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  • 1.
    Alewell, C
    et al.
    Institute of Environmental Geosciences, University of Basel, Switzerland.
    Giesler, Reiner
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Leifeld, J
    Agroscope Reckenholz-Tanikon Research Station ART, Switzerland.
    Rollog, M
    Institute of Environmental Geosciences, University of Basel, Switzerland.
    Stable carbon isotopes as indicators for environmental change inpalsa peats2011In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 8, p. 1769-1778Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Palsa peats are unique northern ecosystems formed under an arctic climate and characterized by a high biodiversity and sensitive ecology. The stability of the palsas are seriously threatened by climate warming which will change the permafrost dynamic and induce a degradation of the mires.

    We used stable carbon isotope depth profiles in two palsa mires of Northern Sweden to track environmental change during the formation of the mires. Soils dominated by aerobic degradation can be expected to have a clear increase of carbon isotopes (δ13C) with depth, due to preferential release of 12C during aerobic mineralization. In soils with suppressed degradation due to anoxic conditions, stable carbon isotope depth profiles are either more or less uniform indicating no or very low degradation or depth profiles turn to lighter values due to an enrichment of recalcitrant organic substances during anaerobic mineralisation which are depleted in 13C.

    The isotope depth profile of the peat in the water saturated depressions (hollows) at the yet undisturbed mire Storflaket indicated very low to no degradation but increased rates of anaerobic degradation at the Stordalen site. The latter might be induced by degradation of the permafrost cores in the uplifted areas (hummocks) and subsequent breaking and submerging of the hummock peat into the hollows due to climate warming. Carbon isotope depth profiles of hummocks indicated a turn from aerobic mineralisation to anaerobic degradation at a peat depth between 4 and 25 cm. The age of these turning points was 14C dated between 150 and 670 yr and could thus not be caused by anthropogenically induced climate change. We found the uplifting of the hummocks due to permafrost heave the most likely explanation for our findings. We thus concluded that differences in carbon isotope profiles of the hollows might point to the disturbance of the mires due to climate warming or due to differences in hydrology. The characteristic profiles of the hummocks are indicators for micro-geomorphic change during permafrost up heaving.

  • 2.
    Baltar, Federico
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Cell-free extracellular enzymatic activity is linked to seasonal temperature changes: a case study in the Baltic Sea2016In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 13, no 9, p. 2815-2821Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extracellular enzymatic activities (EEA) are a crucial step on the degradation of organic matter. Dissolved (cell-free) extracellular enzymes in seawater can make up a significant contribution of the bulk EEA. However, the factors controlling the proportion of dissolved EEA in the marine environment remain unknown. Here we studied the seasonal changes in the proportion of dissolved relative to total EEA (of alkaline phosphatase [APase], β-glucosidase, [BGase], and leucine aminopeptidase, [LAPase]), in the Baltic Sea for 18 months. The proportio n of dissolved EEA ranged between 37-100%, 0-100%, 34-100% for APase, BGase and LAPase, respectively. A consistent seasonal pattern in the proportion of dissolved EEA was found among all the studied enzymes, with values up to 100% during winter and <40% du ring summer. A significant negative relation was found between the 21proportion of dissolved EEA and temperature, indicating that temperature might be a critical factor controlling the proportion of dissolved relative to total EEA in marine environments. Our results suggest a strong decoupling of hydrolysis rates from mi crobial dynamics in cold waters. This implies that under cold conditions, cell-free enzymes can contribute to substrate availability at large distances from the producing cell, increasing the dissociation between the hydrolysis of organic compounds and the actual microbes producing the enzymes. This also indicates that global warming could come to affect the hydrolysis of organic matter by reducing the hydrolytic activity of cell-free enzymes.

  • 3. Berggren, Martin
    et al.
    Klaus, Marcus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Selvam, Balathandayuthabani Panneer
    Ström, Lena
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Quality transformation of dissolved organic carbon during water transit through lakes: contrasting controls by photochemical and biological processes2018In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 457-470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) may be removed, transformed, or added during water transit through lakes, resulting in changes in DOC composition and pigmentation (color). However, the process-based understanding of these changes is incomplete, especially for headwater lakes. We hypothesized that because heterotrophic bacteria preferentially consume noncolored DOC, while photochemical processing removes colored fractions, the overall changes in DOC color upon water passage through a lake depend on the relative importance of these two processes, accordingly. To test this hypothesis we combined laboratory experiments with field studies in nine boreal lakes, assessing both the relative importance of different DOC decay processes (biological or photochemical) and the loss of color during water transit time (WTT) through the lakes. We found that influence from photo-decay dominated changes in DOC quality in the epilimnia of relatively clear headwater lakes, resulting in systematic and selective net losses of colored DOC. However, in highly pigmented brown-water lakes (absorbance at 420 nm > 7 m(-1)) biological processes dominated, and there was no systematic relationship between color loss and WTT. Moreover, in situ data and dark experiments supported our hypothesis on the selective microbial removal of nonpigmented DOC, mainly of low molecular weight, leading to persistent water color in these highly colored lakes. Our study shows that brown headwater lakes may not conform to the commonly reported pattern of the selective removal of colored constituents in freshwaters, as DOC can show a sustained degree of pigmentation upon transit through these lakes.

  • 4. Bragee, P.
    et al.
    Mazier, F.
    Nielsen, A. B.
    Rosén, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Fredh, D.
    Brostrom, A.
    Graneli, W.
    Hammarlund, D.
    Historical TOC concentration minima during peak sulfur deposition in two Swedish lakes2015In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 307-322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decadal-scale variations in total organic carbon (TOC) concentration in lake water since AD1200 in two small lakes in southern Sweden were reconstructed based on visible-near-infrared spectroscopy (VNIRS) of their recent sediment successions. In order to assess the impacts of local land-use changes, regional variations in sulfur, and nitrogen deposition and climate variations on the inferred changes in TOC concentration, the same sediment records were subjected to multi-proxy palaeolimnological analyses. Changes in lake-water pH were inferred from diatom analysis, whereas pollen-based land-use reconstructions (Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm) together with geochemical records provided information on catchment-scale environmental changes, and comparisons were made with available records of climate and population density. Our long-term reconstructions reveal that inferred lake-water TOC concentrations were generally high prior to AD1900, with additional variability coupled mainly to changes in forest cover and agricultural land-use intensity. The last century showed significant changes, and unusually low TOC concentrations were inferred at AD1930-1990, followed by a recent increase, largely consistent with monitoring data. Variations in sulfur emissions, with an increase in the early 1900s to a peak around AD1980 and a subsequent decrease, were identified as an important driver of these dynamics at both sites, while processes related to the introduction of modern forestry and recent increases in precipitation and temperature may have contributed, but the effects differed between the sites. The increase in lake-water TOC concentration from around AD1980 may therefore reflect a recovery process. Given that the effects of sulfur deposition now subside and that the recovery of lake-water TOC concentrations has reached pre-industrial levels, other forcing mechanisms related to land management and climate change may become the main drivers of TOC concentration changes in boreal lake waters in the future.

  • 5. de Araujo, Kleiton R.
    et al.
    Sawakuchi, Henrique Oliveira
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade de São Paulo, Piracicaba, Brazil.
    Bertassoli, Dailson J., Jr.
    Sawakuchi, Andre O.
    da Silva, Karina D.
    Vieira, Thiago B.
    Ward, Nicholas D.
    Pereira, Tatiana S.
    Carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations and emission in the newly constructed Belo Monte hydropower complex in the Xingu River, Amazonia2019In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 16, no 18, p. 3527-3542Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Belo Monte hydropower complex located in the Xingu River is the largest run-of-the-river (ROR) hydroelectric system in the world and has one of the highest energy production capacities among dams. Its construction received significant media attention due to its potential social and environmental impacts. It is composed of two ROR reservoirs: the Xingu Reservoir (XR) in the Xingu's main branch and the Intermediate Reservoir (IR), an artificial reservoir fed by waters diverted from the Xingu River with longer water residence time compared to XR. We aimed to evaluate spatiotemporal variations in CO2 partial pressure (pCO(2)) and CO2 fluxes (FCO2) during the first 2 years after the Xingu River impoundment under the hypothesis that each reservoir has contrasting FCO2 and pCO(2) as vegetation clearing reduces flooded area emissions. Time of the year had a significant influence on pCO(2) with the highest average values observed during the high-water season. Spatial heterogeneity throughout the entire study area was observed for pCO(2) during both low-and high-water seasons. FCO2, on the other hand, only showed significant spatial heterogeneity during the high-water period. FCO2 (0.90 +/- 0.47 and 1.08 +/- 0.62 mu mol m(2) d(-1) for XR and IR, respectively) and pCO(2) (1647 +/- 698 and 1676 +/- 323 mu atm for XR and IR, respectively) measured during the high-water season were on the same order of magnitude as previous observations in other Amazonian clearwater rivers unaffected by impoundment during the same season. In contrast, during the low-water season FCO2 (0.69 +/- 0.28 and 7.32 +/- 4.07 mu mol m(2) d(-1) for XR and IR, respectively) and pCO(2) (839 +/- 646 and 1797 +/- 354 mu atm for XR and IR, respectively) in IR were an order of magnitude higher than literature FCO2 observations in clearwater rivers with naturally flowing waters. When CO2 emissions are compared between reservoirs, IR emissions were 90% higher than values from the XR during low-water season, reinforcing the clear influence of reservoir characteristics on CO2 emissions. Based on our observations in the Belo Monte hydropower complex, CO2 emissions from ROR reservoirs to the atmosphere are in the range of natural Amazonian rivers. However, the associated reservoir (IR) may exceed natural river emission rates due to the preimpounding vegetation influence. Since many reservoirs are still planned to be constructed in the Amazon and throughout the world, it is critical to evaluate the implications of reservoir traits on FCO2 over their entire life cycle in order to improve estimates of CO2 emissions per kilowatt for hydropower projects planned for tropical rivers.

  • 6.
    Giesler, Reiner
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Lyon, S. W.
    Morth, C-M
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Karlsson, E. M.
    Jantze, E. J.
    Destouni, G.
    Humborg, C.
    Catchment-scale dissolved carbon concentrations and export estimates across six subarctic streams in northern Sweden2014In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 525-537Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climatic change is currently enhancing permafrost thawing and the flow of water through the landscape in subarctic and arctic catchments, with major consequences for the carbon export to aquatic ecosystems. We studied stream water carbon export in several tundra-dominated catchments in northern Sweden. There were clear seasonal differences in both dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrations. The highest DOC concentrations occurred during the spring freshet while the highest DIC concentrations were always observed during winter baseflow conditions for the six catchments considered in this study. Long-term trends for the period 1982 to 2010 for one of the streams showed that DIC concentrations has increased by 9% during the 28 yr of measurement while no clear trend was found for DOC. Similar increasing trends were also found for conductivity, Ca and Mg. When trends were discretized into individual months, we found a significant linear increase in DIC concentrations with time for September, November and December. In these subarctic catchments, the annual mass of C exported as DIC was in the same order of magnitude as DOC; the average proportion of DIC to the total dissolved C exported was 61% for the six streams. Furthermore, there was a direct relationship between total runoff and annual dissolved carbon fluxes for these six catchments. These relationships were more prevalent for annual DIC exports than annual DOC exports in this region. Our results also highlight that both DOC and DIC can be important in high-latitude ecosystems. This is particularly relevant in environments where thawing permafrost and changes to subsurface ice due to global warming can influence stream water fluxes of C. The large proportion of stream water DIC flux also has implications on regional C budgets and needs to be considered in order to understand climate-induced feedback mechanisms across the landscape.

  • 7. Granath, Gustaf
    et al.
    Rydin, Håkan
    Baltzer, Jennifer L.
    Bengtsson, Fia
    Boncek, Nicholas
    Bragazza, Luca
    Bu, Zhao-Jun
    Caporn, Simon J. M.
    Dorrepaal, Ellen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Galanina, Olga
    Galka, Mariusz
    Ganeva, Anna
    Gillikin, David P.
    Goia, Irina
    Goncharova, Nadezhda
    Hájek, Michal
    Haraguchi, Akira
    Harris, Lorna I.
    Humphreys, Elyn
    Jiroušek, Martin
    Kajukalo, Katarzyna
    Karofeld, Edgar
    Koronatova, Natalia G.
    Kosykh, Natalia P.
    Lamentowicz, Mariusz
    Lapshina, Elena
    Limpens, Juul
    Linkosalmi, Maiju
    Ma, Jin-Ze
    Mauritz, Marguerite
    Munir, Tariq M.
    Natali, Susan M.
    Natcheva, Rayna
    Noskova, Maria
    Payne, Richard J.
    Pilkington, Kyle
    Robinson, Sean
    Robroek, Bjorn J. M.
    Rochefort, Line
    Singer, David
    Stenøien, Hans K.
    Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina
    Vellak, Kai
    Verheyden, Anouk
    MichaelWaddington, James
    Rice, Steven K.
    Environmental and taxonomic controls of carbon and oxygen stable isotope composition in Sphagnum across broad climatic and geographic ranges2018In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 15, no 16, p. 5189-5202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rain-fed peatlands are dominated by peat mosses (Sphagnum sp.), which for their growth depend on nutrients, water and CO2 uptake from the atmosphere. As the isotopic composition of carbon (C-12(,)13) and oxygen (O-16(,)18) of these Sphagnum mosses are affected by environmental conditions, Sphagnum tissue accumulated in peat constitutes a potential long-term archive that can be used for climate reconstruction. However, there is inadequate understanding of how isotope values are influenced by environmental conditions, which restricts their current use as environmental and palaeoenvironmental indicators. Here we tested (i) to what extent C and O isotopic variation in living tissue of Sphagnum is speciesspecific and associated with local hydrological gradients, climatic gradients (evapotranspiration, temperature, precipitation) and elevation; (ii) whether the C isotopic signature can be a proxy for net primary productivity (NPP) of Sphagnum; and (iii) to what extent Sphagnum tissue delta O-18 tracks the delta O-18 isotope signature of precipitation. In total, we analysed 337 samples from 93 sites across North America and Eurasia us ing two important peat-forming Sphagnum species (S. magellanicum, S. fuscum) common to the Holarctic realm. There were differences in delta C-13 values between species. For S. magellanicum delta C-13 decreased with increasing height above the water table (HWT, R-2 = 17 %) and was positively correlated to productivity (R-2 = 7 %). Together these two variables explained 46 % of the between-site variation in delta C-13 values. For S. fuscum, productivity was the only significant predictor of delta C-13 but had low explanatory power (total R-2 = 6 %). For delta O-18 values, approximately 90 % of the variation was found between sites. Globally modelled annual delta O-18 values in precipitation explained 69 % of the between-site variation in tissue delta O-18. S. magellanicum showed lower delta O-18 enrichment than S. fuscum (-0.83 %0 lower). Elevation and climatic variables were weak predictors of tissue delta O-18 values after controlling for delta O-18 values of the precipitation. To summarize, our study provides evidence for (a) good predictability of tissue delta O-18 values from modelled annual delta O-18 values in precipitation, and (b) the possibility of relating tissue delta C-13 values to HWT and NPP, but this appears to be species-dependent. These results suggest that isotope composition can be used on a large scale for climatic reconstructions but that such models should be species-specific.

  • 8. Krickov, Ivan V.
    et al.
    Lim, Artem G.
    Manasypov, Rinat M.
    Loiko, Sergey V.
    Shirokova, Liudmila S.
    Kirpotin, Sergey N.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Pokrovsky, Oleg S.
    Riverine particulate C and N generated at the permafrost thaw front: case study of western Siberian rivers across a 1700km latitudinal transect2018In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 15, no 22, p. 6867-6884Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In contrast to numerous studies on the dynamics of dissolved (< 0.45 mu m) elements in permafrost-affected highlatitude rivers, very little is known of the behavior of river suspended (> 0.45 mu m) matter (RSM) in these regions. In order to test the effect of climate, permafrost and physiogeographical landscape parameters (bogs, forest and lake coverage of the watershed) on RSM and particulate C, N and P concentrations in river water, we sampled 33 small and medium-sized rivers (10-100 000 km(2) watershed) along a 1700 km N-S transect including both permafrost-affected and permafrost-free zones of the Western Siberian Lowland (WSL). The concentrations of C and N in RSM decreased with the increase in river watershed size, illustrating (i) the importance of organic debris in small rivers which drain peatlands and (ii) the role of mineral matter from bank abrasion in larger rivers. The presence of lakes in the watershed increased C and N but decreased P concentrations in the RSM. The C V N ratio in the RSM reflected the source from the deep soil horizon rather than surface soil horizon, similar to that of other Arctic rivers. This suggests the export of peat and mineral particles through suprapermafrost flow occurring at the base of the active layer. There was a maximum of both particulate C and N concentrations and export fluxes at the beginning of permafrost appearance, in the sporadic and discontinuous zone (62-64 degrees N). This presumably reflected the organic matter mobilization from newly thawed organic horizons in soils at the active latitudinal thawing front. The results suggest that a northward shift of permafrost boundaries and an increase in active layer thickness may increase particulate C and N export by WSL rivers to the Arctic Ocean by a factor of 2, while P export may remain unchanged. In contrast, within a long-term climate warming scenario, the disappearance of permafrost in the north, the drainage of lakes and transformation of bogs to forest may decrease C and N concentrations in RSM by 2 to 3 times.

  • 9.
    Lidman, Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Mörth, Carl-Magnus
    Dept. of Geology and Geochemistry, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Dept. of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Landscape control of uranium and thorium in boreal streams: spatiotemporal variability and the role of wetlands2012In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 9, no 11, p. 4773-4785Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concentrations of uranium and thorium in ten partly nested streams in the boreal forest region were monitored over a two-year period. The investigated catchments ranged from small headwaters (0.1 km(2)) up to a fourth-order stream (67 km(2)). Considerable spatiotemporal variations were observed, with little or no correlation between streams. The fluxes of both uranium and thorium varied substantially between the subcatchments, ranging from 1.7 to 30 g km(-2) a(-1) for uranium and from 3.2 to 24 g km(-2) a(-1) for thorium. Airborne gamma spectrometry was used to measure the concentrations of uranium and thorium in surface soils throughout the catchment, suggesting that the concentrations of uranium and thorium in mineral soils are similar throughout the catchment. The fluxes of uranium and thorium were compared to a wide range of parameters characterising the investigated catchments and the chemistry of the stream water, e. g. soil concentrations of these elements, pH, TOC (total organic carbon), Al, Si and hydrogen carbonate, but it was concluded that the spatial variabilities in the fluxes of both uranium and thorium mainly were controlled by wetlands. The results indicate that there is a predictable and systematic accumulation of both uranium and thorium in boreal wetlands that is large enough to control the transport of these elements. On the landscape scale approximately 65-80% of uranium and 55-65% of thorium entering a wetland were estimated to be retained in the peat. Overall, accumulation in mires and other types of wetlands was estimated to decrease the fluxes of uranium and thorium from the boreal forest landscape by 30-40%, indicating that wetlands play an important role for the biogeochemical cycling of uranium and thorium in the boreal forest landscape. The atmospheric deposition of uranium and thorium was also quantified, and its contribution to boreal streams was found to be low compared to weathering.

  • 10. Maljanen, M
    et al.
    Virkajärvi, P
    Hytönen, J
    Öquist, M
    Sparrman, Tobias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Martikainen, P J
    Nitrous oxide production in boreal soils with variable organic matter content at low temperature – snow manipulation experiment2009In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 6, no 11, p. 2461-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agricultural soils are the most important sources for the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O), which is produced and emitted from soils also at low temperatures. The processes behind emissions at low temperatures are still poorly known. Snow is a good insulator and it keeps soil temperature rather constant. To simulate the effects of a reduction in snow depth on N2O emission in warming climate, snow pack was removed from experimental plots on three different agricultural soils (sand, mull, peat). Removal of snow lowered soil temperature and increased the extent and duration of soil frost in sand and mull soils. This led to enhanced N2O emissions during freezing and thawing events. The cumulative emissions during the first year when snow was removed over the whole winter were 0.25, 0.66 and 3.0 g N2O-N m−2 yr−1 in control plots of sand, mull and peat soils, respectively. In the treatment plots, without snow cover, the respective cumulative emissions were 0.37, 1.3 and 3.3 g N2O-N m−2 yr−1. Shorter snow manipulation during the second year did not increase the annual emissions. Only 20% of the N2O emission occurred during the growing season. Thus, these results highlight the importance of the winter season for this exchange and that the year-round measurements of annual N2O emissions from boreal soils are integral for estimating their N2O source strength. N2O accumulated in the frozen soil during winter and the soil N2O concentration correlated with the depth of frost but not with the winter N2O emission rates per se. Also laboratory incubations of soil samples showed high production rates of N2O at temperatures below 0°C, especially in the sand and peat soils.

  • 11. Portner, H.
    et al.
    Bugmann, H.
    Wolf, A.
    Forest Ecology, Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystems, Department of Environmental Sciences, ETH Zürich, 8092 Zürich, Switzerland.
    Temperature response functions introduce high uncertainty in modelled carbon stocks in cold temperature regimes2010In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 7, no 11, p. 3669-3684Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Models of carbon cycling in terrestrial ecosystems contain formulations for the dependence of respiration on temperature, but the sensitivity of predicted carbon pools and fluxes to these formulations and their parameterization is not well understood. Thus, we performed an uncertainty analysis of soil organic matter decomposition with respect to its temperature dependency using the ecosystem model LPJ-GUESS. <br><br> We used five temperature response functions (Exponential, Arrhenius, Lloyd-Taylor, Gaussian, Van’t Hoff). We determined the parameter confidence ranges of the formulations by nonlinear regression analysis based on eight experimental datasets from Northern Hemisphere ecosystems. We sampled over the confidence ranges of the parameters and ran simulations for each pair of temperature response function and calibration site. We analyzed both the long-term and the short-term heterotrophic soil carbon dynamics over a virtual elevation gradient in southern Switzerland. <br><br> The temperature relationship of Lloyd-Taylor fitted the overall data set best as the other functions either resulted in poor fits (Exponential, Arrhenius) or were not applicable for all datasets (Gaussian, Van’t Hoff). There were two main sources of uncertainty for model simulations: (1) the lack of confidence in the parameter estimates of the temperature response, which increased with increasing temperature, and (2) the size of the simulated soil carbon pools, which increased with elevation, as slower turn-over times lead to higher carbon stocks and higher associated uncertainties. Our results therefore indicate that such projections are more uncertain for higher elevations and hence also higher latitudes, which are of key importance for the global terrestrial carbon budget. 

  • 12.
    Rosén, P
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Bindler, R
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Korsman, T
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Mighall, T
    Bishop, K
    The complementary power of pH and lake-water organic carbon reconstructions for discerning the influences on surface waters across decadal to millennial time scales2011In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 8, p. 2717-2727Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lysevatten, a lake in southwest Sweden, has experienced both acidification and recent changes in the amount of lake-water organic carbon (TOC), both causing concern across Europe and North America. A range of paleolimnological tools – diatom-inferred pH, inferred lake-water TOC from visible-near-infrared spectroscopy (VNIRS), multielement geochemistry and pollen analysis, combined with geochemical modeling were used to reconstruct the lake’s chemistry and surroundings back to the most recent deglaciation 12 500 years ago. The results reveal that the recent anthropogenic impacts are similar in magnitude to the longterm variation driven by natural catchment changes and early agricultural land use occurring over centuries and millennia. The combined reconstruction of both lake-water TOC and lithogenic element delivery can explain the major changes in lake-water pH and modeled acid neutralizing capacity during the past 12 500 years. The results raise important questions regarding what precisely comprises “reference” conditions (i.e., free from human impacts) as defined in the European Water Framework Directive.

  • 13. Schelker, J.
    et al.
    Sponseller, Ryan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Ring, E.
    Högbom, L.
    Löfgren, S.
    Laudon, H.
    Nitrogen export from a boreal stream network following forest harvesting: seasonal nitrate removal and conservative export of organic forms2016In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Clear-cutting is today the primary driver of large-scale forest disturbance in boreal regions of Fennoscandia. Among the major environmental concerns of this practice for surface waters is the increased mobilization of nutrients, such as dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) into streams. But while DIN loading to first-order streams following forest harvest has been previously described, the downstream fate and impact of these inputs is not well understood. We evaluated the downstream fate of DIN and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) inputs in a boreal landscape that has been altered by forest harvests over a 10-year period. The small first-order streams indicated substantial leaching of DIN, primarily as nitrate (NO3-) in response to harvests with NO3- concentrations increasing by similar to 15-fold. NO3- concentrations at two sampling stations further downstream in the network were strongly seasonal and increased significantly in response to harvesting at the mid-sized stream, but not at the larger stream. DIN removal efficiency, E-r, calculated as the percentage of "forestry derived" DIN that was retained within the stream network based on a mass-balance model was highest during the snowmelt season followed by the growing season, but declined continuously throughout the dormant season. In contrast, export of DON from the landscape indicated little removal and was essentially conservative. Overall, net removal of DIN between 2008 and 2011 accounted for similar to 65% of the total DIN mass exported from harvested patches distributed across the landscape. These results high-light the capacity of nitrogen-limited boreal stream networks to buffer DIN mobilization that arises from multiple clear-cuts within this landscape. Further, these findings shed light on the potential impact of anticipated measures to increase forest yields of boreal forests, such as increased fertilization and shorter forest rotations, which may increase the pressure on boreal surface waters in the future.

  • 14. Shirokova, Liudmila S.
    et al.
    Chupakov, Artem V.
    Zabelina, Svetlana A.
    Neverova, Natalia V.
    Payandi-Rolland, Dahedrey
    Causserand, Carole
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Climate Impacts Research Centre (CIRC).
    Pokrovsky, Oleg S.
    Humic surface waters of frozen peat bogs (permafrost zone) are highly resistant to bio- and photodegradation2019In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 16, no 12, p. 2511-2526Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In contrast to the large number of studies on humic waters from permafrost-free regions and oligotrophic waters from permafrost-bearing regions, the bio- and photolability of DOM from the humic surface waters of permafrost-bearing regions has not been thoroughly evaluated. Following standardized protocol, we measured biodegradation (at low, intermediate and high temperatures) and photodegradation (at one intermediate temperature) of DOM in surface waters along the hydrological continuum (depression -> stream -> thermokarst lake -> Pechora River) within a frozen peatland in European Russia. In all systems, within the experimental resolution of 5% to 10 %, there was no bio- or photodegradation of DOM over a 1-month incubation period. It is possible that the main cause of the lack of degradation is the dominance of allochthonous refractory (soil, peat) DOM in all waters studied. However, all surface waters were supersaturated with CO2. Thus, this study suggests that, rather than bio- and photodegradation of DOM in the water column, other factors such as peat pore-water DOM processing and respiration of sediments are the main drivers of elevated pCO(2) and CO2 emission in humic boreal waters of frozen peat bogs.

  • 15.
    Siewert, Matthias B.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Department of Physical Geography, Stockholm University, Stockholm, 106 91, Sweden.
    High-resolution digital mapping of soil organic carbon in permafrost terrain using machine learning: a case study in a sub-Arctic peatland environment2018In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 15, no 6, p. 1663-1682Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) stored in northern peatlands and permafrost-affected soils are key components in the global carbon cycle. This article quantifies SOC stocks in a sub-Arctic mountainous peatland environment in the discontinuous permafrost zone in Abisko, northern Sweden. Four machine-learning techniques are evaluated for SOC quantification: multiple linear regression, artificial neural networks, support vector machine and random forest. The random forest model performed best and was used to predict SOC for several depth increments at a spatial resolution of 1 m (1 x 1 m). A high-resolution (1 m) land cover classification generated for this study is the most relevant predictive variable. The landscape mean SOC storage (0-150 cm) is estimated to be 8.3 +/- 8.0 kg C m(-2) and the SOC stored in the top meter (0-100 cm) to be 7.7 +/- 6.2 kg C m(-2). The predictive modeling highlights the relative importance of wetland areas and in particular peat plateaus for the landscape's SOC storage. The total SOC was also predicted at reduced spatial resolutions of 2, 10, 30, 100, 250 and 1000 m and shows a significant drop in land cover class detail and a tendency to underestimate the SOC at resolutions > 30 m. This is associated with the occurrence of many small-scale wetlands forming local hot-spots of SOC storage that are omitted at coarse resolutions. Sharp transitions in SOC storage associated with land cover and permafrost distribution are the most challenging methodological aspect. However, in this study, at local, regional and circum-Arctic scales, the main factor limiting robust SOC mapping efforts is the scarcity of soil pedon data from across the entire environmental space. For the Abisko region, past SOC and permafrost dynamics indicate that most of the SOC is barely 2000 years old and very dynamic. Future research needs to investigate the geomorphic response of permafrost degradation and the fate of SOC across all landscape compartments in post-permafrost landscapes.

  • 16. Soares, Ana R. A.
    et al.
    Bergström, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Sponseller, Ryan A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Moberg, Joanna M.
    Giesler, Reiner
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Kritzberg, Emma S.
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Berggren, Martin
    New insights on resource stoichiometry: assessing availability of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus to bacterioplankton2017In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 14, no 6, p. 1527-1539Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Boreal lake and river ecosystems receive large quantities of organic nutrients and carbon (C) from their catchments. How bacterioplankton respond to these inputs is not well understood, in part because we base our understanding and predictions on "total pools", yet we know little about the stoichiometry of bioavailable elements within organic matter. We designed bioassays with the purpose of exhausting the pools of readily bioavailable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC), bioavailable dissolved nitrogen (BDN), and bioavailable dissolved phosphorus (BDP) as fast as possible. Applying the method in four boreal lakes at base-flow conditions yielded concentrations of bioavailable resources in the range 105-693 mu g CL-1 for BDOC (2% of initial total DOC), 24-288 mu g NL-1 for BDN (31% of initial total dissolved nitrogen), and 0.2-17 mu g PL-1 for BDP (49% of initial total dissolved phosphorus). Thus, relative bioavailability increased from carbon (C) to nitrogen (N) to phosphorus (P). We show that the main fraction of bioavailable nutrients is organic, representing 80% of BDN and 61% of BDP. In addition, we demonstrate that total C : N and C: P ratios are as much as 13-fold higher than C : N and C: P ratios for bioavailable resource fractions. Further, by applying additional bioavailability measurements to seven widely distributed rivers, we provide support for a general pattern of relatively high bioavailability of P and N in relation to C. Altogether, our findings underscore the poor availability of C for support of bacterial metabolism in boreal C-rich fresh-waters, and suggest that these ecosystems are very sensitive to increased input of bioavailable DOC.

  • 17. Sommar, Jonas
    et al.
    Zhu, Wei
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang, China.
    Shang, Lihai
    Lin, Che-Jen
    Feng, Xinbin
    Seasonal variations in metallic mercury (Hg0) vapor exchange overbiannual wheat–corn rotation cropland in the North China Plain2016In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 13, no 7, p. 2029-2049Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Air surface gas exchange of Hg-0 was measured in five approximately bi-weekly campaigns (in total 87 days) over a wheat corn rotation cropland located on the North China Plain (NCP) using the relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) technique. The campaigns were separated over the duration of a full-year period (2012-2013) aiming to capture the flux pattern over essential growing stages of the planting system with a low homogeneous topsoil Hg content (similar to 45 ng g(-1)). Contrasting pollution regimes influenced air masses at the site and corresponding Hg-0 concentration means (3.3 in late summer to 6.2 ng m(-3) in winter) were unanimously above the typical hemispheric background of 1.5-1.7 ng m(-3) during the campaigns. Extreme values in bi-directional net Hg-0 exchange were primarily observed during episodes of peaking Hg-0 concentrations. In tandem with under-canopy chamber measurements, the above-canopy REA measurements provided evidence for a balance between Hg-0 ground emissions and uptake of Hg-0 by the developed canopies. During the wheat growing season covering similar to 2 / 3 of the year at the site, net field-scale Hg emission prevailed for periods of active plant growth until canopy senescence (mean flux: 20.0 ng m(-3)), showing the dominance of Hg soil efflux during warmer seasons. In the final vegetative stage of corn and wheat, ground and above canopy Hg flux displayed inversed daytime courses with a near mid-day maximum (emission) and minimum (deposition), respectively. In contrast to wheat, Hg uptake of the corn canopy at this stage offset ground Hg emissions with additional removal of Hg from the atmosphere. Differential uptake of Hg between wheat (C-3 species) and corn (C-4 species) foliage is discernible from estimated Hg flux (per leaf area) and Hg content in mature cereal leaves, being a factor of >3 higher for wheat (at 120 ng g(-1) dry weight). Furthermore, this study shows that intermittent flood irrigation of the air-dry field induced a short pulse of Hg emission due to displacement of Hg present in the surface soil horizon. A more lingering effect of flood irrigation is however suppressed Hg soil emissions, which for wet soil (similar to 30 % vol) beneath the corn canopy was on average a factor of similar to 3 lower than that for drier soil (<10 % vol) within wheat stands Extrapolation of the campaign Hg flux data (mean: 7.1 ng m(-2) h(-1)) to the whole year suggests the wheat corn rotation cropland to be a net source of atmospheric Hg. The observed magnitude of annual wet deposition flux (similar to 8.8 mu g Hg m(-2)) accounted for a minor fraction of soil Hg evasion flux prevailing over the majority of the year. Therefore, we suggest that dry deposition of other forms of airborne Hg-0 constitutes the dominant pathway of Hg-0 input to this local ecosystem and that these deposited forms would be gradually transformed and re-emitted as Hg-0 rather than being sequestered here. In addition, after crop harvesting, the practice of burning agricultural residue with considerable Hg content rather than straw return management yields seasonally substantial atmospheric Hg-0 emissions from croplands in the NCP region.

  • 18.
    Tolu, Julie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Rydberg, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Meyer-Jacob, Carsten
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Gerber, Lorenz
    Bindler, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Spatial variability of organic matter molecular composition and elemental geochemistry in surface sediments of a small boreal Swedish lake2017In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 14, no 7, p. 1773-1792Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The composition of sediment organic matter (OM) exerts a strong control on biogeochemical processes in lakes, such as those involved in the fate of carbon, nutrients and trace metals. While between-lake spatial variability of OM quality is increasingly investigated, we explored in this study how the molecular composition of sediment OM varies spatially within a single lake and related this variability to physical parameters and elemental geochemistry. Surface sediment samples (0-10 cm) from 42 locations in Harsvatten - a small boreal forest lake with a complex basin morphometry - were analyzed for OM molecular composition using pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry for the contents of 23 major and trace elements and biogenic silica. We identified 162 organic compounds belonging to different biochemical classes of OM (e.g., carbohydrates, lignin and lipids). Close relationships were found between the spatial patterns of sediment OM molecular composition and elemental geochemistry. Differences in the source types of OM (i.e., terrestrial, aquatic plant and algal) were linked to the individual basin morphometries and chemical status of the lake. The variability in OM molecular composition was further driven by the degradation status of these different source pools, which appeared to be related to sedimentary physicochemical parameters (e.g., redox conditions) and to the molecular structure of the organic compounds. Given the high spatial variation in OM molecular composition within Harsvatten and its close relationship with elemental geochemistry, the potential for large spatial variability across lakes should be considered when studying biogeochemical processes in-volved in the cycling of carbon, nutrients and trace elements or when assessing lake budgets.

  • 19. Vonk, J. E.
    et al.
    Tank, S. E.
    Bowden, W. B.
    Laurion, I.
    Vincent, W. F.
    Alekseychik, P.
    Amyot, M.
    Billet, M. F.
    Canario, J.
    Cory, R. M.
    Deshpande, B. N.
    Helbig, M.
    Jammet, M.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Larouche, J.
    MacMillan, G.
    Rautio, M.
    Anthony, K. M. Walter
    Wickland, K. P.
    Reviews and syntheses: Effects of permafrost thaw on Arctic aquatic ecosystems2015In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 12, no 23, p. 7129-7167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Arctic is a water-rich region, with freshwater systems covering about 16% of the northern permafrost landscape. Permafrost thaw creates new freshwater ecosystems, while at the same time modifying the existing lakes, streams, and rivers that are impacted by thaw. Here, we describe the current state of knowledge regarding how permafrost thaw affects lentic (still) and lotic (moving) systems, exploring the effects of both thermokarst (thawing and collapse of ice-rich permafrost) and deepening of the active layer (the surface soil layer that thaws and refreezes each year). Within thermokarst, we further differentiate between the effects of thermokarst in lowland areas vs. that on hillslopes. For almost all of the processes that we explore, the effects of thaw vary regionally, and between lake and stream systems. Much of this regional variation is caused by differences in ground ice content, topography, soil type, and permafrost coverage. Together, these modifying factors determine (i) the degree to which permafrost thaw manifests as thermokarst, (ii) whether thermokarst leads to slumping or the formation of thermokarst lakes, and (iii) the manner in which constituent delivery to freshwater systems is altered by thaw. Differences in thaw-enabled constituent delivery can be considerable, with these modifying factors determining, for example, the balance between delivery of particulate vs. dissolved constituents, and inorganic vs. organic materials. Changes in the composition of thaw-impacted waters, coupled with changes in lake morphology, can strongly affect the physical and optical properties of thermokarst lakes. The ecology of thaw-impacted lakes and streams is also likely to change; these systems have unique microbiological communities, and show differences in respiration, primary production, and food web structure that are largely driven by differences in sediment, dissolved organic matter, and nutrient delivery. The degree to which thaw enables the delivery of dissolved vs. particulate organic matter, coupled with the composition of that organic matter and the morphology and stratification characteristics of recipient systems will play an important role in determining the balance between the release of organic matter as greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4), its burial in sediments, and its loss downstream. The magnitude of thaw impacts on northern aquatic ecosystems is increasing, as is the prevalence of thaw-impacted lakes and streams. There is therefore an urgent need to quantify how permafrost thaw is affecting aquatic ecosystems across diverse Arctic landscapes, and the implications of this change for further climate warming.

  • 20.
    Ågren, A.
    et al.
    Dept. of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 901 83 Umeå, Sweden.
    Haei, Mahsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Kohler, S. J.
    Dept. of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bishop, K.
    Dept. of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Laudon, H.
    Dept. of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 901 83 Umeå, Sweden.
    Regulation of stream water dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations during snowmelt: the role of discharge, winter climate and memory effects2010In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 7, no 9, p. 2901-2913Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a 15 year stream record from a northern boreal catchment, we demonstrate that the inter-annual variation in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations during snowmelt was related to discharge, winter climate and previous DOC export. A short and intense snowmelt gave higher stream water DOC concentrations, as did long winters, while a high previous DOC export during the antecedent summer and autumn resulted in lower concentrations during the following spring. By removing the effect of discharge we could detect that the length of winter affected the modeled soil water DOC concentrations during the following snowmelt period, which in turn affected the concentrations in the stream. Winter climate explained more of the stream water DOC variations than previous DOC export during the antecedent summer and autumn.

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