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  • 1. de Frias, Cindy M
    et al.
    Bunce, David
    Wahlin, Åke
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Sleegers, Kristel
    Cruts, Marc
    Van Broeckhoven, Christine
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Cholesterol and triglycerides moderate the effect of apolipoprotein E on memory functioning in older adults2007Ingår i: The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences, ISSN 1079-5014, E-ISSN 1758-5368, Vol. 62, nr 2, s. P112-P118Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We used data from the Betula Study to examine associations between total cholesterol, triglycerides, and apolipoprotein E on 10-year changes in cognitive performance. Tests assessing episodic memory (recall and recognition), semantic memory (knowledge and fluency), and visuospatial ability (block design) were administered to 524 nondemented adults (initial age of 55-80 years); multilevel modeling was applied to the data. Higher triglyceride levels were associated with a decline in verbal knowledge. Lipid levels moderated the influence of apolipoprotein E on episodic memory, such that among epsilon 4 allele carriers, decline in recognition was noted for individuals with higher cholesterol levels. Cholesterol and triglyceride levels are pharmacologically modifiable risk factors that account for variation In normal cognitive aging.

  • 2.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS).
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden .
    Leisure Activity in Old Age and Risk of Dementia: a 15-Year Prospective Study2014Ingår i: The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences, ISSN 1079-5014, E-ISSN 1758-5368, Vol. 69, nr 4, s. 493-501Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to investigate whether leisure activity is associated with incident dementia in an older sample.

    Method. We examined a sample of 1,475 elderly (>= 65 years) who were dementia free at baseline over a follow-up period of up to 15 years. In addition to analyses involving the total time period, separate analyses of three time periods were performed, 1-5, 6-10, and 11-15 years, following baseline measurement of leisure activity.

    Results. After controlling for a variety of potential confounders, analyses of data for the total time period revealed that higher levels of "Total activity" and "Social activity," but not "Mental activity," were associated with decreased risk of dementia. However, analyses of the separate time periods showed that this association was only significant in the first time period, 1-5 years after baseline.

    Discussion. The results from this study provide little support for the hypothesis that frequent engagement in leisure activities among elderly serve to protect against dementia diseases across a longer time frame. The finding of a relationship for the first time period, 1-5 years after baseline, could indicate short-term protective effects but could also reflect reverse causality.

  • 3.
    Lövdén, Martin
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Wahlin, Åke
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden / Aging Research Center (ARC), Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Backman, Lars
    Aging Research Center (ARC), Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    The extent of stability and change in episodic and semantic memory in old age: Demographic predictors of level and change2004Ingår i: The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences, ISSN 1079-5014, E-ISSN 1758-5368, Vol. 59, nr 3, s. 130-134Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Structural stability and change in semantic and episodic memory performance as well as interindividual differences in 5-year changes in these constructs are examined within a sample of older adults (age rangeT1 = 60–80; n = 361). Interindividual differences in change were limited but significant. Stability coefficients were higher for semantic memory (.95) than for episodic memory (.87). Changes in episodic and semantic memory performance were strongly associated (r =.68). Across time, variances and covariances increased, and a tendency toward dedifferentiation in terms of increasing correlations was found. Chronological age was related to both level and change, but gender and education were only related to level of memory performance. Collectively, these results depict relatively high degrees of structural stability and stability of interindividual differences in declarative memory in old age.

     

  • 4. Payne, Collin F.
    et al.
    Gomez-Olive, Francesc Xavier
    Kahn, Kathleen
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt), School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Berkman, Lisa
    Physical Function in an Aging Population in Rural South Africa: Findings From HAALSI and Cross-National Comparisons With HRS Sister Studies2017Ingår i: The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences, ISSN 1079-5014, E-ISSN 1758-5368, Vol. 72, nr 4, s. 665-679Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We use recently-collected data from the Health and Aging in Africa: a Longitudinal Study of an INDEPTH Community in South Africa (HAALSI) cohort from Agincourt, South Africa, to describe physical functioning in this aging population, and place the overall level and age-trajectories of physical health in the context of other Health and Retirement Study (HRS) sister studies in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We conduct multiple regression to estimate associations of physical functioning assessed from both self-report (activities of daily living [ADL] limitation, self-reported health) and performance (grip strength, gait speed) with socio-demographic and health characteristics in HAALSI, and use fully-interacted regression models to compare age-patterns of physical functioning outcomes cross-nationally. Gender differences in self-reported health are minimal, and men had 30% higher odds of being ADL limited controlling for socio-demographic and health characteristics. Measured physical performance is closely tied with socioeconomic conditions, but self-reported measures have a much smaller or weaker socioeconomic gradient. In international age-adjusted comparisons, the HAALSI sample had lower physical performance outcomes than most comparison populations. As the first HRS sister study undertaken in Africa, HAALSI adds vital information on population aging and health in the region. Continuing waves of HAALSI data will be a key resource for understanding differences in the complex processes of disability across LMIC contexts.

  • 5.
    Pudas, Sara
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    School Performance and Educational Attainment as Early-Life Predictors of Age-Related Memory Decline: Protective Influences in Later-Born Cohorts2019Ingår i: The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences, ISSN 1079-5014, E-ISSN 1758-5368, Vol. 74, nr 8, s. 1356-1365, artikel-id gby137Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Evidence is accumulating that early-life characteristics and experiences contribute significantly to differences in cognitive aging. This study investigated whether school performance at age 12 predicted late-life level and rate of memory change over 15–25 years, and whether its potential protective influence on memory change was mediated by educational attainment or income.

    Methods: Latent growth curve models were fitted to 15–25 year longitudinal memory data from a population-based sample, stratified on age cohorts (n = 227, born 1909–1935; n = 301, born 1938–1954).

    Results: A latent-level school grade variable significantly predicted both memory level and slope in later-born cohorts. Higher grades were associated with higher level and reduced decline, measured between ages 45 and 70 years, on average. In the earlier-born cohorts, grades predicted memory level, but not slope, measured between ages 66 and 81 years. Follow-up analyses indicated that the protective influence of higher school grades in later-born cohorts was partially mediated by educational attainment, but independent of income.

    Discussion: The results suggest that higher childhood school performance is protective against age-related cognitive decline in younger or later-born cohorts, for which further education has been more accessible. Education may exert such influence through increased cognitive reserve or more well-informed health- and lifestyle decisions.

  • 6. Schatz, Enid
    et al.
    Ralston, Margaret
    Madhavan, Sangeetha
    Collinson, Mark A.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt), School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; INDEPTH Network, Ghana..
    Gomez-Olivé, F. Xavier
    Living Arrangements, Disability and Gender of Older Adults Among Rural South Africa2018Ingår i: The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences, ISSN 1079-5014, E-ISSN 1758-5368, Vol. 73, nr 6, s. 1112-1122Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: A limited understanding exists of the relationship between disability and older persons' living arrangements in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). We examine the associations between living arrangements, disability, and gender for individuals older than 50 years in rural South Africa.

    Method: Using the Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) survey and Agincourt Health and socio-Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) data, we explore older persons' self-reported disability by living arrangements and gender, paying particular attention to various multigenerational arrangements.

    Results: Controlling for past disability status, a significant relationship between living arrangements and current disability remains, but is moderated by gender. Older persons in households where they may be more "productive" report higher levels of disability; there are fewer differences in women's than men's reported disability levels across living arrangement categories.

    Discussion: This study underscores the need to examine living arrangements and disability through a gendered lens, with particular attention to heterogeneity among multigenerational living arrangements. Some living arrangements may take a greater toll on older persons than others. Important policy implications for South Africa and other LMICs emerge among vibrant debates about the role of social welfare programs in improving the health of older individuals.

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