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  • 1.
    Bagger, Anette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Den flerspråkiga elevens nationella provdeltagande i matematik: diskursiva förutsättningar2017In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 95-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multilingual students’ participation in national tests in mathematics – discursive prerequisites. This article explores discursive prerequisites in test-taking for second language learners with other mother tongues than Swedish. Four students were interviewed in 2016 during their final year of compulsory school. The results imply that multilingual students are positioned as disadvantaged within testing. This phenomenon is mainly situated in a competitive discourse with several subordinated discourses that further position the students: A discourse of justice positioned the students as being sorted or left behind, a discourse of handling the assessment positioned the students as caretakers and a discourse of future challenges positioned the students as struggling while learning, being capable to learn or facing positive challenges. The results imply that national testing is a personal and relational experience and gives rise to issues of legitimacy and equality. These issues should be considered in policy-making, the construction and the carrying out of tests as well as in the conclusions which are based on the results on individual, group and organisational levels.

  • 2.
    Carlbaum, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Umeå Centre for Evaluation Research (UCER).
    Juridifiering och utbildningval: konsekvenser av elevers och studenters rättigheter2016In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 53-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Juridification and choice of education. Consequences of student rights. Increased regulation by law, specification of laws and individual legal entitlements has been described as processes of juridification. In Sweden this is evident in how student rights have become more prominent in governing education. In this article, I explore aspects of juridification that apply to student rights. I argue that juridification and the practice of parental and student choice of schools and education are interlinked, and they emphasise and strengthen an understanding of education as a 'private good', where rights' violations should be solved with reference to law and judicial procedures. I do this by analysing two cases of student appeals in education. The two cases show prevalence of a rights discourse that benefit privileged rather than marginalised groups. Students are positioned as rights-holding consumers constructing a tension between the right to school choice and the right not to be harassed.

  • 3.
    Carlbaum, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Marknadens misslyckande?: om behovet av utökad kontroll av fristående skolor2014In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 39-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Market failure? The need for increased control of independent schools. This article critically analyses the introduction of an establishment control of independent schools in Sweden. I discuss how we can understand this change in the current governing regime of both marketization in terms of school choice and competition and increased central state control through national school inspections. This is done by analysing documents such as project plans and reports and interviews with employees at the Swedish Schools Inspectorate. By drawing on Bacchi’s (2009) “What’s the problem represented to be?” approach, I ask: What is the purpose of the establishment control? What problem is the new control represented to solve? For whom is the control necessary? Establishment control is represented as a problem of market risks that is justified by everyone’s gain. I argue that this is not only constructing legitimacy for school inspections but is also contributing to upholding market principles in education as such.

  • 4.
    Carlbaum, Sara
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Hult, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lindgren, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Novak, Judit
    Institutionen vid pedagogik, didaktik och utbildningsstudier, Uppsala universitet, Uppsala.
    Rönnberg, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Segerholm, Christina
    Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Mittuniversitetet, Härnösand.
    Skolinspektion som styrning2014In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 5-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Governing by school inspection. In this article we argue that school inspection is an important and potentially influential way of governing education that deserves additional scholarly attention. This introductory article aims to situate and describe the origin, theoretical foundations and methods and materials gathered in the three research projects included in this special issue. We also briefly describe some important characteristics of the Swedish school inspection and finish off with short introductions to the six articles.

  • 5.
    Dovemark, Marianne
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Lundström, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Tema: Skolan och marknaden2017In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 5-18Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Erixon, Per-Olof
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts.
    Löfgren, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Ett demokratilyft för Sverige?: Om relationen mellan literacy, skönlitteratur och demokrati i Läslyftet2018In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 7-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A lift for democracy? About the relationship between literacy, fiction and democracy. The declining results in reading skills revealed in large-scale international surveys such as PISA are seen as a critical issue for education in general, but also for democracy, social justice, and economic competitiveness. In this article, we investigate the reading-promotion programmes in Swedish schools called “Läslyftet” (Elevated Reading), organised by the National Agency for Education. In particular, we study the link between fiction and democracy and how reading-promoting ideas are implemented by the Swedish National Agency for Education. The result indicates the effective downplaying of literature, with fiction being marginalised in the reading programme in favour of non-fiction. Also, in line with the idea that all teachers are language teachers, the school subject Swedish has become pushed into the margins to the benefit of other school subjects such as natural sciences, in which the importance of reading for the development of a democratic society is emphasised.

  • 7.
    Hult, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Granskningens verkningar - inspektörer om inspektion2014In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 107-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inspection effects according to the inspectors. The main motives when Swedish school inspection was reinstalled in 2003 and reinforced in 2008 were the need for raising academic performance and for improving educational equivalence (Rönnberg 2012a, b). Annually, a cadre of school inspectors visit more than a thousand schools in Sweden. Do they believe that they ‘make a difference’? This paper analyses the ‘assumptive worlds’ (Marshall et al. 1985) of inspectors and inspection managers at the Swedish Schools Inspectorate as expressed in interviews. Their notions about what is affected and in what ways are brought forward, illuminating possible relationships between the inspection process and the national, municipal and school arena. The effects of school inspection through the eyes of the inspectors and managers are discussed in relation to joint assumptive worlds among them, and to constitutive effects (Dahler-Larsen 2012).

  • 8.
    Hult, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lindgren, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Med lagen som rättesnöre: kunskapsformer i lärares arbete mot kränkande behandling2016In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 73-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Judging by the (law)book: Knowledge forms in teachers’ work against degrading behavior. Interpreting and producing text has become a new and important dimension in teacher professionalism in an increasingly juridified school. In a case study, we analyse consequences of textbased teacher duties, for changes in teachers’ professional knowl-edge. Interviews were performed with teachers, head teachers and staff working with students’ social and physical health in one school after several complaints by parents followed by criticism from the Swedish Schools Inspectorate. As a consequence teachers increasingly had to adhere to formal plans and in text report student incidents to the head teacher. Traditional embodied knowledge about how to handle and foster students in conflict was being replaced by new competencies and sensitivi-ties related to formal definitions, strategic language use and behaviour. Preliminary findings suggest that complaints and the obligation to write incident reports involve a process of re-creating teacher professionalism and the development of new forms of teacher knowledge in a context characterized by risk.

  • 9.
    Hult, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Segerholm, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    The process of juridification of school inspection in Sweden2016In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 95-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2008, Swedish school inspection has leaned heavily on the Education Act and Ordinance. The increasing importance of the legal framework is in this study understood as a juridification process. This study explores the shift to a more legally oriented inspection and governing and highlights the inspectorate's processes leading up to new assessment areas closely related to the Education Act, how these areas are practiced by the inspectors and how head teachers may react to them. Interviews with legal experts, managers, inspectors and head teachers as well as observations of the inspectors' school visits are used. The results indicate that within the new inspection agency in 2008, the process started with a review of research on successful schools before turning to the Education Act, and that the inspection process is sometimes perceived as more legalistic than pedagogic by head teachers. The consequences of the juridification of Swedish school inspection is discussed in relation to constitutive effects.

  • 10.
    Larsson, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of Teacher Education in Swedish and Social Sciences.
    Eklund, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Samhällskunskapen och disciplinfrågan: om utbildning av lärare i samhällskunskap2009In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 69-91Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11. Ledman, Kristina
    “Så man kan vara med”: om historieundervisningens värde och mening enligt elever på yrkesprogram2015In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 24, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    “So one can participate”: On the value and meaning of history education in the view of pupils on a vocational programme

    History is a compulsory subject in Swedish upper secondary Vocational Educational and Training (VET) programs since the reform of the national curriculum in 2011. On a general level, the vocational/academic divide of upper secondary education contributes to social reproduction. This article argues that history education has an important role to play in the acquisition of powerful and critical knowledge for the students in VET, knowledge that can empower subjects and groups in society. Data consists of interviews with 46 students. The analysis draws on the concepts of horizontal and vertical discourse. The results show that the students do appreciate the potential of knowledge in history. However, history education must provide the students with the opportunity to interact with contemporary history in order to answer to the needs that the students in this study articulated, that is to understand present-day society.

  • 12.
    Lindgren, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Grund grund för bedömning?: Dilemman i "inspektionsträsket"2014In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 57-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shallow ground for judgement? Dilemmas in the “inspection swamp”. This article seeks to analyse school inspectors’ work in the Swedish school inspectorate’s regular supervision. The research problem revolves around tensions between, on the one hand, juridical and standardised scripts for action and tacit and embodied professional knowledge on the other. The inspectorate’s prevalent search for ‘equivalent judgements’ and the high stakes nature of inspectors’ judgement making give rise to complicated professional dilemmas and what Peter Dahler-Larsen labels constitutive effects. Inspectors struggle with their judgements and seek to merge programmatic and technical elements within the current model of regular supervision with their accumulated professional experience. The article draws particular attention to the inspectorate’s urge to make the implicit explicit. Inspectors’ oblige inspectees to provide detailed descriptions of their work; i e to be inspectable. Their stress on transparency and accountability is supposed to produce democratic accountability and improvement.The constitutive effects might, however, be counterproductive and enforceless responsible and knowledgeable school actors.

  • 13.
    Lundström, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Att mäta det vi värderar eller värdera det vi kan mäta?: Resultatindikatorer som grund för skolval2017In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 43-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To Measure What We Value or to Value What We Can Measure? Performance Indicators as a Basis for School Choice. The main objective of this article is to examine and critically discuss indicators that represent student achievement and are used as a basis for school choice in the Swedish compulsory school. It focuses on analyzing the performance indicators in some of the commonly used evaluation systems and to what extent they represent the National curriculum. Five evaluation systems used to inform school choice are selected and analyzed in relation to the Swedish national curriculum, based on perspectives from curriculum and evaluation theories. Most indicators represent a narrow subject discourse, while the discourses that represent the broad goals of the curriculum, such as citizenship, are largely absent. The indicators constitute a conception of student achievement as easily measurable subject knowledge.

  • 14.
    Lundström, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Lärares professionella autonomi under New Public Management-epoken2018In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 33-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Teachers’ Professional Autonomy During the New Public Management Epoch. The last few decades of intensive school reform has affected and continue to affect teachers’ work and the construction of the teaching profession. This article examines how upper secondary school teachers perceive and respond to the consequences for their professional autonomy of recent school reforms and restructurings. Based on empirical material from interviews of 119 teachers in three studies conducted between 2002 and 2014, the findings indicate that teacher autonomy has been reduced by school reforms and restructurings since the late 1980s. Most of these policies are neo-liberal policies or New Public Management technologies. The findings testify to the on-going emphasis on the significance of market logics as well as on how these work together with bureaucratic logics to shift occupational professionalism to organizational professionalism and licensed autonomy to regulated autonomy.

    Teachers’ Professional Autonomy During the New Public Management Epoch. The last few decades of intensive school reform has affected and continue to affect teachers’ work and the construction of the teaching profession. This article examines how upper secondary school teachers perceive and respond to the consequences for their professional autonomy of recent school reforms and restructurings. Based on empirical material from interviews of 119 teachers in three studies conducted between 2002 and 2014, the findings indicate that teacher autonomy has been reduced by school reforms and restructurings since the late 1980s. Most of these policies are neo-liberal policies or New Public Management technologies. The findings testify to the on-going emphasis on the significance of market logics as well as on how these work together with bureaucratic logics to shift occupational professionalism to organizational professionalism and licensed autonomy to regulated autonomy.

  • 15.
    Lundström, Ulf
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Holm, Ann-Sofie
    Erixon Arreman, Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Rektor i skärningspunkten mellan likvärdighet och skolmarknad2017In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 19-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a global education policy context, school leadership is increasingly regarded as crucial for improving school outcomes as well as equity in education. The purpose of this article is to analyze Swedish upper secondary school principals’ perceptions of the impact of school reforms in relation to equity.  Empirical datawas collected in an online survey distributed to all upper secondary principalsaffiliated to the national Association of School Principals. The results of the survey are discussed in relation to governance and previous research. The study indicates that a majority of the principals related equity in education to state governance, while reforms counteracting equity were connected tomarketization/New Public Management reforms. The findings also indicate variations between groups of principals employed in the public or private school sector, including differing local (school market) conditions. Further,irrespective of sector, teachers were considered as the main resource for realizing equity in school.

  • 16.
    Olofsson, Anders D.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lindberg, J. Ola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Pedagogik, tolkning och förståelse - en metodologisk reflektion kring studieobjektet edukation2005In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 99-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we argue for an approach to educational research based on philosophical hermeneutics. In this approach an understanding of educational issues could be based on interpretations of empirical data related to theory. Our argument is that various aspects of the educational system can be understood if a distance is enabled between a pre-specified theoretical frame and empirical data. Conceptualised as a field the interpretational frame suggested in this article illuminates different aspects related to educational theory, and thereby interpretations of that which is near and taken for granted are made both explicit and possible.

  • 17.
    Rönnberg, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Att ta inspektionen i egna händer: hur lokala aktörer använder skolinspektionen2014In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 85-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inspectees are the focus of this paper, which reports findings on the local functions of Swedish national inspection – how head teachers, teachers, students and officers from responsible authorities utilise inspection as a resource. The paper draws on a particular perspective of implementation to analyse data from qualitative case study data from twelve Swedish compulsory schools by drawing on the concept of policy enactment (Ball et al. 2012). Even if inspection is a political tool that is largely intended to govern from the top down, this paper highlights the power of local agency and some of the ways in which the enactments of inspection are simultaneously in line with and extend beyond the politically anticipated functions, all pointing to the importance of inspection as a mobilising resource. It shows the multiplicity of activities that take place in schools and responsible authorities in the course of inspection.

  • 18.
    Rönnlund, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Elevinflytande i en skola i förändring2013In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 65-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ‘Students’ influence’ is in curricula and policy documents presented as a legal right for students but also a means to foster students for future democratic citizenship in individual/collective and informal/formal influence processes in school. In this article, students’ influence in everyday practice is analyzed and discussed in relation to the various elements that constitute the concept, and to the structural changes that the Swedish school has undergone the last decades.  Drawing on results from an ethnographic study carried out in three Swedish lower secondary schools during one school year, the analysis shows that students and school staff to some extent represent different views on and different approaches to students’ influence, a condition that gives rise to tensions in everyday life and discontent among the students. Yet, the results suggest that active student participation in influence processes in certain forms and contexts, have fostering effects and provide students with participatory skills.

  • 19.
    Wiberg, Marie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Rolfsman, Ewa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    School effectiveness in science in Sweden and Norway viewed from a TIMSS perspective2013In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 69-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Declining achievement in various core subjects has led to a debate on strategies to enhance student achievement. Identifying factors in the school environment that affect student performance in science, are therefore, of vital importance. The aim of this study is to identify school-level factors that are associated with eight-grade students' achievement in science based on results from TIMSS (Trends in Intrrnational Mathematics and Science Study) 2003 and 2007. Because the TIMSS data includes school-level factors at two different time points, we expected to find factors that influence science performance by Swedish and Norwegian students. Multilevel analysis was used, and this framework allowed us to account for the influence of the students' home backgrounds. After controlling for student background, our results show that there are only a few school-level factors that are associated with student achievement in science, and the influence of these factors differ between Sweden and Norway.

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