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  • 1.
    Bergdahl, Ellinor
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Allard, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Lundman, Berit
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Depression in the oldest old in urban and rural municipalities2007In: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915, Vol. 11, no 5, p. 570-578Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Boman, Erika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Faculty of Nursing, Åland University of Applied Sciences, Mariehamn, Finland.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Häggblom, Anette
    Faculty of Nursing, Åland University of Applied Sciences, Mariehamn, Finland.
    Santamäki Fischer, Regina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Faculty of Nursing, Åland University of Applied Sciences, Mariehamn, Finland.
    Nygren, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Inner strength: associated with reduced prevalence of depression among older women2015In: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915, Vol. 19, no 12, p. 1078-1083Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore if inner strength is independently associated with a reduced prevalence of depression after controlling for other known risk factors associated with depression.

    Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study was performed, where all women living in Åland, a Finnish self-govern island community in the Baltic Sea, aged 65 years or older were sent a questionnaire including the Geriatric Depression Scale and the Inner Strength Scale along with several other questions related to depression. Factors associated with depression were analyzed by means of multivariate logistic regression.

    Results: The results showed that 11.2% of the studied women (n = 1452) were depressed and that the prevalence increased with age and was as high as 20% in the oldest age group. Non-depressed women were more likely to never or seldom feel lonely, have a strong inner strength, take fewer prescription drugs, feeling needed, being able to engage in meaningful leisure activities, as well as cohabit.

    Conclusion: Our results showed an association between stronger inner strength and being non-depressed. This can be interpreted to mean that inner strength might have a protective effect against depression. These findings are interesting from a health-promotion perspective, yet to verify these results, further longitudinal studies are required.

  • 3.
    Conradsson, Mia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Littbrand, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Lindelöf, Nina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Rosendahl, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Effects of a high-intensity functional exercise programme on depressive symptoms and psychological well-being among older people living in residential care facilities: a cluster-randomized controlled trial2010In: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 565-576Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To evaluate the effects of a high-intensity functional exercise programme on depressive symptoms and psychological well-being among older people dependent in activities of daily living (ADL) and living in residential care facilities.

    Method: Cluster-randomized controlled study. Participants were 191 older people, aged 65–100, dependent in ADL and with Mini Mental State Examination scores between 10 and 30. One-hundred (52%) of the participants had a diagnosed dementia disorder. A high-intensity functional weight-bearing exercise programme and a control activity were performed in groups. Sessions were held five times over each two week period for three months, a total of 29 times. The outcome measures, Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) and Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS) were blindly assessed at baseline, three and six months.

    Results: At baseline, mean ± SD (range) for GDS was 4.4 ± 3.2 (0–14), and for PGCMS 11.0 ± 3.5 (2–17). There were no significant differences in GDS or PGCMS between the exercise and the control group at the three and six month follow-ups in the total sample. Among people with dementia, there was a between-group difference at three months in PGCMS scores in favour of the exercise group.

    Conclusion: A high-intensity functional exercise programme seems generally not to influence depressive symptoms or psychological well-being among older people dependent in ADL and living in residential care facilities. An individualized and multifactorial intervention may be needed in this group. However, an exercise programme as a single intervention may have a short-term effect on well-being among people with dementia.

  • 4.
    Conradsson, Mia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Rosendahl, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Littbrand, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Olofsson, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Lövheim, Hugo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Usefulness of the Geriatric Depression Scale 15-item version among very old people with and without cognitive impairment2013In: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 81p. 638-645Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aim of this population-based study was to investigate the usefulness of the Geriatric Depression Scale 15-item version (GDS-15) to assess depressive symptoms among very old people with differing levels of cognitive function.

    Methods: The 834 participants were aged 85 and over. Feasibility of GDS-15 was evaluated as the proportion of people who completed the scale. Concurrent criterion validity was evaluated by calculating correlations between GDS-15 and Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS). PGCMS measures psychological wellbeing which is closely related with depressive symptoms. Correlations were calculated within groups according to cognitive function assessed with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE); 0-4, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19, 20-24, 25-27, and 28-30, using Pearson's two-sided correlation and compared using Fisher r-to-z transformation. Internal consistency of the GDS-15 was evaluated by calculating Cronbach's in each group.

    Results: In total, 651 (78%) of the 834 participants completed the GDS-15. For the two MMSE-groups with scores of <10, the proportion who completed GDS-15 were 1% and 42%, respectively, compared to 65-95% in the MMSE-groups with scores of 10. Cronbach's in each MMSE-group ranged from 0.636 (MMSE 28-30) to 0.821 (MMSE 5-9). The level of correlation between GDS-15 and PGCMS did not significantly differ between MMSE-groups with scores of 5-27 compared to the MMSE-group with scores of 28-30.

    Conclusions: The GDS-15 seems to have an overall usefulness to assess depressive symptoms among very old people with an MMSE score of 10 or more. More studies are needed to strengthen the validity of GDS-15 among older people with MMSE scores of 10-14. For older people with MMSE scores lower than 10, there is a need to develop and validate other measurements.

  • 5.
    Forsman, A. K.
    et al.
    THL National Institute for Health and Welfare, Mental Health Promotion Unit, Vaasa, Finland.
    Nyqvist, F.
    THL National Institute for Health and Welfare, Mental Health Promotion Unit, Vaasa, Finland.
    Schierenbeck, I.
    School of Global Studies, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Wahlbeck, K.
    National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services, Helsinki, Finland.
    Structural and cognitive social capital and depression among older adults in two Nordic regions2012In: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915, Vol. 16, no 6, p. 771-779Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To study the association between structural and cognitive aspects of social capital and depression among older adults in two Nordic regions. Method: Data were retrieved from a postal survey targeting older adults aged 65, 70, 75 and 80 years (N = 6 838, response rate = 64%) residing in the Vasterbotten region (Sweden), and the Osterbotten region (Finland) in 2010. The associations between structural (measured by frequency of social contact with friends and neighbours) and cognitive (measured by experienced trust in friends and neighbours) aspects of social capital and depression (measured by Geriatric Depression Scale, GDS-4) were tested by logistic regression analyses. Results: Both low structural and cognitive social capital as defined in the study showed statistically significant associations with depression in older adults. Only experienced trust in neighbours failed to show significant association with depression. In addition, being single and being 80 years of age indicated a higher risk of depression as defined by GDS-4. Conclusion: The findings underline the connection between adequate levels of both structural and cognitive individual social capital and mental health in later life. They also suggest that the connection differs depending on various network types; the cognitive aspect of relationships between friends was connected to depression, while the connection was not found for neighbours. Further, the oldest age group in the sample (80 years of age) is pointed out as a population especially vulnerable for depression that should not be overlooked in mental health promotion and depression prevention.

  • 6.
    Graneheim, Ulla Hällgren
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Lundman, Berit
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Experiences of loneliness among the very old: the Umeå 85+ project.2010In: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 433-438Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to elucidate experiences of loneliness among the very old, who live alone. METHOD: Twenty-three women and seven men, aged 85-103 years, were interviewed about their experiences of loneliness. The text was subjected to qualitative content analysis. RESULT: The descriptions of loneliness were twofold: on the one hand, living with losses and feeling abandoned represented the limitations imposed by loneliness; and on the other, living in confidence and feeling free represented the opportunities of loneliness. The findings indicate that experiences of loneliness among the very old are complex, and concern their relations in the past, the present, and the future. CONCLUSION: Experiences of loneliness among the very old can be devastating or enriching, depending upon life circumstances and outlook on life and death. We interpreted these two aspects of loneliness as feelings of homelessness and at-homeness.

  • 7.
    Hedberg, Pia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Alèx, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Brulin, Christine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Depression in relation to purpose in life among a very old population: a five-year follow-up study2010In: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915, Vol. 14, no 6, p. 757-763Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To investigate the relationship between purpose in life and depression and, in a five-year follow-up investigate whether purpose in life, adjusted for different background characteristics, can prevent very old men and women from developing depression. Methods: A cross-sectional study included 189 participants (120 women and 69 men) 85–103 years of age living in a county in northern Sweden. Those who had not been diagnosed as depressed at baseline were included in the five-year follow-up study (n=78). Depression was assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale-15, the Organic Brain Syndrome scale, the Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale, and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV criteria. Purpose in life was assessed with the Purpose in Life (PIL) scale. Results: In the cross-sectional study, 40 participants out of 189 (21.2%) were depressed, and those with depression had significantly lower PIL scores (mean score 107 vs. 99, p=0.014). In the follow-up study, 78 persons were available for the assessment of depression. Of those, 21 (26.9%) were diagnosed as depressed and their mean PIL score at baseline was 106 (SD=17.4) versus 108 (SD=16.0, p=0.750) among those not depressed. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis controlling for possible confounders, we found no association between purpose in life and the risk of developing depression after five years (OR=1.0, 95% CI 0.97–1.03). Conclusions: The results show a significant inverse relationship between purpose in life and depression in the cross-sectional study; however, a high PIL score does not seem to serve very old people as a protection against the risk of developing depression.

  • 8.
    Isaksson, Ulf
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Hällgren Graneheim, Ulla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Åström, Sture
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Karlsson, Stig
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Physically violent behaviour in dementia care: characteristics of residents and management of violent situations2011In: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915, Vol. 15, no 5, p. 573-579Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Physically violent behaviour (PVB) is common among residents with dementia and often complicates nursing care. This study aims to explore types of caring situations, resident characteristics related to PVB and professional caregivers' management of PVB.

    Methods: The study included 40 group homes for 309 residents with dementia. Data was gathered by means of structured interviews, the Multi-Dimensional Dementia Assessment Scale and the Geriatric Rating Scale.

    Results: Ninety-eight of the residents (31.7%) were assessed as showing PVB during the preceding week. Three factors were independently associated with PVB: male gender, antipsychotic treatment and decline in orientation. Violent residents were more likely to have impaired speech, difficulties understanding verbal communication and prescribed analgesics and antipsychotics than were non-violent residents. PVB occurred mainly in intimate helping situations and was managed by symptom-oriented approaches, such as distraction, medication and isolation. The working team also held frequent discussions about the residents with PVB.

    Conclusion: This study shows that PVB is frequently displayed among residents in group homes for persons with dementia and the caregivers mainly manage PVB in a symptom-oriented way. To enhance the quality of care for patients with dementia, there is a need for interventions that aim to understand and manage the residents' physical violent behaviour.

  • 9.
    Johansson, Anneli
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Olsson Ruzin, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Hällgren Graneheim, Ulla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Lindgren, Britt-Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Remaining connected despite separation: former family caregivers’ experiences of aspects that facilitate and hinder the process of relinquishing the care of a person with dementia to a nursing home2014In: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915, Vol. 18, no 8, p. 1029-1036Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: This qualitative study aimed to illuminate former family caregivers’ experiences of aspects that facilitate and hinder the process of relinquishing the care of a person with dementia to a nursing home. METHOD: Ten narrative interviews with former family caregivers were performed and subjected to qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: An overall theme showed that family caregivers were remaining connected to the person with dementia despite separation. They experienced being ‘caught by surprise’ when the placement occurred. Negative expectations of dementia care made the separation more difficult. Lacking adequate information increased feelings of insecurity. Despite these hurdles, family caregivers found meaning in the new situation as they felt that they could remain connected to their loved one. Being recognized as partners in care of the person with dementia after placement was a facilitating aspect. Family caregivers regarded a well-functioning interaction with staff and a supportive social network as reassuring since they facilitated staying in touch. CONCLUSION: Knowledge of the relinquishing process and adequate information about dementia and its progression may help family caregivers better prepare for and adapt to the situation. Family caregivers need to be recognized as partners in care and a welcoming nursing home environment is of utmost importance.

  • 10.
    Nygren, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Aléx, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Jonsén, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Norberg, Astrid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Lundman, Berit
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Resilience, sense of coherence, purpose in life and self-transcendence in relation to perceived physical and mental health among the oldest old.2005In: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 354-362Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Nyström, Markus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. The Graduate School in Population Dynamics and Public Policy, Umeå university.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kormi-Nouri, Reza
    School of Law, Psychology and Social Work, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    To what extent is subjective well-being in late adulthood related to subjective and objective memory functioning?: Five-year cross-lagged panel analyses2019In: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 92-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Population aging motivated a focus in contemporary research on factors, e.g. cognitive functioning, that contribute to ‘aging well.’ However, something that has been overlooked is relation between memory functioning, determined by objective tests as well as subjective memory ratings, and subjective well-being (SWB).

    Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate cross-sectional and longitudinal (cross-lagged) relationships between episodic memory (both subjective and objective) and SWB.

    Method: A total of 586 older individuals (60–90 years) were assessed on multiple measures of the targeted constructs at baseline (Time 1) as part of the Betula cohort study. Five years later (Time 2), 354 of the participants returned for follow-up measurements and were included in cross-lagged panel analyses.

    Results: As expected, objective memory and subjective memory showed a pattern of cross-sectional age deficits and a mean level longitudinal decline was observed for objective memory. By contrast, SWB showed stable mean levels both across age and time. No cross-sectional or cross-lagged associations were observed between SWB and objective memory, whereas subjective memory and SWB showed a cross-sectional association.

    Conclusion: The results underscore that successful aging is a multifaceted construct with no or only weak associations between the investigated components. However, SWB and rate of change at the individual level should be considered to define successful aging.

  • 12. Näsman, Marina
    et al.
    Niklasson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Saarela, Jan
    Nygård, Mikael
    Olofsson, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Conradsson, Mia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Lövheim, Hugo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Nyqvist, Fredrica
    Five-year change in morale is associated with negative life events in very old age2019In: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915, p. 84-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to study changes in morale in individuals 85 years and older, and to assess the effect of negative life events on morale over a five-year follow-up period.

    METHOD: The present study is based on longitudinal data from the Umeå85+/GERDA-study, including individuals 85 years and older at baseline (n = 204). Morale was measured with the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS). Negative life events were assessed using an index including 13 negative life events occurring during the follow-up period. Linear regression was used for the multivariate analyses.

    RESULTS: The majority of the sample (69.1%) had no significant changes in morale during the five-year follow-up. However, the accumulation of negative life events was significantly associated with a greater decrease in PGCMS. A higher baseline PGCMS score did not attenuate the adverse effect negative life events had on morale.

    CONCLUSION: Morale seemed to be mainly stable in a five-year follow-up of very old people. It seems, nonetheless, that individuals are affected by negative life events, regardless of level of morale. Preventing negative life events and supporting individuals who experience multiple negative life events could have important implications for the care of very old people.

  • 13.
    Viglund, Kerstin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Jonsén, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Lundman, Berit
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Strandberg, Gunilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Nygren, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Inner strength in relation to age, gender and culture among old people: a cross-sectional population study in two Nordic countries.2013In: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915, Vol. 17, no 8, p. 1016-1022Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The theoretical framework for the study was the Model of Inner Strength, and the Inner Strength Scale (ISS)developed based on the Model was used. The aim was to examine inner strength in relation to age, gender and culture among old people in Sweden and Finland.

    Method: This study forms part of the GErontological Regional DAtabase (GERDA)-Botnia project that investigates healthy ageing with focus on the dignity, social participation and health of old people. The participants (N = 6119) were 65-, 70-, 75- and 80-year old and living in two counties in Sweden or Finland. The ISS consists of 20 items relating to four interrelated dimensions of inner strength, according to the Model of Inner Strength. The range of possible ISS scores is 20-120, a higher score denoting higher inner strength.

    Result: The result showed that the 65-year-old participants had the highest mean ISS score, with a decrease in score for every subsequent age. The lowest score was achieved by the 80-year-old participants. Women had slightly but significantly higher mean ISS scores than men. Only small differences were found between the counties.

    Conclusion: The study population came from Sweden and Finland; still, despite the different backgrounds, patterns in the distribution of inner strength were largely similar. The present study provides basic and essential information about inner strength in a population of old people.

  • 14.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Depressive symptoms and time perspective in older adults: associations beyond personality and negative life events2019In: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915, Vol. 23, no 12, p. 1674-1683Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To examine the extent to which time perspective, an individual’s habitual way of relating to the past, the present, and the future time frames, accounts for variations in self-reported depressive symptoms among older adults.

    Method: Four hundred two participants (60–90 years) completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D) and the Swedish Zimbardo Time perspective Inventory (S-ZTPI). The influence of personality as reflected by the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and self-reported negative life events (NLEs) were controlled for in hierarchic regression analyses.

    Results: The six S-ZTPI dimensions accounted for 24.5% of the variance in CES-D scores beyond age and gender. Half of the variance remained when the TCI factors and NLEs were controlled for. Past Negative, Future Negative, and Past Positive (inverse association) were the significant unique predictors. Significant age interactions were observed for two S-ZTPI dimensions, with a diminished association to depressive symptoms for Future Negative and a magnified association for Present Fatalistic with higher age.

    Conclusions: The results demonstrate a substantial relation between facets of time perspective and depressive symptoms in old age. They also indicate an age-related shift in the relative importance from concerns about of the future (Future Negative) to the present (Present Fatalistic) with increased age. In young old-age, when the future is more ‘open’, future worries (Future Negative) may be a more frequent source of distress. In late senescence, perceived threats to autonomy (e.g. physical health problems and cognitive deficits), as reflected by higher scores on Present Fatalistic, may instead have more bearing on mood state.

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