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  • 1.
    Mata, Rui
    et al.
    University of Basel.
    von Helversen, Bettina
    University of Basel.
    Karlsson, Linnea
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Cuepper, Lutz
    RWTH Aachen University.
    Adult age differences in categorization and multiple-cue judgment2012In: Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0012-1649, E-ISSN 1939-0599, Vol. 48, no 4, p. 1188-1201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We often need to infer unknown properties of objects from observable ones, just like detectives must infer guilt from observable clues and behavior. But how do inferential processes change with age? We examined young and older adults' reliance on rule-based and similarity-based processes in an inference task that can be considered either a categorization or a multiple-cue judgment task, depending on the nature of the criterion (binary vs. continuous). Both older and young adults relied on rule-based processes in the multiple-cue judgment task. In the categorization task, however, the majority of older adults relied on rule-based processes while young adults preferred similarity-based processes. Moreover, older adults who relied on rule-based processes performed poorly compared with young adults who relied on the same process, suggesting that aging is associated with deficits in applying rule-based processes.

  • 2.
    Miklikowska, Marta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Bohman, Andrea
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Titzmann, Peter F.
    Driven by Context?: The Interrelated Effects of Parents, Peers, Classrooms on Development of Prejudice Among Swedish Majority Adolescents2019In: Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0012-1649, E-ISSN 1939-0599, Vol. 55, no 11, p. 2451-2463Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prejudice is one of the major threats to the cohesion of multicultural societies and adolescent years play a key role in its development. How social contexts contribute to adolescent prejudice is, however, not yet well-known. This 3-wave study of Swedish majority adolescents (N = 659; M-ageT1 = 13.41; M-ageT3 = 17.33) examined the effects of parents' and peers' attitudes on changes in youth attitudes toward immigrants as well as an interplay between parent, peer, and school context. The results of multilevel analyses revealed that within-person fluctuations in youth attitudes were positively related to fluctuations in peers' but not parents' attitudes. Both parents' and peers' attitudes, however, significantly predicted the differences in level and rate of change in attitudes between adolescents. In addition to these direct effects, mediation analysis showed that parents' attitudes predicted youth attitudes indirectly, via the attitudes of the peers youth associate with, suggesting an overall greater importance of parental bias. Peers' attitudes did not moderate the effects of parents but youth from ethnically diverse classrooms were less affected by their parents' prejudice than youth from less diverse classrooms. The findings contribute to a better understanding of the role of social context in the development of prejudice. They suggest that while parents set the stage, peers explain the day-to-day variation in prejudice, and that classroom diversity offsets some of the negative effects of parental bias.

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