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  • 1. Balint, Miklos
    et al.
    Pfenninger, Markus
    Grossart, Hans-Peter
    Taberlet, Pierre
    Vellend, Mark
    Leibold, Mathew A.
    Englund, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Bowler, Diana
    Environmental DNA time series in ecology2018Ingår i: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, ISSN 0169-5347, E-ISSN 1872-8383, Vol. 33, nr 12, s. 945-957Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecological communities change in time and space, but long-term dynamics at the century-to-millennia scale are poorly documented due to lack of relevant data sets. Nevertheless, understanding long-term dynamics is important for explaining present-day biodiversity patterns and placing conservation goals in a historical context. Here, we use recent examples and new perspectives to highlight how environmental DNA (eDNA) is starting to provide a powerful new source of temporal data for research questions that have so far been overlooked, by helping to resolve the ecological dynamics of populations, communities, and ecosystems over hundreds to thousands of years. We give examples of hypotheses that may be addressed by temporal eDNA biodiversity data, discuss possible research directions, and outline related challenges.

  • 2. Estrela, Sylvie
    et al.
    Libby, Eric
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik. Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, NM, USA.
    Van Cleve, Jeremy
    Debarre, Florence
    Deforet, Maxime
    Harcombe, William R.
    Pena, Jorge
    Brown, Sam P.
    Hochberg, Michael E.
    Environmentally Mediated Social Dilemmas2019Ingår i: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, ISSN 0169-5347, E-ISSN 1872-8383, Vol. 34, nr 1, s. 6-18Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    By consuming and producing environmental resources, organisms inevitably change their habitats. The consequences of such environmental modifications can be detrimental or beneficial not only to the focal organism but also to other organisms sharing the same environment. Social evolution theory has been very influential in studying how social interactions mediated by public 'goods' or 'bads' evolve by emphasizing the role of spatial structure. The environmental dimensions driving these interactions, however, are typically abstracted away. We propose here a new, environment-mediated taxonomy of social behaviors where organisms are categorized by their production or consumption of environmental factors that can help or harm others in the environment. We discuss microbial examples of our classification and highlight the importance of environmental intermediates more generally.

  • 3. Nogues-Bravo, David
    et al.
    Rodriguez-Sanchez, Francisco
    Orsini, Luisa
    de Boer, Erik
    Jansson, Roland
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Morlon, Helene
    Fordham, Damien A.
    Jackson, Stephen T.
    Cracking the code of biodiversity responses to past climate change2018Ingår i: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, ISSN 0169-5347, E-ISSN 1872-8383, Vol. 33, nr 10, s. 765-776Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    How individual species and entire ecosystems will respond to future climate change are among the most pressing questions facing ecologists. Past biodiversity dynamics recorded in the paleoecological archives show a broad array of responses, yet significant knowledge gaps remain. In particular, the relative roles of evolutionary adaptation, phenotypic plasticity, and dispersal in promoting survival during times of climate change have yet to be clarified. Investigating the paleo-archives offers great opportunities to understand biodiversity responses to future climate change. In this review we discuss the mechanisms by which biodiversity responds to environmental change, and identify gaps of knowledge on the role of range shifts and tolerance. We also outline approaches at the intersection of paleoecology, genomics, experiments, and predictive models that will elucidate the processes by which species have survived past climatic changes and enhance predictions of future changes in biological diversity.

  • 4. Pontarp, Mikael
    et al.
    Bunnefeld, Lynsey
    Cabral, Juliano Sarmento
    Etienne, Rampal S.
    Fritz, Susanne A.
    Gillespie, Rosemary
    Graham, Catherine H.
    Hagen, Oskar
    Hartig, Florian
    Huang, Shan
    Jansson, Roland
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Maliet, Odile
    Münkemüller, Tamara
    Pellissier, Loïc
    Rangel, Thiago F.
    Storch, David
    Wiegand, Thorsten
    Hurlbert, Allen H.
    The Latitudinal Diversity Gradient: Novel Understanding through Mechanistic Eco-evolutionary2019Ingår i: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, ISSN 0169-5347, E-ISSN 1872-8383, Vol. 34, nr 3, s. 211-223Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The latitudinal diversity gradient (LDG) is one of the most widely studied patterns in ecology, yet no consensus has been reached about its underlying causes. We argue that the reasons for this are the verbal nature of existing hypotheses, the failure to mechanistically link interacting ecological and evolutionary processes to the LDG, and the fact that empirical patterns are often consistent with multiple explanations. To address this issue, we synthesize current LDG hypotheses, uncovering their eco-evolutionary mechanisms, hidden assumptions, and commonalities. Furthermore, we propose mechanistic eco-evolutionary modeling and an inferential approach that makes use of geographic, phylogenetic, and trait-based patterns to assess the relative importance of different processes for generating the LDG.

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