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  • 1. Brandstrom, Sven
    et al.
    Przybeck, Thomas R.
    Sigvardsson, Sören
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Reliability of informant ratings and spouse similarity based on the temperament and character inventory2011In: Psychological Reports, ISSN 0033-2941, E-ISSN 1558-691X, Vol. 109, no 1, p. 231-242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A cohort of 136 Swedish spouse pairs rated themselves and each other with the Temperament and Character Inventory. The data allowed assessment of the reliability of ratings by knowledgeable informants compared to self-rating for this personality test. The reliability of the informant rating was in the expected range, with an average correlation of .58. Agreement was slightly higher for the Temperament dimensions than for the Character dimensions. Additionally, the design allowed evaluation of the similarity between husbands and wives across the seven dimensions measured by the TCI. Correlations between spouses in self-reports were very low for Temperament, with only Harm Avoidance having a statistically significant correlation (.22, p < .05). On the other hand, all three Character dimensions were significantly correlated. These results support the conceptualization of Temperament and Character as separate components of personality. The results are consistent with previous reports on the personality of spouse pairs.

  • 2.
    du Preez, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Department of psychology, Pretoria University, South Africa.
    Cassimjee, Nafisa
    Department of psychology, Pretoria University, South Africa.
    Ghazinour, Seyedmehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Lauritz, Lars Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Basic training programme for Police Officers.
    Richter, Jörg
    Centre for Child and Adolescent Mental Health Eastern and Southern Norway, Oslo, Norway.
    Personality of South African police trainees2009In: Psychological Reports, ISSN 0033-2941, E-ISSN 1558-691X, ISSN 0033-2941, Vol. 105, no 2, p. 539-553Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There have been efforts to identify a "police personality" based on dispositional and socialization models. Personality traits of successful police applicants at the Police College in Pretoria, South Africa (N=1,145 police trainees), with regard to sex, ethnic group, and English language reading skills, were described in terms of scores on the Temperament and Character Inventory. South African police trainees generally evaluated themselves as substantially lower in Novelty Seeking and Harm Avoidance combined with lower Cooperativeness, but they scored much higher on SeIf-Directedness, Persistence, and Self-Transcendence compared to South African university students from the same area. These are characteristics expected from future police officers, which supports the dispositional model.

  • 3. du Preez, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Cassimjee, Nafisa
    Lauritz, Lars Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Basic training programme for Police Officers.
    Ghazinour, Seyedmehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Richter, Jörg
    Personality and mental health: An investigation of South African police trainees2011In: Psychological Reports, ISSN 0033-2941, E-ISSN 1558-691X, ISSN 0033-2941, Vol. 108, no 1, p. 301-316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between personality and mental health was investigated in one cohort of police trainees at a South African police academy (1,145 police recruits; 648 men, 497 women). Male trainees reported less somatisation, depression, anxiety, and phobic anxiety symptoms and lower harm avoidance as well as higher persistence than female trainees. A cluster analysis based on the personality scores was used to identify three clusters with personality profiles characterized as Vulnerable, Healthy, and Intermediate profiles. Sociodemographic variables and temperament and character domain scores contributed separately and differentially to the explanation of variance in mental health symptom scores. Selection tools should be developed to identify vulnerable individuals in terms of personality characteristics during selection and prior to training, to prevent later problems with stress reactions. Additional training modules focusing on coping skills could possibly reduce vulnerability to stress in some trainees.

  • 4. Henriksson, Jessica
    et al.
    Waasara, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Effects of Eight-Week-Web-Based Mindfulness Training on Pain Intensity, Pain Acceptance, and Life Satisfaction in Individuals With Chronic Pain2016In: Psychological Reports, ISSN 0033-2941, E-ISSN 1558-691X, Vol. 119, no 3, p. 586-607Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the effects of an eight-week-web-based mindfulness programdesigned for individuals with chronic pain. A sample of 107 participants with chronicpain (M¼51.0 years, SD¼9.3) were randomly assigned to a treatment group and acontrol group. The mindfulness program involved 20 minutes of training per day, sixdays a week, for eight weeks. During this period, the control group was invited to anonline discussion forum involving pain-related topics. A total of 77 participantscompleted the postintervention assessment (n¼36 in the treatment group, n¼41in the control group). The group assigned to mindfulness training showed increasedmindfulness skills (Cohen’s d¼1.18), reduced pain intensity (d¼0.47–0.82), reducedpain-related interference/suffering (d¼0.39–0.85), heightened pain acceptance(d¼0.66), reduced affective distress (d¼0.67), and higher ratings of life satisfaction(d¼0.54) following the training with no or minor changes up for the control group(d values 0.01–0.23), a pattern substantiated by significant group-by-time interactions.Despite limitations of this study, including a less than ideal control groupto isolate effects of mindfulness and lack of a long-term follow-up, the results appearpromising and may motivate further investigations.

  • 5.
    Richter, Jörg
    et al.
    Centres of Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Regions East and South, Oslo, Norway.
    Brändström, Sven
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Emami, Habib
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    An Iranian (Farsi) version of the temperament and character inventory: a cross-cultural comparison2007In: Psychological Reports, ISSN 0033-2941, E-ISSN 1558-691X, Vol. 100, no 3 Pt 2, p. 1218-1228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Temperament and Character Inventory is a widely used personality questionnaire. It was developed to measure the four temperament dimensions of Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance, Reward Dependence, and Persistence, as well as three character dimensions, such as Self-directedness, Cooperativeness, and Self-transcendence, described in Cloninger's unified biosocial theory of personality. In a sample of 300 Germans, 300 Swedes, and 316 Iranian subjects, a factorial structure analysis using the Procrustes rotation method showed the structure of personality to be generally equivalent across cultures. Noteworthy cultural differences between the overall Asian and European subjects reflected by the data were observed in various Temperament and Character dimensions. Seemingly, there are cultural differences in the expression of the various personality facets that require a replacement of many items in the Iranian version. The Temperament and Character Inventory is sensitive to age, sex, and cultural differences in personality.

  • 6.
    Semb, Olof
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Strömsten, Lotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Sundbom, Elisabet
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Fransson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Henningsson, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Distress after a single violent crime: how shame-proneness and event-related shame work together as risk factors for post-victimization symptoms2011In: Psychological Reports, ISSN 0033-2941, E-ISSN 1558-691X, Vol. 109, no 1, p. 3-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To increase understanding of post-victimization symptom development, the present study investigated the role of shame- and guilt-proneness and event-related shame and guilt as potential risk factors. 35 individuals (M age = 31.7 yr.; 48.5% women), recently victimized by a single event of severe violent crime, were assessed regarding shame- and guilt-proneness, event-related shame and guilt, and post-victimization symptoms. The mediating role of event-related shame was investigated with structural equation modeling (SEM), using bootstrapping. The guilt measures were unrelated to each other and to post-victimization symptoms. The shame measures were highly intercorrelated and were both positively correlated to more severe post-victimization symptom levels. Event-related shame as mediator between shame-proneness and post-victimization symptoms was demonstrated by prevalent significant indirect effects. Both shame measures are potent risk factors for distress after victimization, whereby part of the effect of shame-proneness on post-victimization symptoms is explained by event-related shame.

  • 7. Sundbom, Elisabet
    et al.
    Henningsson, Mikael
    Holm, Ulla
    Söderbergh, S
    Evengård, B
    Possible influence of defenses and negative life events on patients with chronic fatigue syndrome: A pilot study.2002In: Psychological Reports, ISSN 0033-2941, E-ISSN 1558-691X, no 91, p. 963-978Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8. Sundbom, Elisabet
    et al.
    Jacobsson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Kullgren, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Penayo, Ulises
    Personality and defenses: a cross-cultural study of psychiatric patients and healthy individuals in Nicaragua and Sweden.1998In: Psychological Reports, ISSN 0033-2941, E-ISSN 1558-691X, Vol. 83, no 3 Pt 2, p. 1331-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined cross-cultural variability in personality and defenses among Nicaraguan and Swedish healthy individuals, patients with borderline personality disorder and schizophrenic disorders by means of the projective perceptual Defense Mechanism Test. The over-all aim was to test the hypothesis proposed by Anthony Marsella of 'severity related cross-cultural variability' suggesting that differences in symptom profile or personality patterns between cultures are most pronounced among healthy individuals and less so among individuals with severe mental disorders as they are perceived as more universal and less culturally determined. The over-all results showed that cross-cultural differences were in accordance with the proposed hypothesis. In addition, there were significant intracultural differences between the different diagnostic groups in both countries. The conclusion is that the Defense Mechanism Test and Partial Least Squares analysis seem to be powerful methods for personality assessment and potentially for cross-cultural research, and culture-specific norms in the Defense Mechanism Test must be employed.

  • 9.
    Wolming, Simon
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Lyrén, Per-Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Admission to university engineering programs: A multipurpose approach2004In: Psychological Reports, ISSN 0033-2941, E-ISSN 1558-691X, Vol. 94, p. 1125-1126Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Wolming, Simon
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Educational Measurement.
    Lyrén, Per-Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Educational Measurement.
    Admission to university engineering programs in Sweden: a multipurpose approach2004In: Psychological Reports, ISSN 0033-2941, E-ISSN 1558-691X, Vol. 94, no 3 suppl, p. 1125-1126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This brief article provides a description of some new ideas about admission of university engineering students in Sweden. The current system of admission is based on upper-secondary school grades and the Swedish Scholastic Assessment Test. These measures are used for admission to all higher education. For many reasons, ideas for a new admission model have been proposed. This model includes a sector-oriented admission test, which the universities are supposed to use for different purposes, such as selection, eligibility, diagnostics, and recruitment.

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