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  • 1.
    Armelius, Bengt-Åke
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundbom, Elisabet
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Kullgren, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Personality organization defined by DMT and the structural interview1990In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 81-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The psychoanalytic concept of Personality Organization (PO) may be operationalized by means of a Structural Interview as well as by means of psychological tests. The present study utilized the Structural Interview and a projective test called the Defence Mechanism Test (DMT) to operationalize the PO concept on a sample of 50 psychiatric inpatients. The reliability of the PO judgements were found to be acceptable for both the Structural Interview and the DMT. The validity, which was estimated as the correlation between the two methods, was also found to be substantial. The conclusion is that the concept of PO may be reliably operationalized for psychiatric patients and seems to have concurrent validity. Both the DMT and the Structural Interview may be used for differential diagnosis of PO.

  • 2.
    Bergdahl, Jan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Larsson, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Riklund Åhlström, Katrine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Treatment of chronic stress in employees: subjective, cognitive and neural correlates2005In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 46, no 5, p. 395-402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study reports the effect of an affect-focused intervention program, the Affect School, on stress, psychological symptoms, cognitive functioning and neural activity. Fifty employees in social service and education, with high levels of chronic stress, were randomly divided into a treatment (N= 27) and control (N= 23) group. Complete sets of data were available in 20 participants in the treatment group and 17 in the control group. The Perceived Stress Questionnaire assessed stress and the Symptom Check List-90 psychological symptoms before and after treatment. Episodic-memory functioning under focused and divided attention conditions was also assessed. Prior and after the Affect School, seven participants in the treatment group were studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during episodic memory processing. After the Affect School there was a reduction in stress and psychological symptoms for the treatment group but not in the control group. The controls showed a reduction in episodic memory functioning whereas the performance of the treatment group remained intact. The fMRI scanning indicated a qualitative change in the neural network subserving episodic memory. These preliminary results suggest that the Affect School is effective on individuals with high stress.

  • 3. Bergdahl, Maud
    et al.
    Habib, Reza
    Bergdahl, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Natural teeth and cognitive function in humans2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 48, no 6, p. 557-565Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of neurobiological, psychological and social factors may account for cognitive impairment. In animal studies a relation between dental status and cognitive performance has been found. It is unclear whether such a relation exists for humans. In a first step we compared the performance of 1,351 participants (53% women, 47% men; age M = 54.0) with natural teeth to 487 edentulous participants (59% women, 41% men; age M = 71.3) on 12 cognitive tests. The natural teeth group had a lower mean age, fewer women, more years of education, higher mini-mental state (MMSE), and performed significantly higher on several cognitive tests. In a subsequent analysis, the cognitive performance of a subset of the participants (50–85 years) was examined. In this analysis, 211 had natural dentition and 188 were edentulous. The groups were matched for gender, age, social variables, diseases, stress and MMSE. The cognitive disadvantage of the edentulous group was still apparent. The results suggest that functional natural teeth relate to relatively preserved cognitive functioning in older age.

  • 4.
    Fransson, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundbom, Elisabet
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Defense Mechanism Test (DMT) and Kernberg’s theory of personality organization related to adolescents in psychiatric care1997In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 95-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    75 adolescent psychiatric patients were diagnosed with the perceptual projective test the Defense Mechanism Test (DMT) and also according to Kernberg’s theory of personality organization (PO). The test protocols were scored in respect of 130DMT variables and analyzed by means of partial least squares (PLS) discriminant analysis. The objective was to try to separate the three types of PO, psychotic (PPO), borderline (BPO) and neurotic (NPO) by means of the DMT and also to compare the results with a similar study on adult psychiatric patients. The results showed that it is possible to separate significantly the three groups of PO. The BPO group seemed to be heterogeneous. The results were fairly similar to those obtained with adult psychiatric patients. The overall results supported the concurrent validity of Kernberg’s theory of PO and for the DMT as well. The DMT seems to be a useful diagnostic method in respect of adolescent psychiatric patients.

  • 5.
    Fransson, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundbom, Elisabet
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gender differences and the Defense Mechanism Test: A comparative study of adolescents in psychiatric care and healthy controls1998In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 93-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper was to study gender differences in the percept-genetic method Defense Mechanism Test (DMT) among a group of 60 adolescent subjects. Three subgroups were used: patients with psychotic disorders (Axis 1); borderline personality disorder (Axis 2) according to the DSM-IV classification system, and a non-patient group. The test protocols were scored with respect to 124 DMT variables and analyzed by means of the multivariate projection method Partial Least Squares (PLS) in latent structures. The overall results showed considerable gender differences in the whole group as well as in the subgroups. The most striking finding was that girls compared to boys were characterized by the perceptual defense identification with the opposite sex, which means that they perceived male gestalts instead of females in the stimulus picture. When both gender and diagnostic group membership were considered simultaneously, the influence of diagnostic group membership seemed to be stronger than gender even if there was an interaction between diagnoses and gender. It was concluded that gender must be considered when the DMT is used on adolescent populations.

  • 6.
    Gruber, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Palmquist, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Characteristics of perceived electromagnetic hypersensitivity in the general population2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 59, no 4, p. 422-427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Health problems evoked in the presence of electrical equipment is a concern, calling for better understanding for characteristics of electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) in the general population. The present study investigated demographics, lifestyle factors, frequency and duration, coping strategies, proportion meeting clinical criteria for intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields (EMF) and comorbidity. Using data from a large-scale population-based questionnaire study, we investigated persons with self-reported (n=91) EHS in comparison to referents (n=3,250). Middle age, female sex and poor perceived health was found to be associated with EHS. More than 50% in the EHS group reported having EMF-related symptoms more often than once a week, and the mean number of years experiencing EHS was 10.5. More than half of the EHS group reported that their symptoms started after a high-dose or long-term EMF exposure, that they actively tried to avoid EMF sources and that they mostly could affect the EMF environment. A minority of the EHS group had sought medical attention, been diagnosed by a physician or received treatment. Exhaustion syndrome, anxiety disorder, back/joint/muscle disorder, depression, functional somatic syndrome and migraine were comorbid with EHS. The results provide ground for future study of these characteristic features being risk factors for development of EHS and or consequences of EHS.

  • 7. Henningsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Sundbom, E
    Armelius, B-Å
    PLS model building: A multivariate approach to personality test data.2001In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, no 42, p. 399-409Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Holmström, Stefan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Molander, Bo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jansson, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Barnekow-Bergqvist, Margareta
    Centre for Musculoskeletal Research, Gävle University, Sweden.
    Evaluation of a Swedish version of the Job Stress Survey2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 277-286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study assesses and evaluates the psychometric properties of a Swedish version of the Job Stress Survey (JSS; Spielberger, 1991; Spielberger & Vagg, 1999). This instrument is constructed to measure generic sources of occupational stress encountered by employees in a wide variety of work settings, settings that often result in psychological strain. The JSS was administered to metal assembly industry workers and medical service personnel in northern Sweden (n= 1186). The exploratory factor analysis showed that there is a high similarity between the present Swedish version and the original American version. Internal reliabilities of the scales, as well as test-retest reliabilities were shown to be high, and concurrent validity, as examined by comparisons with the Perceived Stress Questionnaire Index ( Levenstein et al., 1993 ) was found to be satisfactory. The consistency of these findings is discussed with particular focus on groups of employees, gender, and cross-cultural evaluations.

  • 9. Jägerskog, Ann-Sofie
    et al.
    Jonsson, Fredrik U.
    Selander, Staffan
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Multimedia learning trumps retrieval practice in psychology teaching2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 60, no 3, p. 222-230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well established that studying with (vs. without) visual illustrations as well as taking tests (vs. restudying) is beneficial for learning, but on which strategy should one put the efforts, or should they be combined for best learning? Eighty-eight upper secondary school students were given a brief lecture presented verbally (6 classes) or with the aid of a visual illustration (visuoverbal, 6 classes). The information was processed again by taking a memory test or by restudying. Recall and transfer tests were conducted after some few minutes and again after one week. The visuoverbal lecture resulted in better learning than verbal presentation only. A significant study strategy by retention interval interaction was found. However, this interaction was not qualified by a testing effect. Hence, taking tests (retrieval practice) did not lead to better learning than restudying. It was concluded that it is worthwhile to use visual illustrations in teaching. However, the present study did not reveal any synergistic effects from the combination of visuoverbal presentation and retrieval practice.

  • 10. Karlsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Börjesson, Arne
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Primed word-fragment completion and successive memory test performance in normal aging.2003In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 355-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Young and old subjects were investigated to examine whether: the effects of priming are influenced by aging; there is independence between primed word-fragment completion and recognition performances; and the dependence between different tests is influenced by aging. A successive test paradigm was employed involving repeated assessment of to-be-remembered words by means of recognition and primed word-fragment completion. The results show that implicit memory declines with increasing age, and that correlations between different memory tests decrease with age. The outcome suggests that age-related memory decline involves several forms of memory, including primed word-fragment completion, and is reflected in correlations between measures of implicit and explicit memory.

  • 11. Kjellström, Sofia
    et al.
    Sjölander, Per
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Almers, Ellen
    Mccall, Mary E.
    Value systems among adolescents: Novel method for assessing level of ego-development2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 58, no 2, p. 150-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Children's value systems develop through youth and influence attitudes and actions. But there is a lack of appropriate measures for children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to construct and validate a questionnaire that reveals distinct value systems among adolescents, and to evaluate the identified value systems' relationship to degree of ego-development and moral development. A quantitative study in a Swedish School with ages 12 through 16 (grades 6 to 9) was performed (N = 204). A set of pattern recognition statistical analyses has been used to identify different profiles of values systems and demonstrate that these systems can be arranged in a hierarchical order similar to other development. Results revealed three value systems in this sample. The identified value systems reflect different degrees of moral and ego-development among children in the study. Three distinct value systems were identified: the first (n = 9) and the second value systems (n = 35) correspond to pre-conventional stages, and the third value system (n = 155) corresponds to early conventional stages of ego development. Ego development scoring of test statements to assess stages. The value system was significantly related to moral development in the personal interest and the maintaining norms schemas of the Defining Issues Test (DIT). However, many students did not complete the entire DIT, so those results should be looked at with caution. It appears that this new test (Test for Adolescent Value Systems - TAVS) does relate to an established ego development rating scale.

  • 12. Kubik, Veit
    et al.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Stockholm Brain Institute, Sweden; Karolinska Institutet, Aging Research Center, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Jonas K.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Effects of testing on subsequent re-encoding and long-term forgetting of action-relevant materials: On the influence of recall type2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 56, no 5, p. 475-481Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Testing one's memory of previously studied information reduces the rate of forgetting, compared to restudy. However, little is known about how this direct testing effect applies to action phrases (e.g., "wash the car") - a learning material relevant to everyday memory. As action phrases consist of two different components, a verb (e.g., "wash") and a noun (e.g., "car"), testing can either be implemented as noun-cued recall of verbs or verb-cued recall of nouns, which may differently affect later memory performance. In the present study, we investigated the effect of testing for these two recall types, using verbally encoded action phrases as learning materials. Results showed that repeated study-test practice, compared to repeated study-restudy practice, decreased the forgetting rate across 1 week to a similar degree for both noun-cued and verb-cued recall types. However, noun-cued recall of verbs initiated more new subsequent learning during the first restudy, compared to verb-cued recall of nouns. The study provides evidence that testing has benefits on both subsequent restudy and long-term retention of action-relevant materials, but that these benefits are differently expressed with testing via noun-cued versus verb-cued recall.

  • 13. Lindholm, Torun
    et al.
    Sjöberg, Rickard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Memon, Amina
    Misreporting signs of child abuse: The role of decision-making and outcome information2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two studies provided evidence that a decision to report an ambiguous case of child abuse affected subsequent memory of the case information, such that participants falsely recognized details that were not presented in the original information, but that are schematically associated with child abuse. Moreover, post-decision information that the child had later died from abuse influenced the memory reports of participants who had chosen not to report the case, increasing their reports of false schema-consistent details. This suggests that false decision-consistent memories are primarily due to sense-making, schematic processing rather than the motivation to justify the decision. The present findings points to an important mechanism by which decision information can become distorted in retrospect, and emphasize the difficulties of improving future decision-making by contemplating past decisions. The results also indicate that decisions may generate false memories in the apparent absence of external suggestion or misleading information. Implications for decision-making theory, and applied practices are discussed.

  • 14.
    Mousavi-Nasab, SM Hossein
    et al.
    Centre for Health and Medical Psychology, Department of Psychology, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Kormi-Nouri, Reza
    Centre for Health and Medical Psychology, Department of Psychology, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden and Stockholm Brain Institute, Sweden.
    The effects of marital status on episodic and semantic memory in healthy middle-aged and old individuals2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examined the influences of marital status on different episodic and semantic memory tasks. A total of 1882 adult men and women participated in a longitudinal project (Betula) on memory, health and aging. The participants were grouped into two age cohorts, 35–60 and 65–85, and studied over a period of 5 years. Episodic memory tasks concerned recognition and recall, whereas semantic memory tasks concerned knowledge and fluency. The results showed, after controlling for education, some diseases, chronological age and leisure activity as covariates, that there were significant differences between married and single individuals in episodic memory, but not in semantic memory. Married people showed significantly better memory performances than singles in both subsystems of episodic memory, that is, recall and recognition. Also, the rate of decline in episodic memory was significantly larger for singles and widowed than other groups over the 5-year time period in both age groups. The findings demonstrate that the positive relation found between marriage and health can be extended to the relation between marriage and cognitive performance. This effect might be explained by the role played by cognitive stimulation in memory and cognition.

  • 15.
    Ngaosuvan, Leonard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rewarded remembering: dissociations between self-rated motivation and memory performance2005In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 46, no 4, p. 323-330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    People often claim that they perform better in memory performance tasks when they are more motivated. However, past research has shown minimal effects of motivation on memory performance when factors contributing to item-specific biases during encoding and retrieval are taken into account. The purpose of the present study was to examine the generality of this apparent dissociation by using more sensitive measures of experienced motivation and memory performance. Extrinsic motivation was manipulated through competition instructions, and subjective ratings of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation were obtained before and after study instructions. Participants studied a series of words, and memory performance was assessed by content recall (Experiment 1) and source recall (Experiment 2). Both experiments showed dissociation between subjective ratings of extrinsic motivation and actual memory performance, so that competition increased self-rated extrinsic motivation but had no effects on memory performance, including source recall. Inconsistent with most people's expectations, the findings suggest that extrinsic motivation has minimal effects on memory performance.

  • 16.
    Nilsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Public Health Sciences.
    Stenlund, Hans
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Public Health Sciences.
    Weinehall, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Public Health Sciences.
    Bergström, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Public Health Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Janlert, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Public Health Sciences.
    “I would do anything for my child, even quit tobacco”: bonus effects from an intervention that target adolescent tobacco use2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 341-345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to assess program bonus effects on adult tobacco use from a long term intervention that targeted adolescent tobacco use. The school-based community intervention started in Västerbotten County in Sweden in 1993 and adults were invited to support adolescents to stay tobacco-free. It was combined with repeated cross-sectional surveys in schools annually 1994-1999 among grades 7-9 and after 1999 every second year. Participating schools were randomly selected before the first survey representing both rural and urban settings. Out of 4,055 students, 1,008 (24.8%) reported that their supporting adult had been a tobacco user who quit tobacco in order to be allowed to participate. Out of these, 13.2% used tobacco daily before joining. The remaining 2,997 students’ adult partners were not tobacco users. Engaging tobacco using adults as partners in interventions targeting adolescent tobacco use seem to have a considerable tobacco-reducing bonus effect in the adults.

  • 17.
    Nordin, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Psychometric evaluation and normative data of the Swedish version of the 10-item perceived stress scale2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 54, no 6, p. 502-507Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The perceived stress scale (PSS) has been translated to several languages and validated in many cultures. The longer 14-item version (PSS-14), has been translated to Swedish and validated for Swedish use. However, the Swedish version of the shorter 10-item version (PSS-10) has not been validated before. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the Swedish version of the PSS-10 with regard to reliability and validity, and to provide normative data. Data from 3,406 individuals who took part in the Vasterbotten Environmental Health Study in Sweden were used. The respondents constitute a random sample, aged 18 to 79years, and stratified for age and sex. They responded to the Swedish version of the PSS-10 as well as to the hospital anxiety and depression scale, and the Shirom Melamed burnout questionnaire for assessment of construct validity. The results show that the PSS-10 provides approximately normally distributed data, has good internal reliability (Cronbach's alpha 0.84), and has good construct validity with anxiety (r=0.68), depression (r=0.57), and mental/physical exhaustion (r=0.71). The favorable psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the PSS-10 suggest use of the instrument for assessing perceived stress in Swedish and similar populations.

  • 18.
    Nordin, Steven
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Broman, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bringlöv, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wulff, Marianne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Intolerance to ambient odors at an early stage of pregnancy2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 48, no 4, p. 339-343Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adverse reactions to ambient odorous and pungent substances in daily activities among pregnant women who are half-way through pregnancy, and changes in odor perception at predominantly an early stage of pregnancy motivated the present study of odor intolerance at an early pregnancy stage. Ninety-five women averaging gestational week 11 and 102 non-pregnant women were compared with the Chemical Sensitivity Scale for Sensory Hyperreactivity (CSS-SHR). General environmental intolerance was assessed with items from the Noise Sensitivity Scale that are analogous to the CSS-SHR (“NSS-SHR”). Pregnant women were found to have higher scores on the CSS-SHR, but not on the “NSS-SHR”. This suggests an odor intolerance that affects pregnant women's daily activities, which appears not to be due to a general environmental intolerance. The effect size of pregnancy on CSS-SHR score is larger in the present study of early pregnancy than in the previous study of women half-way through pregnancy.

  • 19.
    Nordin, Steven
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lidén, Edvard
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Örebro University Hospital, Sweden.
    Gidlöf-Gunnarsson, Anita
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy at Göterborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Development and evaluation of a category ratio scale with semantic descriptors: The environmental annoyance scale2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, no 50, p. 93-100Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Nordin, Steven
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Palmquist, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nordin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Psychometric evaluation and normative data for a Swedish version of the Patient Health Questionnaire 15-Item Somatic Symptom Severity Scale2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 54, no 2, p. 112-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The lack of an available Swedish version of the Patient Health Questionnaire 15-Item Somatic Symptom Severity Scale (PHQ-15) motivated the present psychometric evaluation of such a version as well as providing normative data for the PHQ-15. Data from 3,406 individuals who took part in the Vasterbotten Environmental Health Study in Sweden were used. The respondents constitute a random sample, aged 18 to 79years, stratified for age and sex. They responded to a Swedish translation of the PHQ-15 as well as the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Shirom Melamed Burnout Questionnaire for assessment of convergent validity. The distribution of PHQ-15 scores was positively skewed and mesokurtic in shape, and the internal consistency of the PHQ-15 was satisfactory. Correlation coefficients between PHQ-15 score and the measures of anxiety, depression, stress and mental/physical exhaustion indicate satisfactory validity. Normative data for PHQ-15 scores as well as for categories of somatic symptom severity are provided. The favorable psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the PHQ-15 suggest use of this instrument for quantification of somatization in Swedish and similar populations, and has the advantage of available normative data.

  • 21.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Cognitive control in the prefrontal cortex: a central or distributed executive?2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 59, no 1, p. 62-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive control is the foundation for attaining goals by flexible adaptation of action to changing environmental demands. It has been hypothesized to be critically dependent upon the prefrontal cortex (PFC). In this mini-review, evidence for domain-general versus domain-specific cognitive control is examined, with a particular focus on attention and memory. The reviewed studies examined different levels of cognitive control in relation to performance and patterns of brain activity, and a few included direct comparisons of cognitive-control modulations across cognitive domains. Within domains, increased demands on cognitive control consistently translated into increased PFC activity, but limited overlap in recruited PFC regions was observed between domains. It is concluded that the PFC supports multiple cognitive-control systems that collectively may be conceived of as a distributed executive.

  • 22.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Introduction to the special section on "cognitive control"2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 3-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Nyberg, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Dahlin, Erika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Stigsdotter Neely, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bäckman, Lars
    Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Neural correlates of variable working memory load across adult age and skill: dissociative patterns within the fronto-parietal network2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 41-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined neural changes related to variations in working memory load by using an n-back task with three levels and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Younger adults were divided into high- and low-performing groups (Young-High; Young-Low) and compared with older adults. Relative to Young-High, capacity-constraints in working memory were apparent between load 1-2 for the elderly and between load 2-3 for Young-Low. Capacity-constraints in neural activity followed this pattern by showing a monotonically increasing response in parietal cortex and thalamus for Young-High, whereas activity leveled off at 1-back for the elderly and at 2-back for Young-Low. The response in dorsal frontal cortex followed a similar pattern with the addition that the magnitude of activation differed within capacity limitations (Old > Young at 1-back; Young-Low > Young-High at 2-back). These findings indicate that an important determinant of WM capacity is the ability to keep the frontal cortex adequately engaged in relation to current task demands.

  • 24.
    Nyberg, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Salami, Alireza
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    The APOE epsilon 4 allele in relation to brain white-matter microstructure in adulthood and aging2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 55, no 3, p. 263-267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) epsilon 4 allele is a major genetic risk factor for sporadic Alzheimer's disease and has been associated with structural and functional brain alterations across the adult life span. Recent studies have presented evidence that epsilon 4 affects microstructural properties of brain white matter (WM) in non-demented carriers of the epsilon 4 allele, but conflicting evidence has been presented as well. The main purpose of the present study was therefore to examine ApoE effects on WM in a large sample of middle-aged and older adults (N=273). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data was acquired, and tract-based as well as voxel-wise analyses were conducted. The tract-based analyses revealed no significant ApoE effects, and no significant interactions between genotype and age were observed. Taken together, the findings of the present study suggest that ApoE effects on white-matter microstructure are less abundant than has been suggested in some previous studies.

  • 25.
    Olofsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ericsson, Eva
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Psychology, San Diego State University, San Diego, USA.
    Comparison of chemosensory, auditory and visual event-related potential amplitudes2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 49, p. 2231-237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To enhance understanding of neuropsychological processing underlying chemosensory event‐related potentials (CSERPs), the objective of the present study was to compare CSERPs with auditory (AERPs) and visual event‐related potentials (VERPs), and to approach the question of similarities in neuropsychological processing by means of correlation and cluster analyses. A multisensory ERP protocol was used, in which olfactory/chemosomatosensory (pyridine), auditory (1000‐Hz tone) and visual (white circle) stimuli were presented in a pseudo‐randomized sequence to 18 young, healthy adults. The results show (1) a morphological relation between P2 and P3 components that is different for the chemosensory than for the auditory and visual modalities, (2) a relatively weak association between the chemosensory and auditory/visual modalities for P3 in terms of both correlation and cluster, and (3) a P2/P3 cluster for the chemosensory but not auditory or visual modality. This supports the claim that the chemosensory P2 and P3 components reflect similar neuropsychological processes.

  • 26.
    Olsson, Carl-Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Internal imagery training in active high jumpers2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 133-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this study was to examine whether the use of internal imagery would affect high jumping performance for active high jumping athletes. Over a period of six weeks, a group of active high jumpers were trained with an internal imagery program for a total of 72 minutes. This group was compared to a control group consisting of active high jumpers that only maintained their regular work-outs during the same time period. Four variables were measured; jumping height, number of failed attempts, take-off angle, and bar clearance. There was a significant improvement on bar clearance for the group that trained imagery (p < 0.05) but not for the control group. No other differences were found. The results suggest that internal imagery training may be used to improve a component of a complex motor skill. Possible explanations and future recommendations are discussed.

  • 27.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    The Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ): Factorial structure, relations to global subjective memory ratings, and Swedish norms2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 11-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The factorial structure of the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ; Smith et al., 2000) was examined in a Swedish population based sample (N= 540, age range; 35–90 years). Concurrent validity was assessed by relating PRMQ to global ratings of memory. Confirmatory factor analyses of the PRMQ items indicated a superior fit of a three-factor model, with prospective and retrospective memory as orthogonal factors and episodic memory as a common factor. Furthermore, the PRMQ scales correlated with the global ratings of memory, suggesting that each rating contributed with unique variance in predicting PRMQ scores. Given differences in levels of complaints as compared with prior research (Crawford et al., 2003) norms for the Swedish version are provided. In conclusion, the present findings extend earlier work by providing additional support for the construct and concurrent validity of the PRMQ scales.

  • 28.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Vestergren, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Bergdahl, Maud
    Bergdahl, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Clinical Dentistry, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Dimensionality of stress experiences: Factorial structure of the Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ) in a population-based Swedish sample2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 56, no 5, p. 592-598Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the factorial structure of the Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ-recent; Levenstein, Prantera, Varvo et al., 1993) in a large (N = 1516; 35-95 years) population-based Swedish sample (Nilsson, Adolfsson, Backman et al., 2004; Nilsson, Backman, Erngrund et al., 1997). Exploratory principal components analysis (PCA) was conducted on a first, randomly drawn subsample (n = 506). Next, the model based on the PCA was tested in a second sample (n = 505). Finally, a third sample (n = 505) was used to cross-validate the model. Five components were extracted in the PCA (eigenvalue > 1) and labeled "Demands," "Worries/Tension," " Lack of joy," " Conflict," and " Fatigue," respectively. Twenty-one out of the 30 original PSQ items were retained in a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) model that included the five (first-order) factors and, additionally, a general (second-order) stress factor, not considered in prior models. The model showed reasonable goodness of fit [chi(2)(184) = 511.2, p < 0.001; CFI = 0.904; RMSEA = 0.059; and SRMR = 0.063]. Multigroup confirmatory factor analyses supported the validity of the established model. The results are discussed in relation to prior investigations of the factorial structure of the PSQ.

  • 29.
    Sandström, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Peterson, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Sandström, Erik
    Anesthesia and Intensive care, Östersund, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rhodin Nyström, Ingalill
    Quranten Stress and Trauma Institute, Umeå, Sweden.
    Olsson, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Cognitive deficits in relation to personality type and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction in women with stress-related exhaustion2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 52, no 1, p. 71-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exhaustion caused by long-term work-related stress may cause cognitive dysfunction. We explored factors that may link chronic stress and cognitive impairment. Personality, psychiatric screening, and behavior were assessed by self-reporting measures in 20 female patients (mean age 39.3 years; range 26–53) with a preliminary diagnosis of stress-related exhaustion and in 16 healthy matched controls. Cognitive performance was investigated with a detailed neuropsychological test battery. Cortisol axis function was assessed by urinary and saliva collections of cortisol, dexamethasone suppression, Synacthen response, and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) tests. Proinflammatory cytokines were measured. Hippocampal volumes were estimated by magnetic resonance imaging. Multivariate and univariate statistical methods were used to explore putative differences between groups and factors linked to cognitive impairment. Cognitive function clearly differed between groups, with decreased attention and visuospatial memory in the patient group, suggesting frontal cortex/medial temporal cortex-network dysfunction. Increased harm avoidance and persistence was present among patients, with lowered self-directedness linked to lower quality of life, increased anxious and depressive tendencies, and experiences of psychosocial stress. Attention was decreased with concomitantly impaired visuospatial memory. The pituitary (adrenocorticotropic hormone, ACTH) response to CRH was decreased in patients, with an increased cortisol/ACTH response to CRH. However, cortisol production rates, diurnal or dexamethasone-suppressed saliva cortisol levels, and the cortisol response to Synacthen were unaltered. Hippocampal volumes did not differ between groups. These findings suggest that cognitive dysfunction in stress-related exhaustion is linked to distinct personality traits, low quality of life, and a decreased ACTH response to CRH.

  • 30. Savelsbergh, Geert
    et al.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The coupling of head, reach and grasp movement in ninemonths old infant prehension1997In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 325-333Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 9-month-old-infants adjustments in the reaching pattern to sudden changes in object location were examined. An attractive ball was presented to the infants at their midline and on some trials (perturbation trials) the ball suddenly changed position 15 cm to the right or left during the reach. For the perturbed trials the movement times approximately doubled compared to the control trials and significantly fewer balls were grasped. The results indicate that infants need to finish the first movement before being able to redirect the reach to a new destination. The correlation between the latency of the head and hand adjustment to the perturbation were 0.85 and 0.78 for movements to the left and to the right, respectively, indicating a tight coupling. The time between the start of the perturbation and peak velocity(TPPV) was significantly shorter for the head movement than for the hand movement, indicating that the head is leading the hand.

  • 31.
    Sjöberg, Richard L
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Blomstedt, Patric
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    The psychological neuroscience of depression: implications for understanding effects of deep brain stimulation2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 52, no 5, p. 411-419Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article it is suggested that current psychological theories of depression presuppose that this condition will develop as a result of a vicious circle involving negatively biased communication between systems of emotional stress-/alarm-signaling, executive functions and mood regulation. These systems may from a neuroanatomical point of view be located in the limbic system, the orbitofrontal and lateral prefrontal cortex and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA-) axis respectively. The theoretical and practical implications of this model for the understanding of pharmacological treatments of depression are briefly discussed and this theory is related to the catecholamine hypothesis of depression. The model is furthermore discussed in relation to deep brain stimulation (DBS) of treatment resistant major depression. Similarities and differences between this perspective and the one advocated by the "homeostatic theory" of depression are discussed. It is concluded that a topographical psychological theory may offer a useful heuristic in thinking about depression and that it offers several testable predictions about treatments of the disorder.

  • 32.
    Strömsten, Lotta MJ
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Henningsson, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Holm, Ulla
    Department of Education, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sundbom, Elisabet
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Assessment of self-conscious emotions: a Swedish psychometric and structure evaluation of the test of self-conscious affect (TOSCA)2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 71-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Test of Self-Conscious Affect (TOSCA) is a well-established scenario-based questionnaire assessing self-conscious emotions, such as shame and guilt, which have been shown to be differentially associated with a variety of functional, motivational, behavioral and health outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties and internal structure of a Swedish version of TOSCA in a sample of 361 healthy adults. The psychometric properties and internal consistency of the Swedish version were at level with the original US TOSCA version for shame, guilt and detachment. The internal structure of the Swedish version was acceptable for shame, guilt and detachment but contained shortcomings in assessment of externalization.

  • 33.
    Söderfjell, Stefan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Molander, Bo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Johansson, Håkan
    Barnekow-Bergkvist, Margareta
    Center for Musculoskeletal Research, Gävle University, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholms universitet. Psykologiska institutionen .
    Musculoskeletal pain complaints and performance on cognitive tasks over the adult life span2006In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 47, no 5, p. 349-359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study aimed at comparing participants with and without self reported musculoskeletal pain in a normal population with regard to performance on a range of tests for episodic memory, semantic memory, and other cognitive functions and to see if expected differences interacted with age. The results showed that participants with pain performed worse on a range of tasks as compared to participants without pain, and that these differences occurred regardless of age. The most robust effects of pain were displayed on tests for vocabulary and construction ability as these were the only effects that remained significant after controlling for years of education and reported depression in separate analyses. When depression and education were controlled for in the same analysis, even these effects were eliminated, suggesting interplay between pain, depressive status, and educational level in the negative effects on cognitive functioning.

  • 34.
    Söderholm, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Öhman, Ann
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Stenberg, Berndt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Experience of living with nonspecific building-related symptoms2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 57, no 5, p. 406-412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nonspecific building-related symptoms (NBRS) is a combination of general, skin and mucosal symptoms related to certain buildings. Despite high prevalence in the general population and severe symptomatology in certain cases there is no scientific documentation of quality of life in NBRS. The purpose of this study was to illuminate how individuals with NBRS experience daily life. Data were collected through descriptive, written texts and through telephone interviews with 11 individuals diagnosed with NBRS, and qualitative content analysis was conducted. Three main content areas were identified: (1) attitudes from the surrounding (categories: being questioned and lack of understanding from others; from zero to full support); (2) consequences (difficulties with daily activities; financial difficulties; affecting family and friends; emotional consequences); and (3) coping (learning to accept and finding solutions; avoiding; struggling; finding the positive; making one's home a sanctuary). As a conclusion, NBRS may affect several aspects of daily life, resulting in considerable alterations, limitations and emotional impact for the afflicted person and his/her family. Both environmental factors and attitudes from the surrounding can contribute to this impact on daily life. Strategies needed to cope with this impact may include both problem-focused and emotion-focused strategies, such as struggling, avoiding trigger factors and finding positive aspects.

  • 35.
    Vestergren, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University and Stockholm Brain Institute, Sweden.
    Development of the cognitive dysfunction questionnaire (CDQ) in a population based sample2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 52, no 3, p. 218-228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study reports on the development of a questionnaire for assessment of adult cognitive dysfunction (CDQ). Participants in a population-based sample(65 ± 15 years, N = 370) responded to a 90-item pilot version covering multiple aspects of memory/cognition. Based on exploratory principal components analyses and correlations with criterion measures of cognitive functioning (MMSE, Block Design, semantic/episodic memory), 20 items loading on 6 components were selected for the final version of the questionnaire. Cronbach’s a for the total score was 0.90. There was evidence of construct validity as judged by correlations between CDQ scores, objective cognitive measures, and a subjective memory measure (PRMQ). Discriminant validity was demonstrated by a low and non-significant correlation with depressive symptoms. Further evidence of construct validity was provided by correlations with age and educational attainment. In conclusion, the CDQ is promising as a self-rating screening tool for cognitive dysfunction, and will be the subject of further development and validation.

  • 36.
    Vestergren, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University and Stockholm Brain Institute, Sweden.
    Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis of the cognitive dysfunction questionnaire: instrument refinement and measurement invariance across age and sex2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 53, no 5, p. 390-400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study adopted CFA to investigate the factorial structure and reduce the number of items of the Cognitive Dysfunction Questionnaire (CDQ; Vestergren, Rönnlund, Nyberg, & Nilsson, 2011). The analyses were based on data for a total of 1115 participants from population based samples (mean age: 63.0 ± 14.5 years, range: 25 - 95) randomly split into a refinement (n = 569) and a cross-validation (n = 546) sample. Equivalence of the measurement and structural portions of the refined model was demonstrated across the refinement and cross-validation samples. Among competing models the best fitting and parsimonious model had a hierarchical factor structure with five first-order and one second-order general factor. The final version of the CDQ consisted of 20 items in five domains (Procedural actions, Semantic word knowledge, Face recognition, Temporal orientation and Spatial navigation). Internal consistency reliabilities were adequate for the total scale and for the subscales. Multigroup CFAs were performed and the results indicate measurement invariance across age and sex up to the scalar level. Finally, higher levels of cognitive dysfunction as reflected by CDQ scores were observed with advancing age and with deficits in general cognitive functioning as reflected by scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination. In conclusion, adoption of the final version of the CDQ appears to be a way of measuring cognitive dysfunction without administering formal cognitive tests. Future studies should apply it among clinical groups to further test its usefulness.

  • 37.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Strengthening concept learning by repeated testing2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 10-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine whether repeated testing with feedback benefits learning compared to rereading of introductory psychology key-concepts in an educational context. The testing effect was examined immediately after practice, after 18 days, and at a five-week delay in a sample of undergraduate students (= 83). The results revealed that repeated testing with feedback significantly enhanced learning compared to rereading at all delays, demonstrating that repeated retrieval enhances retention compared to repeated encoding in the short- and the long-term. In addition, the effect of repeated testing was beneficial for students irrespectively of working memory capacity. It is argued that teaching methods involving repeated retrieval are important to consider by the educational system.

  • 38.
    Östgård-Ybrandt, Helene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Self-concept and perception of early mother and father behavior in normal and antisocial adolescents2004In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 437-447Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the self-concept and perceptions of early parental behavior in a group of 277 normal adolescents with respect to differences in age (12–18 years) and gender. A group of 30 antisocial adolescents of similar age (13–19 years) were included as a comparison group. The study was a cross-sectional questionnaire study and the Swedish translation of the Structural Analysis of Social Behavior (SASB) introject and mother/father questionnaires were used as measures of self- and parental concepts. Multivariate analyses of variance show that the normal adolescent self-concept and perception of early parental behavior are positive and that there are no age or gender differences. The early behavior of the mother is perceived more positively than that of the father. A positive self-concept is related to a positive perception of the parent's early behavior. The antisocial group of adolescents shows a more autonomous and negative self-concept and more negative perception of early parental behaviors. This was true especially in the group of antisocial girls. The conclusion from the study is that there is no evidence of a chaotic self-concept or tumultuous changes in the perceptions of early parental behavior during normal adolescence, but that an antisocial way of life might be reflected in a more negative and autonomous self-concept and in more negative perceptions of early parental behavior during adolescence.

1 - 38 of 38
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