2-fold in NH leaves and 3-fold in CH leaves in air. However, in high-CO2, light did not suppress the oxidase decarboxylation of end products. Thus, the decrease in oxidase decarboxylation of end products observed in the light and in air reflected glycolate-cycle-related inhibition of tricarboxylic acid cycle activity. We also showed that the glycolate cycle was involved in the decarboxylation of the end products of photosynthesis in both NH and CH leaves, suggesting a flow of fixed carbon out of the starch pool in the light.

  • 33.
    Hurry, Vaughan M.
    et al.
    Cooperative Research Centre for Plant Science, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia.
    Strand, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Tobiaeson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Gardeström, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Öquist, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Cold hardening of spring and winter-wheat and rape results in differential-effects on growth, carbon metabolism, and carbohydrate content1995In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 109, no 2, p. 697-706Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of long-term (months) exposure to low temperature (5 degrees C) on growth, photosynthesis, and carbon metabolism was studied in spring and winter cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and rape (Brassica napus). Cold-grown winter rape and winter wheat maintained higher net assimilation rates and higher in situ CO2 exchange rates than the respective cold-grown spring cultivars. In particular, the relative growth rate of spring rape declined over time at low temperature, and this was associated with a 92% loss in in situ CO2 exchange rates. Associated with the high photosynthetic rates of cold-grown winter cultivars was a P-fold increase per unit of protein in both stromal and cytosolic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase activity and a 1.5- to 2-fold increase in sucrose-phosphate synthase activity. Neither spring cultivar increased enzyme activity on a per unit of protein basis. We suggest that the recovery of photosynthetic capacity at low temperature and the regulation of enzymatic activity represent acclimation in winter cultivars. This allows these overwintering herbaceous annuals to maximize the production of sugars with possible cryoprotective function and to accumulate sufficient carbohydrate storage reserves to support basal metabolism and regrowth in the spring.

  • 34.
    Hurry, Vaughan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Malmberg, Gunilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Gardeström, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Öquist, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Effects of a short-term shift to low-temperature and of long-term cold hardening on photosynthesis and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase and sucrose-phosphate synthase activity in leabves of winter rye (Secale-Cereale L)1994In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 106, no 3, p. 983-990Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of a short-term (hours) shift to low temperature (5 degrees C) and long-term (months) cold hardening on photosynthesis and carbon metabolism was studied in winter rye (Secale cereale L. cv Musketeer), Cold-hardened plants grown at 5 degrees C exhibited 25% higher in situ CO2 exchange rates than nonhardened plants grown at 24 degrees C. Cold-hardened plants maintained these high rates throughout the day, in contrast to nonhardened plants, which showed a gradual decline in photosynthesis after 3 h. Associated with the increase in photosynthetic capacity following cold hardening was an increase in ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase and sucrose phosphate synthase activity and 3- to 4-fold increases in the pools of associated metabolites. Leaves of nonhardened plants shifted overnight to 5 degrees C required 9 h in the light at 5 degrees C before maximum rates of photosynthesis were reached. The gradual increase in photosynthesis in leaves shifted to 5 degrees C was correlated with a sharp decline in the 3-phosphoglycerate/triose phosphate ratio and by an increase in the ribulose bisphosphate/3-phosphoglycerate ratio, indicating the gradual easing of aninorganic phosphate-mediated feedback inhibition on photo-synthesis. We suggest that the strong recovery of photosynthesis in winter rye following cold hardening indicates that the buildup of photosynthetic enzymes, as well as those involved in sucrose synthesis, is an adaptive response that enables these plants to maximize the production of sugars that have both cryoprotective and storage functions that are critical to the performance of these cultivars during over-wintering.

  • 35.
    Ibáñez, Cristian
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Kozarewa, Iwanka
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Johansson, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Ögren, Erling
    Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Umeå Plant Science Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural ences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Rohde, Antje
    Department of Plant Growth and Development, Institute of Agricultural and Fisheries Research, 9090 Melle, Belgium.
    Eriksson, Maria E
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Circadian clock components regulate entry and affect exit of seasonal dormancy as well as winter hardiness in Populus trees2010In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 153, no 4, p. 1823-1833Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study addresses the role of the circadian clock in the seasonal growth cycle of trees: growth cessation, bud set, freezing tolerance, and bud burst. Populus tremula x Populus tremuloides (Ptt) LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL1 (PttLHY1), PttLHY2, and TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION1 constitute regulatory clock components because down-regulation by RNA interference of these genes leads to altered phase and period of clock-controlled gene expression as compared to the wild type. Also, both RNA interference lines show about 1-h-shorter critical daylength for growth cessation as compared to the wild type, extending their period of growth. During winter dormancy, when the diurnal variation in clock gene expression stops altogether, down-regulation of PttLHY1 and PttLHY2 expression compromises freezing tolerance and the expression of C-REPEAT BINDING FACTOR1, suggesting a role of these genes in cold hardiness. Moreover, down-regulation of PttLHY1 and PttLHY2 causes a delay in bud burst. This evidence shows that in addition to a role in daylength-controlled processes, PttLHY plays a role in the temperature-dependent processes of dormancy in Populus such as cold hardiness and bud burst.

  • 36. Immink, Richard G. H.
    et al.
    Pose, David
    Ferrario, Silvia
    Ott, Felix
    Kaufmann, Kerstin
    Valentim, Felipe Leal
    de Folter, Stefan
    van der Wal, Froukje
    van Dijk, Aalt D. J.
    Schmid, Markus
    Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology, Department of Molecular Biology, Tuebingen, Germany.
    Angenent, Gerco C.
    Characterization of SOC1's Central Role in Flowering by the Identification of Its Upstream and Downstream Regulators2012In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 160, no 1, p. 433-449Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Jansson, Stefan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Andersen, B
    Scheller, H V
    Nearest-neighbor analysis of higher-plant photosystem I holocomplex1996In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 112, no 1, p. 409-420Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Photosystem I (PSI) preparations from barley (Hordeum vulgare) and spinach (Spinacia oleracea) were subjected to chemical crosslinking using the cleavable homobifunctional cross-linkers dithiobis(succinimidylpropionate) and 3,3'-dithiobis(sulfosuccinimidylpropionate). The overall pattern of cross-linked products was analyzed by the simple but powerful technique of diagonal electrophoresis, in which the disulfide bond in the cross-linker was cleaved between the first and second dimensions of the gel, and immunoblotting. A large number of cross-linked products were identified. Together with preexisting data on the structure of PSI, it was deduced that the subunits PSI-D, PSI-H, PSI-I, and PSI-L occupy one side of the complex, whereas PSI-E, PSI-F, and PSI-J occupy the other. PSI-K and PSI-G appear to be adjacent to Lhca3 and Lhca2, respectively, and not close to the other small subunits. Experiments with isolated light-harvesting complex ] preparations indicate that the subunits are organized as dimers, which seem to associate to the PSI-A/PSI-B proteins independent of each other. We suggest which PSI subunit corresponds to each membrane-spanning helix in the cyanobacterial PSI structure, and present a model for higher-plant PSI.

  • 38.
    Jansson, Stefan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Gustafsson, Petter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    CHARACTERIZATION OF A LHCB5 CDNA FROM SCOTS PINE (PINUS-SYLVESTRIS)1994In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 106, no 4, p. 1695-1696Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Jansson, Stefan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Gustafsson, Petter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    CHARACTERIZATION OF CDNAS CORRESPONDING TO 2 LHCA4 ALLELES FROM SCOTS PINE (PINUS-SYLVESTRIS)1994In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 106, no 4, p. 1693-1694Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Johansson, Mikael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    McWatters, Harriet G
    Bako, Laszlo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Takata, Naoki
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Gyula, Péter
    Hall, Anthony
    Somers, David E
    Millar, Andrew J
    Eriksson, Maria E
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Partners in time: early bird associates with zeitlupe and regulates the speed of the arabidopsis clock2011In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 155, no 4, p. 2108-2122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The circadian clock of the model plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is made up of a complex series of interacting feedback loops whereby proteins regulate their own expression across day and night. early bird (ebi) is a circadian mutation that causes the clock to speed up: ebi plants have short circadian periods, early phase of clock gene expression, and are early flowering. We show that EBI associates with ZEITLUPE (ZTL), known to act in the plant clock as a posttranslational mediator of protein degradation. However, EBI is not degraded by its interaction with ZTL. Instead, ZTL counteracts the effect of EBI during the day and increases it at night, modulating the expression of key circadian components. The partnership of EBI with ZTL reveals a novel mechanism involved in controlling the complex transcription-translation feedback loops of the clock. This work highlights the importance of cross talk between the ubiquitination pathway and transcriptional control for regulation of the plant clock.

  • 41.
    Karlsson, Jan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Hiltonen, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Husic, H David
    Ramazanov, Zakir
    Samuelsson, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Intracellular carbonic anhydrase of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii1995In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 109, no 2, p. 533-539Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An intracellular carbonic anhydrase (CA; EC 4.2.1.1) was purified to homogeneity from a mutant strain of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (CW 92) lacking a cell wall. Intact cells were washed to remove periplasmic CA and were lysed and fractionated into soluble and membrane fractions by sedimentation. All of the CA activity sedimented with the membrane fraction and was dissociated by treatment with a buffer containing 200 mM KCI. Solubilized proteins were fractionated by ammonium sulfate precipitation, anionic exchange chromatography, and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The resulting fraction had a specific activity of 1260 Wilbur-Anderson units/mg protein and was inhibited by acetazolamide (50% inhibition concentration, 12 nM). Final purification was accomplished by the specific absorption of the enzyme to a Centricon-10 microconcentrator filter. A single, 29.5-kD polypeptide was eluted from the filter with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis sample buffer, and a 1.5 M ammonium sulfate eluate contained CA activity. In comparison with human CA isoenzyme II, the N-terminal and internal amino acid sequences from the 29.5-kD polypeptide were 40% identical with the N-terminal region and 67% identical with an internal conserved region. Based on this evidence, we postulate that the 29.5-kD polypeptide is an internal CA in C. reinhardtii and that the enzyme is closely related to the alpha-type CAs observed in animal species.

  • 42.
    Keech, Olivier
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Pesquet, Edouard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Gutierrez, Laurent
    Ahad, Abdul
    Bellini, Catherine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Smith, Steven M
    Gardeström, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Leaf senescence is accompanied by an early disruption of the microtubule network in Arabidopsis.2010In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 154, no 4, p. 1710-1720Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dynamic assembly and disassembly of microtubules (MTs) is essential for cell function. Although leaf senescence is a well-documented process, the role of the MT cytoskeleton during senescence in plants remains unknown. Here, we show that both natural leaf senescence and senescence of individually darkened Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaves are accompanied by early degradation of the MT network in epidermis and mesophyll cells, whereas guard cells, which do not senesce, retain their MT network. Similarly, entirely darkened plants, which do not senesce, retain their MT network. While genes encoding the tubulin subunits and the bundling/stabilizing MT-associated proteins (MAPs) MAP65 and MAP70-1 were repressed in both natural senescence and dark-induced senescence, we found strong induction of the gene encoding the MT-destabilizing protein MAP18. However, induction of MAP18 gene expression was also observed in leaves from entirely darkened plants, showing that its expression is not sufficient to induce MT disassembly and is more likely to be part of a Ca(2+)-dependent signaling mechanism. Similarly, genes encoding the MT-severing protein katanin p60 and two of the four putative regulatory katanin p80s were repressed in the dark, but their expression did not correlate with degradation of the MT network during leaf senescence. Taken together, these results highlight the earliness of the degradation of the cortical MT array during leaf senescence and lead us to propose a model in which suppression of tubulin and MAP genes together with induction of MAP18 play key roles in MT disassembly during senescence.

  • 43.
    Keskitalo, Johanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Bergquist, Gustaf
    Gardeström, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Jansson, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    A cellular timetable of autumn senescence2005In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 139, no 4, p. 1635-1648Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have studied autumn leaf senescence in a free-growing aspen (Populus tremula) by following changes in pigment, metabolite and nutrient content, photosynthesis, and cell and organelle integrity. The senescence process started on September 11, 2003, apparently initiated solely by the photoperiod, and progressed steadily without any obvious influence of other environmental signals. For example, after this date, senescing leaves accumulated anthocyanins in response to conditions inducing photooxidative stress, but at the beginning of September the leaves did not. Degradation of leaf constituents took place over an 18-d period, and, although the cells in each leaf did not all senesce in parallel, senescence in the tree as a whole was synchronous. Lutein and {beta}-carotene were degraded in parallel with chlorophyll, whereas neoxanthin and the xanthophyll cycle pigments were retained longer. Chloroplasts in each cell were rapidly converted to gerontoplasts and many, although not all, cells died. From September 19, when chlorophyll levels had dropped by 50%, mitochondrial respiration provided the energy for nutrient remobilization. Remobilization seemed to stop on September 29, probably due to the cessation of phloem transport, but, up to abscission of the last leaves (over 1 week later), some cells were metabolically active and had chlorophyll-containing gerontoplasts. About 80% of the nitrogen and phosphorus was remobilized, and on September 29 a sudden change occurred in the {delta}15N of the cellular content, indicating that volatile compounds may have been released.

  • 44.
    Kleczkowski, Leszek A
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Decker, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Wilczynska, Malgorzata
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    UDP-sugar pyrophosphorylase: a new old mechanism for sugar activation2011In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 156, no 1, p. 3-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent developments in studies on properties and functions of UDP-sugar pyrophosphorylase (USPase) in metabolism are presented. The protein was characterized from plants and protozoans (Leishmania, Trypanosoma), but apparently it is also present in bacteria. In plants, USPase deficiency leads to male-sterility. USPase produces a variety of UDP-sugars and their analogs required for cell wall biosynthesis as well as for protein and lipid glycosylation, among other functions. Substrate specificity of USPases from different sources is reviewed, and their function/ structure properties are discussed, based on recent crystallization of the protein, with emphasis on common structural blueprint with some other pyrophosphorylases. Some strategies for future research on USPase are discussed.

  • 45. Klemens, Patrick A. W.
    et al.
    Patzke, Kathrin
    Deitmer, Joachim
    Spinner, Lara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Institut National de la Research Agronomic, UMR1318, Institut Jean-Pierre Bourgin, Saclay Plant Sciences, Versailles, France.
    Le Hir, Rozenn
    Bellini, Catherine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Institut National de la Research Agronomic, UMR1318, Institut Jean-Pierre Bourgin, Saclay Plant Sciences, Versailles, France.
    Bedu, Magali
    Chardon, Fabien
    Krapp, Anne
    Neuhaus, H. Ekkehard
    Overexpression of the Vacuolar Sugar Carrier AtSWEET16 Modifies Germination, Growth, and Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis2013In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 163, no 3, p. 1338-1352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here, we report that SUGARS WILL EVENTUALLY BE EXPORTED TRANSPORTER (SWEET16) from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is a vacuole-located carrier, transporting glucose (Glc), fructose (Fru), and sucrose (Suc) after heterologous expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes. The SWEET16 gene, similar to the homologs gene SWEET17, is mainly expressed in vascular parenchyma cells. Application of Glc, Fru, or Suc, as well as cold, osmotic stress, or low nitrogen, provoke the down-regulation of SWEET16 messenger RNA accumulation. SWEET16 overexpressors (35S(Pro):SWEET16) showed a number of peculiarities related to differences in sugar accumulation, such as less Glc, Fru, and Suc at the end of the night. Under cold stress, 35S(Pro):SWEET16 plants are unable to accumulate Fru, while under nitrogen starvation, both Glc and Fru, but not Suc, were less abundant. These changes of individual sugars indicate that the consequences of an increased SWEET16 activity are dependent upon the type of external stimulus. Remarkably, 35S(Pro):SWEET16 lines showed improved germination and increased freezing tolerance. The latter observation, in combination with the modified sugar levels, points to a superior function of Glc and Suc for frost tolerance. 35S(Pro):SWEET16 plants exhibited increased growth efficiency when cultivated on soil and showed improved nitrogen use efficiency when nitrate was sufficiently available, while under conditions of limiting nitrogen, wild-type biomasses were higher than those of 35S(Pro):SWEET16 plants. Our results identify SWEET16 as a vacuolar sugar facilitator, demonstrate the substantial impact of SWEET16 overexpression on various critical plant traits, and imply that SWEET16 activity must be tightly regulated to allow optimal Arabidopsis development under nonfavorable conditions.

  • 46. Krol, M
    et al.
    Ivanov, A G
    Jansson, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Kloppstech, K
    Huner, N P A
    Greening under high light or cold temperature affects the level of xanthophyll-cycle pigments, early light-inducible proteins, and light-harvesting polypeptides in wild-type barley and the chlorina f2 mutant1999In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 120, no 1, p. 193-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Etiolated seedlings of wild type and the chlorina f2 mutant of barley (Hordeum vulgare) were exposed to greening at either 5 degrees C or 20 degrees C and continuous illumination varying from 50 to 800 mu mol m(-2) s(-1). Exposure to either moderate temperature and high light or low temperature and moderate light inhibited chlorophyll a and b accumulation in the wild type and in the f2 mutant. Continuous illumination under these greening conditions resulted in transient accumulations of zeaxanthin, concomitant transient decreases in violaxanthin, and fluctuations in the epoxidation state of the xanthophyll pool, Photoinhibition-induced xanthophyll-cycle activity was detectable after only 3 h of greening at 20 degrees C and 250 mu mol m(-2) s(-1). Immunoblot analyses of the accumulation of the 14-kD early light-inducible protein but not the major (Lhcb2) or minor (Lhcb5) light-harvesting polypeptides demonstrated transient kinetics similar to those observed for zeaxanthin accumulation during greening at either 5 degrees C or 20 degrees C for both the wild type and the f2 mutant. Furthermore, greening of the f2 mutant at either 5 degrees C or 20 degrees C indicated that Lhcb2 is not essential for the regulation of the xanthophyll cycle in barley. These results are consistent with the thesis that early light-inducible proteins may bind zeaxanthin as well as other xanthophylls and dissipate excess light energy to protect the developing photosynthetic apparatus from excess excitation. We discuss the role of energy balance and photosystem II excitation pressure in the regulation of the xanthophyll cycle during chloroplast biogenesis in wild-type barley and the f2 mutant.

  • 47. KROL, M
    et al.
    SPANGFORT, MD
    HUNER, NPA
    Oquist, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Gustafsson, Petter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Jansson, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    CHLOROPHYLL A/B-BINDING PROTEINS, PIGMENT CONVERSIONS, AND EARLY LIGHT-INDUCED PROTEINS IN A CHLOROPHYLL B-LESS BARLEY MUTANT1995In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 107, no 3, p. 873-883Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Monospecific polyclonal antibodies have been raised against synthetic peptides derived from the primary sequences from different plant light-harvesting Chl a/b-binding (LHC) proteins. Together with other monospecific antibodies, these were used to quantify the levels of the 10 different LHC proteins in wild-type and chlorina 12 barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), grown under normal and intermittent light (ImL). Chlorina 12, grown under normal light, lacked Lhcb1 (type I LHC II) and Lhcb6 (CP24) and had reduced amounts of Lhcb2, Lhcb3 (types II and III LHC II), and Lhcb4 (CP 29). Chlorina f2 grown under ImL lacked all LHC proteins, whereas wild-type ImL plants contained Lhcb5 (CP 26) and a small amount of Lhcb2. The chlorina f2 ImL thylakoids were organized in large parallel arrays, but wild-type ImL thylakoids had appressed regions, indicating a possible role for Lhcb5 in grana stacking. Chlorina f2 grown under ImL contained considerable amounts of violaxanthin (2-3/reaction center), representing a pool of phototransformable xanthophyll cycle pigments not associated with LHC proteins. Chlorina f2 and the plants grown under ImL also contained early light-induced proteins (ELIPs) as monitored by western blotting. The levels of both ELIPs and xanthophyll cycle pigments increased during a 1 h of high light treatment, without accumulation of LHC proteins. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that ELIPs are pigment-binding proteins, and we suggest that ELIPs bind photoconvertible xanthophylls and replace ''normal'' LHC proteins under conditions of light stress.

  • 48. KROMER, S
    et al.
    MALMBERG, G
    Gardeström, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    MITOCHONDRIAL CONTRIBUTION TO PHOTOSYNTHETIC METABOLISM - A STUDY WITH BARLEY (HORDEUM-VULGARE L) LEAF PROTOPLASTS AT DIFFERENT LIGHT INTENSITIES AND CO2 CONCENTRATIONS1993In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 102, no 3, p. 947-955Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An oligomycin concentration that specifically inhibits oxidative Phosphorylation was added to isolated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) leaf protoplasts at various irradiances and carbon dioxide concentrations. At saturating as well as low light intensities, photosynthetic oxygen evolution was decreased as a result of the oligomycin treatment, whereas no effect was observed at intermediate light intensities. This was the same for photorespiratory and nonphotorespiratory conditions. These results were confirmed by measurements of fluorescence quenching under the same conditions. Metabolite analysis in the presence of oligomycin revealed a drastic decrease in the mitochondrial and cytosolic ATP/ADP ratios, whereas there was little or no effect on the chloroplastic ratio. Concomitantly, sucrose phosphate synthase activity was reduced. Under high irradiances, this inhibition of sucrose synthesis by oligomycin apparently caused a feedback inhibition on the Calvin cycle and the photosynthetic activity. Under low irradiances, a feedback regulation compensated, indicating that light was more limiting than the activity of regulative enzymes. Thus, the importance of mitochondrial respiratory activity might be different in different metabolic situations. At saturating light, the oxidation of excess photosynthetic redox equivalents is required to sustain a high rate of photosynthesis. At low light, the supply of ATP to the cytosol might be required to support biosynthetic reactions.

  • 49. KRUPA, Z
    et al.
    Oquist, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Gustafsson, Petter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    PHOTOINHIBITION AND RECOVERY OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS IN PSBA GENE-INACTIVATED STRAINS OF CYANOBACTERIUM ANACYSTIS-NIDULANS1990In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 93, no 1, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 50. Laitinen, Teresa
    et al.
    Morreel, Kris
    Delhomme, Nicolas
    Gauthier, Adrien
    Schiffthaler, Bastian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Nickolov, Kaloian
    Brader, Günter
    Lim, Kean-Jin
    Teeri, Teemu H.
    Street, Nathaniel R.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Boerjan, Wout
    Kärkönen, Anna
    A Key Role for Apoplastic H2O2 in Norway Spruce Phenolic Metabolism2017In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 174, no 3, p. 1449-1475Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Apoplastic events such as monolignol oxidation and lignin polymerization are difficult to study in intact trees. To investigate the role of apoplastic hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in gymnosperm phenolic metabolism, an extracellular lignin-forming cell culture of Norway spruce (Picea abies) was used as a research model. Scavenging of apoplastic H2O2 by potassium iodide repressed lignin formation, in line with peroxidases activating monolignols for lignin polymerization. Time-course analyses coupled to candidate substrate-product pair network propagation revealed differential accumulation of low-molecular-weight phenolics, including (glycosylated) oligolignols, (glycosylated) flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins, in lignin-forming and H2O2-scavenging cultures and supported that monolignols are oxidatively coupled not only in the cell wall but also in the cytoplasm, where they are coupled to other monolignols and proanthocyanidins. Dilignol glycoconjugates with reduced structures were found in the culture medium, suggesting that cells are able to transport glycosylated dilignols to the apoplast. Transcriptomic analyses revealed that scavenging of apoplastic H2O2 resulted in remodulation of the transcriptome, with reduced carbon flux into the shikimate pathway propagating down to monolignol biosynthesis. Aggregated coexpression network analysis identified candidate enzymes and transcription factors for monolignol oxidation and apoplastic H2O2 production in addition to potential H2O2 receptors. The results presented indicate that the redox state of the apoplast has a profound influence on cellular metabolism.

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