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  • 1.
    Alger, Susanne
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Agreement of driving examiners' assessments: evaluating the reliability of the Swedish driving test2013Ingår i: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 19, s. 22-30Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine the consistency of examiner assessments of test-takers' performance on the Swedish driving test. The study included 535 tests and was designed so that the ordinary examiner and a supervising examiner assessed the same test-taker. The assessment was done on a two-grade rating scale (pass/fail). Since the result can be affected by factors associated with the test-taker and the two examiners, questionnaires were developed and these were filled in by the test-takers and the examiners. Information about the administration of the test was collected via a specially designed form filled in by the supervising examiner. Using this form, the ordinary examiners' performance was rated on a number of aspects. The result from the study indicated that the agreement between the assessments was very good. For 93% of the tests the two examiners chose the same mark on the two-grade scale. In the cases where ratings differed, the analysis indicated only a few systematic differences among variables designed to provide possible explanations for differences in opinion. However, none of these was problematic with respect to consistency of assessment. Results indicated that most tests were carried out in a satisfactory manner.

  • 2. Eriksson, Lars
    et al.
    Palmqvist, Lisa
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Andersson Hultgren, Jonas
    Blissing, Björn
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Performance and presence with head-movement produced motion parallax in simulated driving2015Ingår i: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 34, s. 54-64Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Driving simulator studies can reveal relevant and valid aspects of driving behavior, but underestimation of distance and speed can negatively affect the driver's performance, such as in performance of overtaking. One possible explanation for the underestimation of distance and speed is that two-dimensional projection of the visual scene disrupts the monocular-based illusory depth because of conflicting binocular and monocular information of depth. A possible solution might involve the strengthening of the monocular information so that the binocular information becomes less potent. In the present study, we used an advanced high-fidelity driving simulator to investigate whether adding the visual depth information of motion parallax from head movement affects sense of presence, judgment of distance and speed, and performance measures coupled with overtaking. The simulations included two types of driving scenario in which one was urban and the other was rural. The main results show no effect of this head-movement produced motion parallax on sense of presence, head movement, time to collision, distance judgment, or speed judgment. However, the results show an effect on lateral positioning. When initiating the overtaking maneuver there is a lateral positioning farther away from the road center as effect of the motion parallax in both types of scenario, which can be interpreted as indicating use of naturally occurring information that change behavior at overtaking. Nevertheless, only showing tendencies of effects, absent is any clear additional impact of this motion parallax in the simulated driving.

  • 3.
    Eriksson, Louise
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Garvill, Jörgen
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nordlund, Annika
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Interrupting habitual car use: The importance of car habit strength and moral motivation for personal car use reduction2008Ingår i: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 10-23Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, habitual car use was interrupted by means of an intervention attempting to induce a deliberate consideration to reduce personal car use and forming implementation intentions for the planned changes in travel behavior. The importance of car habit strength and of moral motivation for reducing car use was analyzed. The study was conducted as a field experiment where 71 car users were recruited to either an experimental group or a control group. All participants reported car habit strength and moral motivation to reduce car use (i.e. personal norm) by means of a questionnaire, and recorded car use by means of weekly car diaries pre- and post-intervention. Results demonstrate that the intervention did make the choice of travel mode more deliberate since the association between car use and car habit strength were weakened while the relation between car use and personal norm were strengthened after compared to before the intervention. Moreover, as a result of the intervention car users with a strong car habit and a strong personal norm were found to be more likely to reduce car use as compared to those with a weak car habit and a weak personal norm. Hence, a reduction in car use may be facilitated by interrupting habitual car use, specifically if the car user has a strong car habit and a strong moral motivation to reduce personal car use.

  • 4.
    Eriksson, Louise
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), SE-581 95 Linköping, Sweden.
    Nordlund, Annika
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Garvill, Jörgen
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Expected car use reduction in response to structural travel demand management measures2010Ingår i: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 13, s. 329-342Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Selecting the appropriate travel demand management (TDM) measures aiming to reduce the environmental problems associated with private transportation demands a thorough understanding of the behavioral consequences of different measures. In this scenario based study, the expected car use reduction in response to one push measure (i.e. raised tax on fossil fuel), one pull measure (i.e. improved public transport), and a combination of the two measures were analyzed. The aim was to compare the expected car use reduction in response to the different TDM measures, the car use reduction strategies used to achieve this reduction, and factors important for the expected car use reduction (i.e. background factors, internal motivational factors (general intention and personal norm), and perceived personal impact of the measure). In a two step between-subject design, a sample of car users first answered a pre-questionnaire and subsequently three groups of car users (N = 274) each evaluated one of the TDM measures. Results demonstrated that the combined measure led to larger expected car use reduction compared to the measures evaluated individually and the reduction was mainly expected to be made by means of trip chaining and changing travel mode. Moreover, internal motivational factors, such as personal norm or general intention, and the perceived impact of the measure, were found to be important for the expected car use reduction in response to the TDM measures.

  • 5.
    Mynttinen, Sami
    et al.
    Finnish Vehicle Administration, PL 120, 00101 Helsinki, Finland.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Beteendevetenskapliga mätningar.
    Koivukoski, Marita
    Finnish Vehicle Administration, PL 120, 00101 Helsinki, Finland.
    Hakuli, Kari
    Finnish Vehicle Administration, PL 120, 00101 Helsinki, Finland.
    Keskinen, Esko
    Department of Psychology, Turku University, Assistentinkatu 7, 20014 Turku, Finland.
    Henriksson, Widar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Beteendevetenskapliga mätningar.
    Are novice drivers overconfident?: A comparison of self-assessed and examiner-assessed driver competences in a Finnish and a Swedish sample.2009Ingår i: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. 120-130Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of subjective driving skill have usually assessed perceived driving skill in relation to the skills of the average driver. In order to examine whether novice drivers are overconfident with respect to their actual skills, a different method was used in the present study, where specific aspects of perceived driver competence were compared with assessments made by a driver examiner. A Finnish (n = 2847) and a Swedish (n = 805) sample of driving test candidates completed self-assessments and took a practical driving test; the instruments differed between the countries. The results indicated that about 50 percent of the Finnish and between 25 and 35 percent of the Swedish candidates made realistic assessments of their competence in the areas Vehicle manoeuvring, Economical driving and Traffic safety. The proportion of those who overestimated their competence was greater among the Swedish candidates than the Finnish candidates. This might be explained by greater possibilities of practicing self-assessment in the Finnish driver education. Furthermore, the results indicate that males are not overconfident to a greater extent than females. In conclusion, when perceived competence is related to actual competence instead of the skills of the average driver, the majority of drivers are no longer found to overestimate their skills.

  • 6.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Beteendevetenskapliga mätningar.
    Self-assessment of driving skill: A review from a measurement perspective2008Ingår i: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 1-9Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Subjective driving skill is commonly assessed with self-reports and many studies have found that drivers have overly positive beliefs in their own skill. The purpose of this review was to examine how subjective driving skill has been measured in different studies. Secondly, the aim was to discuss the methods used from a measurement perspective, i.e., to discuss the reliability and the validity of the measures and methods used. The findings from the review indicated that studies about subjective driving skills can be divided into three different domains with respect to the methodology used. In two of the domains, subjective driving skill is measured by comparing the individual’s own skill to internal criteria: the skill of the average driver and specific aspects of driving skill. In the third domain, the subjective skill is compared with an external criterion, i.e., the actual skill in order to determine if drivers have an accurate perception of their own skill. The conclusion of the review was that there are several methodological problems with the reference to the average driver that can result in biased assessments. Moreover, this methodology cannot be used to conclude whether drivers’ are overconfident or not. In order to obtain indicators of reliability and validity, the measurement of subjective driving skill should incorporate judgments of specific aspects of driving skills. By the use of this methodology, subjective driving skill can be validated through comparison with actual driving skill.

  • 7.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Beteendevetenskapliga mätningar (BVM).
    The validity of self-reported driver competence: relations between measures of perceived driver competence and actual driving skill2011Ingår i: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 14, nr 2, s. 155-163Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Perceived driver competence is commonly assessed by asking drivers to compare their own competence to that of the average driver. This method has been criticised however, and it has been suggested that perceived driver competence should be assessed with respect to specific aspects of competence. This study examines the validity of two such self-report instruments. 136 driving test candidates completed self-report instruments for Perceived Practical Driver Competence (PPDC), and Self-Assessment of Driving Skills (SADS), as well as items about confidence in passing the driving test and took the Swedish driving test. The strong positive correlation between PPDC and SADS scores indicated that the instruments measure the construct of perceived driver competence, which provided evidence of convergent validity. Moreover, the moderate relationship between confidence in passing the test and perceived driver competence provided support for discriminant validity as these measures can be assumed to tap outcome expectations and self-efficacy beliefs, respectively. In addition, the results were in line with previous findings, indicating that when perceived driver competence is related to driving performance rather than the skill of the average driver, a relatively large proportion of driving test candidates can accurately assess their own driver competence and there are no differences in overconfidence between males and females or drivers of different age.

  • 8.
    van den Berg, Johannes
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Landström, Ulf
    Symptoms of sleepiness while driving and their relationship to prior sleep, work and individual characteristics.2006Ingår i: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 9, nr 3, s. 207-226Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In total, 154 lorry and bus drivers participated in a questionnaire study dealing with sleepiness in traffic. The questionnaire included questions about sleep before work, appearance of sleepiness, the type of sleepiness they experienced while driving, and ways to counter sleepiness while driving. Driver sleepiness was analysed with respect to age, type of driving, traffic intensity, experience of work, and sleep before work. About 14% of the drivers reported regular sleepiness while driving, 33% had occasionally fought sleepiness while driving, and 8% had experienced nodding of the head while driving. The majority of the drivers had once been so tired that they had to stop driving. Sleepiness normally occurred between 03.00 and 06.00, at the end of longer trips, and was most frequently appeared in autumn. Poor sleep and poor working hours were considered as the most important causes to sleepiness. Eye tiredness, yawning, difficulties concentrating on the road, and difficulties keeping one’s thoughts together: these were the most frequently reported symptoms of sleepiness. More sleeping hours before work, better working hours, naps during work, listening to the radio, conversations, and lowering the cabin temperature were the most frequently mentioned countermeasures. The appearances of sleepiness while driving was strongly correlated to lower sleep hours and lower sleep quality before work. Age, type of work, or work experience did not interfere with sleepiness in the investigated group in any systematic way.

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