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  • 1.
    Alalehto, Tage
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Crime prevention in terms of criminal intent criteria in white-collar crime: a propositional analysis2018In: Journal of Financial Crime, ISSN 1359-0790, E-ISSN 1758-7239, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 838-844Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    In the field of crime prevention there are several theoretical approaches explaining why crime occurs and how to prevent it. Three of them – routine activity theory, crime pattern theory and the theory of crime-as-choice – are logically tested in this work. The point of departure is to test if the theories are logical consistent and logical valid, irrespective of whether the criterion for criminal intent is changed from direct intention to negligence.

    Design/methodology/approach

    The issues will be explored in a logical structure by a first-order logic propositional analysis.

    Findings

    The analysis shows that all three theories are logical consistent, but only routine activity theory is logical valid. The conclusion is that crime prevention should in general assume that routine activity theory is the legitimate theory and that social prevention as a prevention strategy is logically unnecessary to adopt because it does not matter whether the offender is motivated (direct intention) or not (negligence).

    Practical implications

    It does not really matter if the authors theoretically treat white-collar offenders as motivated, because if they have committed an actus reus, they are an offender according to the objective requisites. This means that the best strategies to prevent a potential white-collar criminal are situational prevention, i.e. complicate their access to money, where it becomes irrelevant if the potential offender has a mens rea or not. What counts is the prevention of actus reus by a potential offender.

    Originality/value

    As far as I know, no one has previously investigated the logical consistency and/or logical validity of routine activity theory, crime pattern theory and the theory of crime-as-choice as theories of crime prevention.

  • 2.
    Alalehto, Tage
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    The wealthy white-collar criminals: corporations as offenders2010In: Journal of Financial Crime, ISSN 1359-0790, E-ISSN 1758-7239, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 308-320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to map out the corporate criminality among the 70 top-ranked corporations in the Swedish business world. It aims to identify properties common for companies that get a decision by a regulatory agency and which kind of properties there are when the regulatory agency goes to a decision.

    Design/methodology/approach – Data on decisions taken against violation (criminal, civil, or administrative) collected from annual reports (1999-2008) presented on the internet by eight regulatory agencies in Sweden. The corporations collected by the internet site “largest companies” and the Swedish business magazine Affärsvärlden (World of Business). The analysis of data were worked out by cross tab, designed as analysis of covariation between one independent variable to one dependent variable, or two or more independent variables (were one or more of them were held invariant to each other) to one dependent variable.

    Findings – Approximately, 60 companies (85.7 per cent) had at least one decision against them during the period 1999-2008, and 28 companies had more than five decisions (court, administrative law, objection or settlement) against them, which means that 40 per cent of the whole sample performed a carrier criminality. Among the variables, low profitability, interior business, and to some degree, management control tend to covary with some or all kinds of decisions given by the regulatory agencies.

    Originality/value – The paper provides the field of white-collar crime an investigation of corporations as offenders from the Swedish horizon. It provides regulatory agencies with a model of the causality behind the decisions against a corporation.

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