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  • 1. Chen, Xiao
    et al.
    Wang, Zhongqiu
    Zhu, Guoying
    Nordberg, Gunnar F.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa.
    Jin, Taiyi
    Ding, Xiaoqiang
    The association between cumulative cadmium intake and osteoporosis and risk of fracture in a Chinese population2019Ingår i: Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, ISSN 1559-0631, E-ISSN 1559-064X, Vol. 29, nr 3, s. 435-443Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Bone is one of the target organs for cadmium toxicity. However, few studies have shown the association between cumulative cadmium intake and prevalence of osteoporosis and bone fracture. In the present study, we evaluated the association between cumulative cadmium intake and osteoporosis and risk of fracture in a Chinese population. A total of 790 subjects (488 women and 302 men) living in a control area and two cadmium-polluted areas were included. The cumulative cadmium intake was estimated by a food survey. The bone mineral density was determined by using single-photon absorptiometry. The cumulative cadmium intakes were 0.48, 2.14, and 11.00 g for men, and 0.42, 2.11, and 11.12 g in women in control, and moderately and heavily polluted areas, respectively. In women, the odds ratios (ORs) of subjects with a cadmium intake between 2.21 and 10.63 g and >10.63 g were 1.30 (95% CI: 0.58-2.94) and 2.36 (95% CI: 1.14-5.16), compared with those with a cadmium intake < 0.58 g after adjusting to the confounders for osteoporosis. The ORs of subjects with a cadmium intake >10.63 g were 2.34 (95% CI: 1.23-4.38) for all of the women and 2.62 (95% CI: 1.02-5.58) in women ≥ 60 years old, compared with those with a cadmium intake <10.63 g after adjusting to the confounders for bone fractures. In men, similar trends were observed, but no statistical significance was found. In addition, those subjects with renal tubular dysfunction showed high risk of bone fracture. Our results indicate that a high level of cumulative cadmium intake is associated with an increased rate of osteoporosis and fractures among women.

  • 2.
    Hagenbjörk-Gustafsson, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Tornevi, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Andersson, Eva M
    Johannesson, Sandra
    Bellander, Tom
    Merritt, Anne-Sophie
    Tinnerberg, Håkan
    Westberg, Håkan
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Sallsten, Gerd
    Determinants of personal exposure to some carcinogenic substances and nitrogen dioxide among the general population in five Swedish cities2014Ingår i: Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, ISSN 1559-0631, E-ISSN 1559-064X, Vol. 24, nr 4, s. 437-443Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental levels of airborne carcinogenic and related substances are comparatively better known than individual exposure and its determinants. We report on a personal monitoring program involving five Swedish urban populations. The aim of the program was to investigate personal exposure to benzene, 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde, and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The measurements were performed among 40 inhabitants during seven consecutive days, in one urban area each year, during 2000-2008. The estimated population exposure levels were 1.95 μg/m(3) for benzene, 0.56 μg/m(3) for 1,3-butadiene, 19.4 μg/m(3) for formaldehyde, and 14.1 μg/m(3) for NO2. Statistical analysis using a mixed-effects model revealed that time spent in traffic and time outdoors contributed to benzene and 1,3- butadiene exposure. For benzene, refueling a car was an additional determinant influencing the exposure level. Smoking or environmental tobacco smoke were significant determinants of exposure to NO2, benzene, and 1,3-butadiene. Those with a gas stove had higher NO2 exposure. Living in a single-family house increased the exposure to formaldehyde significantly. In a variance component model, the between-subject variance dominated for 1,3-butadiene and formaldehyde, whereas the between-city variance dominated for NO2. For benzene, the between-subject and between-cities variances were similar.

  • 3.
    Orru, Hans
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. Department of Public Health, University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Lövenheim, Boel
    Johansson, Christer
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Potential health impacts of changes in air pollution exposure associated with moving traffic into a road tunnel2015Ingår i: Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, ISSN 1559-0631, E-ISSN 1559-064X, Vol. 25, nr 5, s. 524-531Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A planned 21 km bypass (18 km within a tunnel) in Stockholm is expected to reduce ambient air exposure to traffic emissions, but same time tunnel users could be exposed to high concentrations of pollutants. For the health impacts calculations in 2030, the change in annual ambient NOX and PM10 exposure of the general population was modelled in 100 × 100 m(2) grids for Greater Stockholm area. The tunnel exposure was estimated based on calculated annual average NOX concentrations, time spent in tunnel and number of tunnel users. For the general population, we estimate annually 23.7 (95% CI: 17.7-32.3) fewer premature deaths as ambient concentrations are reduced. At the same time, tunnel users will be exposed to NOX levels up to 2000 μg/m(-3). Passing through the whole tunnel two times on working days would correspond to an additional annual NOX exposure of 9.6 μg/m(3). Assuming that there will be ~55,000 vehicles daily each way and 1.3 persons of 30-74 years of age in each vehicle, we estimate the tunnel exposure to result in 20.6 (95% CI: 14.1-25.6) premature deaths annually. If there were more persons per vehicle, or older and vulnerable people travelling, or tunnel dispersion conditions worsen, the adverse effect would become larger.

  • 4.
    Sommar, Johan Nilsson
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Hedmer, Maria
    Lundh, Thomas
    Nilsson, Leif
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik.
    Skerfving, Staffan
    Bergdahl, Ingvar A
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Investigation of lead concentrations in whole blood, plasma and urine as biomarkers for biological monitoring of lead exposure2014Ingår i: Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, ISSN 1559-0631, E-ISSN 1559-064X, Vol. 24, nr 1, s. 51-57Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Lead in blood is a major concept in biomonitoring of exposure but investigations of its alternatives are scarce. The aim of the study was to describe different lead biomarkers' variances, day-to-day and between individuals, estimating their fraction of the total variance. Repeated sampling of whole blood, plasma and urine were conducted for 48 lead-exposed men and 20 individuals under normal environmental lead exposure, in total 603 measurements. For lead workers, the fraction of the total variance attributed to differences between individuals was 91% for whole-blood lead (geometric mean 227 μg/l; geometric standard deviation (GSD): 1.55 μg/l); plasma 78% (0.57 μg/l; GSD: 1.84 μg/l); density-adjusted urine 82%; and unadjusted urine 75% (23.7 μg/l; GSD: 2.48 μg/l). For the individuals under normal lead exposure, the corresponding fractions were 95% of the total variance for whole blood (20.7 μg/l; GSD: 8.6 μg/l), 15% for plasma (0.09 μg/l; GSD: 0.04 μg/l), 87% for creatinine-adjusted urine and 34% for unadjusted (10.8 μg/l; GSD: 6.7 μg/l). Lead concentration in whole blood is the biomarker with the best ability to discriminate between individuals with different mean concentration. Urinary and plasma lead also performed acceptably in lead workers, but at low exposures plasma lead was too imprecise. Urinary adjustments appear not to increase the between-individual fraction of the total variance among lead workers but among those with normal lead exposure.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 27 February 2013; doi:10.1038/jes.2013.4.

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