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  • 1. Bakhiet, Salaheldin Farah Attallah
    et al.
    Dutton, Edward
    Ashaer, Khalil Yousif Ali
    Essa, Yossry Ahmed Sayed
    Blahmar, Tahani Abdulrahman Muhammad
    Hakami, Sultan Mohammed
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Understanding the Simber Effect: why is the age-dependent increase in children's cognitive ability smaller in Arab countries than in Britain?2018In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 122, p. 38-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research indicates that the typical increase in IQ during childhood is greater in European countries than in Arab countries. A systematic literature review of age-dependent IQ in Arab countries is conducted, yielding relevant studies for 12 countries that fulfil the inclusion criteria. In almost all of these studies, Arab children exhibit an age-dependent IQ decline relative to Caucasian children, from 5 to about 12 years of age in particular. We term this phenomenon the Simber Effect. We propose two non-exclusive explanations. (1) The Flynn Effect is less intense in Arab countries because of localised differences, including poorer education quality and greater religiosity. (2) Those from Arab countries follow a faster Life History Strategy than Europeans, for environmental and possibly genetic reasons. Either way, the Simber Effect may amount to a Wilson Effect, meaning that the impact of genetic IQ increases with age.

  • 2.
    Curtis S., Dunkel
    et al.
    Western Illinois University, United States.
    Cabeza De Baca, Tomás
    Family Studies and Human Development, University of Arizona, United States.
    Woodley, Michael A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Center Leo Apostel for Interdisciplinary Studies, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium.
    Fernandes, Heitor B.F.
    Institute of Psychology, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    The General Factor of Personality and general intelligence: Testing hypotheses from Differential-K, Life History Theory, and strategic differentiation-integration effort2014In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 61-62, p. 13-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Life history as applied to human psychology has progressed on different levels of analysis including between racial groups (Differential-K) and between individuals (Life History Theory). While the approaches at each level have garnered significant research support, some findings at the level of individual differences are inconsistent with findings from the level of group differences. The association between the General Factor of Personality and general intelligence was examined across and within racial groups to investigate the inconsistency. The results were in line with predictions derived from strategic differentiation–integration effort (SD–IE), the proposition that aggregation amongst variables decreases as life history strategy slows. The results suggest SD–IE may be a useful tool in reconciling the apparent contradictions across the levels of analysis.

  • 3.
    Davis, Paul A.
    et al.
    Department of Sport Development, University of Northumbria, UK.
    Woodman, Tim
    School of Sport, Health and Exercise Sciences, Bangor University, UK.
    Callow, Nichola
    School of Sport, Health and Exercise Sciences, Bangor University, UK.
    Better out than in: The influence of anger regulation on physical performance2010In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 49, no 5, p. 457-460Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined the influence of individual differences in anger regulation as potential moderators of the anger–performance relationship. Extending Lazarus’s (1991, 2000a) cognitive–motivational–relational theory of emotion, we investigated the influence of trait anger and the anger regulation styles of anger-in and anger-out on the performance of a physical task. As hypothesized, trait anger and anger-out were positively associated with anger-derived performance enhancement on a peak force task; anger-in significantly inhibited the trait anger–performance relationship. Results are discussed in relation to Lazarus’s cognitive–motivational–relational theory and future research directions are offered.

  • 4. Dutton, Edward
    et al.
    Bakhiet, Salaheldin Farah Attallah
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Essa, Yossry Ahmed Sayed
    Rajeh, Mohammed Yahya Mohammed
    Sex differences on Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices within Saudi Arabia and across the Arab world: females' advantage decreases from childhood to adolescence2018In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 134, p. 66-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sex differences in intelligence are of great importance with regard to understanding intelligence's underlying evolutionary forces. Previous research in this area has had a strong focus on Western countries and data across developmental stages are fragmented. Here, we present new data on Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices from three samples in Saudi Arabia, and combine these with nine previously published studies from other Arab countries, which also provide data for each year of age. We specifically consider Lynn's developmental theory of sex differences in intelligence, whereby a female advantage becomes pronounced due to earlier average puberty and then decreases as males enter puberty. The estimates for each age do not differ significantly from zero, and very few from each other, apparently due to large heterogeneity across studies. Nevertheless, the age trend is largely consistent with Lynn's model. Moreover, its specific predictions are seemingly borne out in many individual countries. Plausible explanations for incongruities in Sudan, Libya, Yemen and Saudi Arabia are also examined.

  • 5. Dutton, Edward
    et al.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Why do middle-class couples of European descent adopt children from Africa and Asia? Some Support for the Differential K Model2018In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 130, p. 156-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Patterns of adoption behaviour are starkly asymmetric across populations. To better understand this phenomenon we conducted a systematic review of transracial adoption and adoption in general. We found six quantitative studies from the USA (with representative samples comprising a total of 117,000 participants) which had examined sex, race, and SES in relation to differences in behaviours and attitudes regarding both transracial adoption and adoption in general. A secondary analysis of these data found that transracial adopting is predicted by being female, white (as opposed to black), and of higher SES. These data are consistent with group differences in Life History Strategy – the Differential K model – regarding males and females, SES differences, and white and black people, but not with the fact that both transracial adoption and adoption rates in general seem to be lower in Northeast Asian countries. The influence of cultural factors upon these patterns may be addressed by future studies.

  • 6. Dutton, Edward
    et al.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lynn, Richard
    Demographic, economic, and genetic factors related to national differences in ethnocentric attitudes2016In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 101, p. 137-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We conducted a review of factors associated with individual and group level differences in positive ethnocentrism (PE) and negative ethnocentrism (NE). We inter-correlated datasets on national differences in these factors with data from the World Values Survey with regard to national differences in measures of PE and NE. The two different survey items for each construct were strongly correlated, but the constructs themselves were not significantly associated. Multiple regression analyses indicated that NE was mainly related to high levels of cousin marriage and frequency of the DRD4-repeat gene, and that PE was mainly related to a young median population age. Cousin marriage may indicate low levels of trust, DRD4 implies a fast Life History strategy, and young median age is associated with many factors predicting PE. 

  • 7. Dutton, Edward
    et al.
    Van der Linden, Dimitri
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Antfolk, Jan
    Woodley Of Menie, Michael A.
    The intelligence and personality of Finland's Swedish-speaking minority2016In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 97, p. 45-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is evidence that Finland's Swedish-speaking minority (Finland-Swedes) may have a distinct intelligence-personality profile from the Finnish-speaking Finns (Finns). We test this through an examination of the two groups' PISA (Programme of International Student Assessment) scores (which assesses representative samples of 15 year olds from OECD countries) and their personality scores, drawing upon a representative Finnish sample. We found Finland-Swedes to have slightly lower average intelligence. However, when controlling for gender and age, the Finland-Swedes score significantly higher on Conscientiousness, Extraversion and Emotional Stability. Overall, we found a Jensen Effect whereby most of the personality differences between the two groups could be attributed to the General Factor of Personality (GFP), which reflects the shared variance of lower-order personality traits. The GFP is assumed to reflect general social effectiveness.

  • 8. Fernandes, Heitor B. F.
    et al.
    Woodley, Michael A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Center Leo Apostel for Interdisciplinary Studies, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium.
    Strategic differentiation and integration among the 50 states of the USA2013In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 55, no 8, p. 1000-1002Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies demonstrate that individuals and populations (at the scale of nations) exhibiting slower life history (LH) speeds are more differentiated amongst themselves with respect to the components of life history. Faster life history individuals and populations are more integrated by comparison. This phenomenon, termed strategic differentiation-integration effort (SD-IE), has not yet been tested on a national scale, however, which is an important remaining step in establishing its generalizability at different levels of aggregation among humans. SD-IE was tested with data on five LH variables from the fifty states of the US. Effects supportive of the SD-IE hypothesis were found in all LH variables, with an average effect magnitude slightly larger than that found in studies of SD-IE at the individual differences level. This is putatively attributed to population stratification, due to the varied racial make-up of the population in the US, including European, African, Native American, and Asian ancestries from multiple countries. This study indicates that SD-IE is a generalizable phenomenon occurring at various levels of aggregation.

  • 9.
    Forsman, Lea J.
    et al.
    Dept. Woman amd Child Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ullén, Fredrik
    Dept. Woman amd Child Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Neuroticism is correlated with drift in serial time interval production2009In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 229-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low neuroticism and high intelligence are both related to lower intertrial variability in reaction time tasks. However, intelligence and neuroticism are weakly related traits, which suggests that they may be related to different sources of timing variability. The relation between intelligence and timing variability has recently been investigated using isochronous serial interval production (ISIP). This is a simple, automatic timing task where participants first synchronize movements with an isochronous sound sequence and then continue with self-paced production of a sequence of intervals with the same inter-onset interval (IOI). For all IOIs, local interval-to-interval variability correlated strongest with intelligence. The purpose of the present study was to test whether neuroticism, in contrast, is related to the non-local component of ISIP variability, i.e. drift or gradual changes in response IOI. We found a significant correlation of r = 0.42 between drift and neuroticism, thereby confirming the hypothesis. We suggest that this finding reflects that individuals high on neuroticism have more frequent slips in top–down cognitive control mechanisms. These cognitive failures may in turn interfere with the processing of previously produced intervals in short-term memory, which gives an unstable IOI in the ISIP task, i.e. drift.

  • 10.
    Maitland, Scott B
    et al.
    Family Relations and Applied Nutrition, University of Guelph, ON, Canada .
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Bäckman, Lars
    Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    On the structure of personality: are there separate temperament and character factors?2009In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 180-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) is a widely used measure of psychobiological aspects of personality. Theoretically, the TCI is defined as comprising four temperament and three character factors. Most previous examinations of the factor structure have used exploratory factor methods with mixed results. We used confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) to examine the TCI in a sample of 2423 adults aged 35–90 years (1093 women, 1330 men) from the Betula study. Support for the seven TCI factors was mixed. Models including second-order factors provided no evidence that the seven first-order TCI factors reflect higher-order temperament and character constructs. Our findings provide no support that individual differences on the seven first-order TCI factors reflect distinct temperament or character dimensions of personality. Whereas more complex modeling strategies rejected separate character and temperament models, the simultaneous (seven-factor) model, and the use of second-order factors; the harm avoidance, self-directedness, and cooperativeness factors were acceptable examined individually. Results for novelty seeking were marginal and self-transcendence, reward dependence and/or persistence factors were not acceptable.

  • 11.
    Meisenberg, Gerhard
    et al.
    Ross University, School of Medicine, Picard Estate, Portsmouth, Dominica, West Indies.
    Woodley, Michael A.
    Ross University, School of Medicine, Picard Estate, Portsmouth, Dominica, West Indies.
    Global behavioral variation: a test of differential-K2012In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 55, no 3, Special Issue, p. 273-278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite Rushton’s path-breaking work into evolutionary forces affecting life history traits, not many attempts at operationalizing the differential-K spectrum at the level of countries or racial groups have been made so far. We report the construction of a “national K” factor from country-level behavioral variables. This K factor is closely related to country-level intelligence (“g”), operationalized by a composite score of IQ and scholastic achievement. We further demonstrate relationships of both g and K with measures of current environment and hypothesized evolutionary antecedents. Whereas K is predicted most powerfully by intelligence, log-transformed GDP (lgGDP) and skin reflectance, g is predicted by skin reflectance, lgGDP, cranial capacity, and a measure of evolutionary novelty.

  • 12.
    Miklikowska, Marta
    Åbo Akademi University, Developmental Psychology, Vaasa, Finland.
    Psychological underpinnings of democracy: empathy, authoritarianism, self-esteem, interpersonal trust, normative identity style, and openness to experience as predictors of support for democratic values2012In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 53, no 5, p. 603-608Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the role of individual differences for political attitudes is undisputed, the psychological deter-minants of support for democratic values received limited attention. This study aimed at incorporating a variety of measures of stable individual differences and determining their relative effect on support for democratic values as well as at testing a new predictor, i.e. normative identity style. The analysis of a sur-vey in a sample of middle adolescents (N = 1341; 16–17 year olds) showed that (a) right-wing authoritar-ianism, interpersonal trust, normative identity style, and empathy were good predictors of support for democratic values, (b) empathy and authoritarianism were the strongest predictors of democratic com-mitments, and that (c) self-esteem was not related to support for democratic values.

  • 13.
    Mosing, Miriam A.
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurosci, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Magnusson, Patrik K. E.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nakamura, Jeanne
    Claremont Grad Univ, Qual Life Res Ctr, Claremont, CA USA.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ullen, Fredrik
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurosci, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Heritability of proneness for psychological flow experiences2012In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 53, no 5, p. 699-704Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flow is a subjective experience of high but effortless attention, loss of self-awareness, control, and enjoyment that can occur during active performance of challenging tasks. Proneness to experience flow is associated with personality, specifically with low neuroticism and high conscientiousness. We investigated genetic and non-genetic influences on flow proneness in 444 adult twin pairs. Data were collected using an on-line administration of the Swedish Flow Proneness Questionnaire, which includes separate scales for flow proneness in three major domains of life: work, maintenance, and leisure. We found moderate (.29-.35) heritabilities for the flow scales. Twin correlations as well as multivariate modeling suggested non-additive genetic influences. Genetic influences were almost entirely shared for the three flow scales and genetic correlations between the scales were very high (.81-.97), suggesting that the same genes influence flow proneness independently of domain. Non-shared environmental influences, in contrast, were largely specific to each flow scale. We conclude that an individual's general proneness to experience flow is influenced by the same genetic factors regardless of domain, and these may be associated with personality traits that are conducive to flow. In addition, specific environmental factors appear to be of importance for within-individual differences in flow proneness in different domains. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 14.
    Ullén, Fredrik
    et al.
    Dept. of Women’s and Children’s Health and Stockholm Brain Institute, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    de Manzano, Örjan
    Dept. of Women’s and Children’s Health and Stockholm Brain Institute, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Almeida, Rita
    Dept. of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Magnusson, Patrik KE
    Dept. of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Pedersen, Nancy L
    Dept. of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Nakamura, Jeanne
    Quality of Life Research Center, Claremont Graduate University, CA, USA.
    Csíkszentmihályi, Mihály
    Quality of Life Research Center, Claremont Graduate University, CA, USA.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Proneness for psychological flow in everyday life: associations with personality and intelligence2012In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 167-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flow is an experience of enjoyment, concentration, and low self-awareness that occurs during active task performance. We investigated associations between the tendency to experience flow (flow proneness), Big Five personality traits and intelligence in two samples. We hypothesized a negative relation between flow proneness and neuroticism, since negative affect could interfere with the affective component of flow. Secondly, since sustained attention is a component of flow, we tested whether flow proneness is positively related to intelligence. Sample 1 included 137 individuals who completed tests for flow proneness, intelligence, and Big Five personality. In Sample 2 (all twins; n= 2539), flow proneness and intelligence, but not personality, were measured. As hypothesized, we found a negative correlation between flow proneness and neuroticism in Sample 1. Additional exploratory analyses revealed a positive association between flow proneness and conscientiousness. There was no correlation between flow proneness and intelligence. Although significant for some comparisons, associations between intelligence and flow proneness were also very weak in Sample 2. We conclude that flow proneness is associated with personality rather than intelligence, and discuss that flow may be a state of effortless attention that relies on different mechanisms from those involved in attention during mental effort.

  • 15.
    Ullén, Fredrik
    et al.
    Dept. of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Mosing, Miriam A.
    Dept. of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Holm, Linus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eriksson, Helene
    Dept. of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Psychometric properties and heritability of a new online testfor musicality, the Swedish Musical Discrimination Test2014In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 63, p. 87-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine, in 6881 twin individuals, the psychometric properties of a new test (the Swedish Musical Discrimination Test, SMDT) that was developed to tap auditory discrimination of musical stimuli. The SMDT consists of three subtests measuring discrimination of melodies, rhythms, and single pitches, respectively. Mean test taking times for the subtests were 3.0–4.6 min. Reliability and internal consistency were good with Cronbach’s alpha values and Spearman–Brown split-half reliabilities between .79 and .89. Subtests correlated positively (r values .27–.41). Criterion validity was demonstrated in three ways: individuals that had played a musical instrument scored higher than individuals that had not (Cohen’s d .38–.63); individuals that had taken music lessons scored higher than individuals that had not (Cohen’s d .35–.60); finally, total hours of musical training and SMDT scores correlated (r values .14–.28) among those participants that had played an instrument. Lastly, twin modelling revealed moderate heritability estimates for the three sub-scales. We conclude that the SMDT has good psychometric characteristics, short test taking time, and may serve as a useful complement to existing tests of musical ability.

  • 16.
    Woodley, Michael A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fernandes, Heitor B. F.
    Strategic and cognitive differentiation-integration effort in a study of 76 countries2014In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 57, p. 3-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The phenomena of strategic and cognitive differentiation and integration (SD-IE and CD-IE) amongst life history indicators and cognitive abilities as a function of level of latent life history speed have been robustly demonstrated in individual differences samples. Here we examine a cross-national sample (N = 76 nations) with respect to ten aggregate life history indicators (birth rate, infant mortality, skin reflectance, prevalence of STDs, overall life satisfaction, life expectancy, national IQ, cranial capacity, savings rate and crime rate), all of which share substantive common variance stemming from a K-Super factor which accounts for 66.6% of the variance amongst these indicators. All indicators became significantly less strongly correlated with the super factor as the level of K increased indicating the presence of robust SD-IE effects. A 'cognitive' factor comprised of the national IQ and cranial capacity variables also exhibited differentiation as a function of increasing levels of K, suggesting the presence of CD-IE also. Consistently with the findings of individual differences studies investigating SD-IE, the degree to which the indicators loaded on the K super-factor positively mediated their sensitivity to the effect.

  • 17.
    Woodley, Michael A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Center Leo Apostel for Interdisciplinary Studies, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium.
    Fernandes, Heitor B.F.
    Institutes of Psychology and Genetics, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Strategic differentiation - integration effort amongst the 47 prefectures of Japan2014In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 63, p. 64-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The strategic differentiation–integration effort (SD–IE) hypothesis holds that high-K (slow life history) individuals and populations are specialists with respect to domains of behavior and personality, and that the converse is true for low-K populations. Here, we examine SD–IE at the national level, amongst the 47 prefectures of Japan. Aggregate data on height, IQ, divorce, homicide rates, skin reflectance, fertility rates, income and infant mortality were used as life history indicators. Principal Axis Factor analysis revealed the presence of a K super-factor on which the first five of these loaded preferentially. A second factor loaded highly on income and fertility and a third on infant mortality. As Japan is among the highest-K countries, the extraction of three factors indicates strong underlying SD–IE. Amongst the five K super-factor variables, SD–IE confirmatory effects were recovered on all variables except IQ. The effect magnitudes were positively mediated by the K super-factor saturation of the indicators. We conclude that SD–IE appears to be highly general across different populations and measures of life-history traits. Finally, we discuss how the second and third factors appear to conform to recent social phenomena specific to the Japanese culture, namely increasing behavioral asexuality and high-quality universal health coverage.

  • 18. Woodley, Michael A.
    et al.
    Figueredo, Aurelio Jose
    Dunkel, Curtis S.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Estimating the strength of genetic selection against heritable g in a sample of 3520 Americans, sourced from MIDUS II2015In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 86, p. 266-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between IQ and completed fertility among a sample of 3520 Americans from MIDUS II (1960's birth cohorts) is examined using a common factor comprised of eight cognitive ability measures, in order to determine the rate of phenotypic IQ loss due to genetic selection. Negative correlations are present in both the male and female subsamples, and are associated with a predicted loss in heritable g (g.h) of -.262 points per decade, increasing to -1.072 points when the additive effect of mutation accumulation is considered. The ability-fertility associations showed Jensen effects at the level of the whole sample (.167), and also separately for each sex (.185 and .147 for the females and males respectively). The magnitude of the expected g.h loss in this cohort due to selection is comparable to that derived from a meta-analysis of disattenuated decadal g.h declines from eight US studies (-.44 points per decade; N = 127,389). There is a Flynn effect in the US amounting to gains of 3.6 points per decade, which are concentrated on more environmentally plastic and specialized sources of ability variance (se) suggesting co-occurrent socio-ecological specialization with respect to narrower cognitive abilities in the present cohort.

  • 19.
    Woodley, Michael A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Establishing an association between the Flynn effect and ability differentiation2013In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 55, no 4, p. 387-390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between the Flynn effect and ability differentiation is investigated in a reanalysis of published data on Estonian student cohorts tested in 1933/36, 1997/98 and 2006 on the National Intelligence Test (Must, te Nijenhuis, Must, & van Vianen, 2009). To determine whether there was a relationship we computed the vector correlation between the Flynn effects (d) and the change in the g loading (Delta g) between measurement occasions for each of the 10 NIT subtests and for each of the seven cohort comparisons, giving a total N of 70 effect sizes. The association between d and Delta g was robustly negative (indicating that the Flynn effects were negatively associated with changes in the g loading of subtests) for all cohort comparisons, with values of r ranging from -.100 to -.461 (N = 10). When all effect sizes were analyzed together, the vector correlation was found to be -.281 (p <= .05, N = 70). This indicates a significant association between the Flynn effect and ability differentiation. Possible causes of this association are discussed.

  • 20.
    Woodley, Michael A
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Meisenberg, Gerhard
    In the Netherlands the anti-Flynn effect is a Jensen effect2013In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 54, no 8, p. 871-876Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, 63 observations of secular IQ changes (both Flynn and anti-Flynn effects) are collected from three demographically diverse studies of the Dutch population for the period 1975-2005 (representing the 1950-1990 birth cohorts), along with data on g loadings and subtest reliabilities. The method of correlated vectors is used to explore the association between Flynn and anti-Flynn effect magnitudes, both independently and together, and the g loadings of subtests. Despite a positive vector correlation the Flynn effects are not associated with the Jensen effect (r=.307, ns, N=36), however the anti-Flynn effects are (r=.406, P=.05, N=27). Combined, the vector correlation becomes negative but non-significant (r=-.111, ns, N=63). Declines due to the anti-Flynn effect are estimated at -4.515 points per decade, whereas gains due to the Flynn effect are estimated at 2.175 points per decade. The N-weighted net of these is a loss of -1.350 points per decade, suggesting an overall tendency towards decreasing IQ in the Netherlands with respect to these cohorts. The Jensen effect on the anti-Flynn effect suggests that it may be related to bio-demographic changes within the Netherlands which have reduced 'genetic-g', despite the presence of large, parallel gains on subtests that may be relatively more sensitive to cultural-environmental improvements. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 21.
    Woodley of Menie, Michael A
    et al.
    Belgium.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The association between g and K in a sample of 4246 Swedish twins: a behavior genetic analysis2015In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 74, p. 270-274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whereas the heritability of general intelligence (g) is very well documented, there are relatively few reports of the heritability of life history speed (K). Moreover, the correlation between g and K is of great theoretical significance. Here, we examine the heritabilities of g and K in a sample of 2123 complete Swedish twin pairs, as well as looking for evidence of common genetic variance between the two. We find a significant albeit very small correlation between relatively strong measures of g (the Wiener Matrizen Test) and K (the Mini-K; r = .03, p < .05). Controlling for attenuation by reliabilities and imperfect validity using validity generalization increased the correlation to rho = .05 (p < .05). There was no significant common additivity between g and K, however path elimination in behavior genetic structural equations modeling suggests that the small common variance is nonetheless likely to stem from shared additive genetic influences rather than from environmental influences. The implications of this are discussed. Our new estimate of the heritability of the life history in the Swedish population is a particularly significant result, as the heritability of life history speed has never before been established in non-US samples.

  • 22.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Exploring multiple concepts of psychological time in relation to anxiety2014In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 60, p. S11-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Time is a central part of human experience. Different timing functions are vital for adequate behavioral outcomes, and individual differences in time perspective can be associated with both well-being and mental distress.The aim of this study is to discuss several aspects of temporal processing in relation to anxiety. Specifically, our findings suggest that moderate anxiety is associated with systematic biases in Future Negative- and Past Negative time perspectives. Further, in exploring the possible underlying mechanisms that mediate time perspective in anxiety, preliminary data on the relationship between aspects of cognitive control (inhibition), time perspective and anxiety will be presented. The findings will be discussed according to their clinical and theoretical implications.

1 - 22 of 22
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