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  • 1.
    Andersen, Emil Alexander Sherman
    et al.
    Center for Permafrost (CENPERM), Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; Terrestrial Ecology Section, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Michelsen, Anders
    Fenger-Nielsen, Rasmus
    Hollesen, Jørgen
    Ambus, Per Lennart
    Elberling, Bo
    Nitrogen isotopes reveal high N retention in plants and soil of old Norse and Inuit deposits along a wet-dry arctic fjord transect in Greenland2020In: Plant and Soil, ISSN 0032-079X, E-ISSN 1573-5036, Vol. 455, no 1-2, p. 241-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Plant growth in the Arctic is often nutrient limited due to temperature constraints on decomposition and low atmospheric input of nitrogen (N). Local hotspots of nutrient enrichment found in up to 4000-year-old archaeological deposits can be used to explore the recycling and long-term retention of nutrients in arctic ecosystems.

    Methods: We investigated old Inuit and Norse deposits (known as middens) and adjacent tundra ecosystems along a wet-dry fjord gradient in western Greenland to explore the isotopic fingerprinting of plant and soil carbon and nitrogen (C-13/C-12 and(15)N/N-14) derived from human presence.

    Results: At all locations we observed a significant isotopic fingerprint in soil and plant N related to human deposits. This demonstrates a century-long legacy of past human habitation on plant and soil characteristics and indicates a surprisingly high N retention in these ecosystems. This is consistent with the significantly higher plant biomass in areas with archaeological deposits.

    Conclusion: Vegetation composition and N in plants and soils displayed marked differences along the wet-dry fjord gradient. Furthermore, the profound nutrient enrichment and organic matter accumulation in archaeological deposits compared to surrounding tundra demonstrates a century-long legacy of past habitation on plant and soil characteristics as well as efficient N cycling with surprisingly limited N loss.

  • 2.
    Bandau, Franziska
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Albrectsen, Benedicte Riber
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta
    Gundale, Michael J.
    Genotypic variability in Populus tremula L. affects how anthropogenic nitrogen enrichment influences litter decomposition2017In: Plant and Soil, ISSN 0032-079X, E-ISSN 1573-5036, Vol. 410, no 1-2, p. 467-481Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Boreal forests can receive substantial nitrogen (N) enrichment via atmospheric N deposition and industrial forest fertilization. While it is known that N enrichment can impact ecosystem properties, such as litter decomposition, it remains poorly understood how genetic variability within plant species modifies these impacts. We grew replicates of ten Populus tremula L. genotypes (GTs) under 3 N conditions; ambient, and levels representing atmospheric N deposition and industrial forest fertilization. We measured leaf and litter physical and chemical traits, and conducted a litter decomposition assay. Leaf traits varied due to N treatment, GT, and constitutive tannin levels. Leaf traits were in some cases correlated with litter traits, and decomposition was influenced by single and interactive effects of N and GT. Nitrogen addition unexpectedly decelerated decomposition, potentially due to changes in specific leaf area (SLA). Variation in decomposition rates among the GTs was best explained by their differences in SLA, and lignin:N ratio. Nitrogen addition also caused a shift in which traits most strongly influenced decomposition. Our findings highlight that the considerable diversity present in tree species can have a strong influence on ecosystem processes, such as decomposition, and how these processes respond to environmental change.

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  • 3.
    Blume-Werry, Gesche
    et al.
    Experimental Plant Ecology, Institute of Botany and Landscape Ecology, Greifswald University, Greifswald, Germany.
    Di Maurizio, Vanessa
    Beil, Ilka
    Lett, Signe
    Schwieger, Sarah
    Experimental Plant Ecology, Institute of Botany and Landscape Ecology, Greifswald University, Greifswald, Germany.
    Kreyling, Juergen
    Don't drink it, bury it: comparing decomposition rates with the tea bag index is possible without prior leaching2021In: Plant and Soil, ISSN 0032-079X, E-ISSN 1573-5036, Vol. 465, no 1-2, p. 613-621Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The standardized ‘Tea Bag Index’ enables comparisons of litter decomposition rates, a key component of carbon cycling, across ecosystems. However, tea ‘litter’ may leach more than other plant litter, skewing comparisons of decomposition rates between sites with differing moisture conditions. Therefore, some researchers leach tea bags before field incubation. This decreases comparability between studies, and it is unclear if this modification is necessary.

    Methods: We submerged green and rooibos tea bags in water, and measured their leaching losses over time (2 min – 72 h). We also compared leaching of tea to leaf and root litter from other plant species, and finally, compared mass loss of pre-leached and standard tea bags in a fully factorial incubation experiment differing in soil moisture (wet and dry) and soil types (sand and peat).

    Results: Both green and rooibos tea leached strongly, levelling-off at about 40% and 20% mass loss, respectively. Mass loss from leaching was highest in green tea followed by leaves of other plants, then rooibos tea, and finally roots of other plants. When incubated for 4 weeks, both teas showed lower mass loss when they had been pre-leached compared to standard tea bags. However, these differences between standard and pre-leached tea bags were similar in moist vs. dry soils, both in peat and in sand.

    Conclusions: Thus, despite large leaching losses, we conclude that leaching tea bags before field or lab incubation is not necessary to compare decomposition rates between systems, ranging from as much as 5% to 25% soil moisture.

  • 4.
    Esberg, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    du Toit, Ben
    Department of Forest and Wood Science, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, South Africa.
    Olsson, Rickard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Ilstedt, Ulrik
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 901 83 Umeå, Sweden.
    Giesler, Reiner
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Microbial responses to P addition in six South African forest soils2010In: Plant and Soil, ISSN 0032-079X, E-ISSN 1573-5036, Vol. 329, no 1/2, p. 209-225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forests growing on highly weathered soils are often phosphorus (P) limited and competition between geochemical and biological sinks affects their soil P dynamics. In an attempt to elucidate the factors controlling the relative importance of these two sinks, we investigated the relationship of between soil microbial growth kinetics and soil chemical properties following amendments with C, N and P in six South African forest soils. Microbial growth kinetics were determined from respiration curves derived from measurements of CO2 effluxes from soil samples in laboratory incubations. We found that microbial growth rates after C + N additions were positively related to NaOH-extractable P and decreased with soil depth, whereas the lag time (the time between substrate addition and exponential growth) was negatively related to extractable P. However, the growth rate and lag time were unrelated to the soil’s sorption properties or Al and Fe contents. Our results indicate that at least some of the NaOH-extractable inorganic P may be biologically available within a relatively short time (days to weeks) and might be more labile than previously thought. Our results also show that microbial utilization of C + N only seemed to be constrained by P in the deeper part of the soil profiles.

  • 5. George, T. S.
    et al.
    Giles, C. D.
    Menezes-Blackburn, D.
    Condron, L. M.
    Gama-Rodrigues, A. C.
    Jaisi, D.
    Lang, F.
    Neal, A. L.
    Stutter, M. , I
    Almeida, D. S.
    Bol, R.
    Cabugao, K. G.
    Celi, L.
    Cotner, J. B.
    Feng, G.
    Goll, D. S.
    Hallama, M.
    Krueger, J.
    Plassard, C.
    Rosling, A.
    Darch, T.
    Fraser, T.
    Giesler, Reiner
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Richardson, A. E.
    Tamburini, F.
    Shand, C. A.
    Lumsdon, D. G.
    Zhang, H.
    Blackwell, M. S. A.
    Wearing, C.
    Mezeli, M. M.
    Almas, A. R.
    Audette, Y.
    Bertrand, I
    Beyhaut, E.
    Boitt, G.
    Bradshaw, N.
    Brearley, C. A.
    Bruulsema, T. W.
    Ciais, P.
    Cozzolino, V
    Duran, P. C.
    Mora, M. L.
    de Menezes, A. B.
    Dodd, R. J.
    Dunfield, K.
    Engl, C.
    Frazao, J. J.
    Garland, G.
    Jimenez, J. L. Gonzalez
    Graca, J.
    Granger, S. J.
    Harrison, A. F.
    Heuck, C.
    Hou, E. Q.
    Johnes, P. J.
    Kaiser, K.
    Kjaer, H. A.
    Klumpp, E.
    Lamb, A. L.
    Macintosh, K. A.
    Mackay, E. B.
    McGrath, J.
    McIntyre, C.
    McLaren, T.
    Meszaros, E.
    Missong, A.
    Mooshammer, M.
    Negron, C. P.
    Nelson, L. A.
    Pfahler, V
    Poblete-Grant, P.
    Randall, M.
    Seguel, A.
    Seth, K.
    Smith, A. C.
    Smits, M. M.
    Sobarzo, J. A.
    Spohn, M.
    Tawaraya, K.
    Tibbett, M.
    Voroney, P.
    Wallander, H.
    Wang, L.
    Wasaki, J.
    Haygarth, P. M.
    Organic phosphorus in the terrestrial environment: a perspective on the state of the art and future priorities2018In: Plant and Soil, ISSN 0032-079X, E-ISSN 1573-5036, Vol. 427, no 1-2, p. 191-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The dynamics of phosphorus (P) in the environment is important for regulating nutrient cycles in natural and managed ecosystems and an integral part in assessing biological resilience against environmental change. Organic P (P-o) compounds play key roles in biological and ecosystems function in the terrestrial environment being critical to cell function, growth and reproduction.

    Scope: We asked a group of experts to consider the global issues associated with P-o in the terrestrial environment, methodological strengths and weaknesses, benefits to be gained from understanding the P-o cycle, and to set priorities for P-o research.

    Conclusions: We identified seven key opportunities for P-o research including: the need for integrated, quality controlled and functionally based methodologies; assessment of stoichiometry with other elements in organic matter; understanding the dynamics of P-o in natural and managed systems; the role of microorganisms in controlling P-o cycles; the implications of nanoparticles in the environment and the need for better modelling and communication of the research. Each priority is discussed and a statement of intent for the P-o research community is made that highlights there are key contributions to be made toward understanding biogeochemical cycles, dynamics and function of natural ecosystems and the management of agricultural systems.

  • 6.
    Hasegawa, Shun
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden; Hawkesbury Institute for the Environment, Western Sydney University, Locked Bag 1797, NSW, Penrith, Australia.
    Ryan, Megan H.
    School of Agriculture and Environment, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, WA, Perth, Australia; Institute of Agriculture, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, WA, Perth, Australia.
    Power, Sally A.
    Hawkesbury Institute for the Environment, Western Sydney University, Locked Bag 1797, NSW, Penrith, Australia.
    CO2 concentration and water availability alter the organic acid composition of root exudates in native Australian species2023In: Plant and Soil, ISSN 0032-079X, E-ISSN 1573-5036, Vol. 485, p. 507-524Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Root exudation of organic acids (OAs) facilitates plant P uptake from soil, playing a key role in rhizosphere nutrient availability. However, OA exudation responses to CO2 concentrations and water availability remain largely untested.

    Methods: We examined the effects of CO2 and water on OA exudates in three Australian woodland species: Eucalyptus tereticornis, Hakea sericea and Microlaena stipoides. Seedlings were grown in a glasshouse in low P soil, exposed to CO2 (400 ppm [aCO2] or 540 ppm [eCO2]) and water treatments (100% water holding capacity [high-watered] or 25–50% water holding capacity [low-watered]). After six weeks, we collected OAs from rhizosphere soil (OArhizo) and trap solutions in which washed roots were immersed (OAexuded).

    Results: For E. tereticornis, the treatments changed OArhizo composition, driven by increased malic acid in plants exposed to eCO2 and increased oxalic acid in low-watered plants. For H. sericea, low-watered plants had higher OAexuded per plant (+ 116%) and lower OArhizo per unit root mass (–77%) associated with larger root mass but fewer cluster roots. For M. stipoides, eCO2 increased OAexuded per plant (+ 107%) and per unit root mass (+ 160%), while low-watered plants had higher citric and lower malic acids for OArhizo and OAexuded: changes in OA amounts and composition driven by malic acid were positively associated with soil P availability under eCO2.

    Conclusion: We conclude that eCO2 and altered water availability shifted OAs in root exudates, modifying plant–soil interactions and the associated carbon and nutrient economy.

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  • 7.
    Hasselquist, Eliza Maher
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hasselquist, Niles J.
    Sparks, Jed P.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Recovery of nitrogen cycling in riparian zones after stream restoration using delta N-15 along a 25-year chronosequence in northern Sweden2017In: Plant and Soil, ISSN 0032-079X, E-ISSN 1573-5036, Vol. 410, no 1-2, p. 423-436Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish boreal streams were modified to transport timber by pushing boulders to stream sides, creating levees that disconnected streams from riparian areas. Many streams have since been restored and our goal was to understand how this affects riparian nitrogen (N) cycling. We compared the natural abundance of delta N-15 isotopes in foliage and roots of Filipendula ulmaria plus soils and litter along streams restored 2-25 years ago. We measured sources of N, potential immobilization of N, namely plant diversity and biomass, and the amount and sources of carbon (C) to determine if these were important for describing riparian N cycling. The delta N-15 of F. ulmaria foliage changed dramatically just after restoration compared to the channelized, disconnected state and then converged over the next 25 years with the steady-state reference. The disturbance and reconnection of the stream with the riparian zone during restoration created a short-term pulse of N availability and gaseous losses of N as a result of enhanced microbial processing of N. With increasing time since restoration, N availability appears to have decreased, and N sources changed to those derived from mycorrhizae, amino acids, or the humus layer, or there was enhanced N-use efficiency by older, more diverse plant communities.

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  • 8.
    HUSSDANELL, K
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    CLONAL DIFFERENCES IN ROOTING OF ALNUS-INCANA LEAFY CUTTINGS1981In: Plant and Soil, ISSN 0032-079X, E-ISSN 1573-5036, Vol. 59, no 2, p. 193-199Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Högberg, Mona N.
    et al.
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Blaško, Róbert
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Holm Bach, Lisbet
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hasselquist, Niles J.
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Egnell, Gustaf
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Näsholm, Torgny
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Högberg, Peter
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    The return of an experimentally N-saturated boreal forest to an N-limited state: observations on the soil microbial community structure, biotic N retention capacity and gross N mineralisation2014In: Plant and Soil, ISSN 0032-079X, E-ISSN 1573-5036, Vol. 381, no 1-2, p. 45-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To find out how N-saturated forests can return to an N-limited state, we examined the recovery of biotic N sinks under decreasing N supply. We studied a 40-year-old experiment in Pinus sylvestris forest, with control plots, N0, three N treatments, N1-N3, of which N3 was stopped after 20 years, allowing observation of recovery. In N3, the N concentration in foliage was still slightly elevated, but the N uptake capacity of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) roots in N3 was no longer lower than in N0. Per area the amount of a biomarker for fungi, here mainly attributed ECM, was higher in N3 and N0 than in N1 and N2. Retention of labeled (NH4)-N-15 (+) by the soil was greater in the control (99 %) and N3 (86 %), than in N1 (45 %) and N2 (29 %); we ascribe these differences to biotic retention because cation exchange capacity did not vary. Gross N mineralisation and retention of N correlated, negatively and positively, respectively, with abundance of ECM fungal biomarker. The results suggest a key role for ECM fungi in regulating the N cycle. We propose, in accordance with plant C allocation theory, that recovery is driven by increased tree below-ground C allocation to ECM roots and fungi.

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  • 10.
    Keech, Olivier
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Carcaillet, Christopher
    Nilsson, Marie Charlotte
    Adsorption of allelopathic compounds by wood-derived charcoal: the role of wood porosity2005In: Plant and Soil, ISSN 0032-079X, E-ISSN 1573-5036, Vol. 272, no 1-2, p. 291-300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Swedish boreal forests, areas dominated by the dwarf shrub Empetrum hermaphroditum Hagerup are known for their poor regeneration of trees and one of the causes of this poor regeneration has been attributed to allelopathy (i.e. chemical interferences) by E. hermaphroditum. Fire-produced charcoal is suggested to play an important role in rejuvenating those ecosystems by adsorbing allelopathic compounds, such as phenols, released by E. hermaphroditum. In this study, we firstly investigated whether the adsorption capacity of charcoal of different plant species varies according to the wood anatomical structures of these, and secondly we tried to relate the adsorption capacity to wood anatomical structure. Charcoal was produced from eight boreal and one temperate woody plant species and the adsorption capacity of charcoal was tested by bioassays technique. Seed germination was used as a measurement of the ability of charcoal to adsorb allelochemicals. The charcoal porosity was estimated and the pore size distribution was then calculated in order to relate the wood anatomical features to the adsorption capacity. The results showed that the adsorption capacity of charcoal was significantly different between plant species and that deciduous trees had a significantly higher adsorption capacity than conifers and ericaceous species. The presence of macro-pores rather than a high porosity appears to be the most important for the adsorption capacity. These results suggest that fire-produced charcoal has different ability to adsorb phenols in boreal forest soil, and therefore may have differing effects on the germination of seeds of establishing tree seedlings.

  • 11.
    Lett, Signe
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Department of Biology, Terrestrial Ecology Section, University of Copenhagen, Øster Farimagsgade 2D, Copenhagen, DK-1353 K, Denmark.
    Michelsen, Anders
    Department of Biology, Terrestrial Ecology Section, University of Copenhagen, Øster Farimagsgade 2D, Copenhagen, DK-1353 K, Denmark.
    Seasonal variation in nitrogen fixation and effects of climate change in a subarctic heath2014In: Plant and Soil, ISSN 0032-079X, E-ISSN 1573-5036, Vol. 379, no 1-2, p. 193-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nitrogen fixation associated with cryptogams is potentially very important in arctic and subarctic terrestrial ecosystems, as it is a source of new nitrogen (N) into these highly N limited systems. Moss-, lichen- and legume-associated N-2 fixation was studied with high frequency (every second week) during spring, summer, autumn and early winter to uncover the seasonal variation in input of atmospheric N-2 to a subarctic heath with an altered climate. We estimated N-2 fixation from ethylene production by acetylene reduction assay in situ in a field experiment with the treatments: long- vs. short-term summer warming using plastic tents and litter addition (simulating expansion of the birch forest). N-2 fixation activity was measured from late April to mid November and 33 % of all N-2 was fixed outside the vascular plant growing season (Jun-Aug). This substantial amount underlines the importance of N-2 fixation in the cold period. Warming increased N-2 fixation two- to fivefold during late spring. However, long-term summer warming tended to decrease N-2 fixation outside the treatment (tents present) period. Litter alone did not alter N-2 fixation but in combination with warming N-2 fixation increased, probably because N-2 fixation became phosphorus limited under higher temperatures, which was alleviated by the P supply from the litter. In subarctic heath, the current N-2 fixation period extends far beyond the vascular plant growing season. Climate warming and indirect effects such as vegetation changes affect the process of N-2 fixation in different directions and thereby complicate predictions of future N cycling.

  • 12.
    Martínez-Hidalgo, Pilar
    et al.
    Departments of Molecular, Cell and Developmental Biology, UCLA, 621 Charles E. Young Drive, CA, Los Angeles, United States; Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, calle Tulipán s/n, Móstoles, Madrid, Spain.
    Humm, Ethan A.
    Departments of Molecular, Cell and Developmental Biology, UCLA, 621 Charles E. Young Drive, CA, Los Angeles, United States.
    Still, David W.
    Department of Plant Science, California State Polytechnic University, CA, Pomona, United States.
    Shi, Baochen
    Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, UCLA, CA, Los Angeles, United States.
    Pellegrini, Matteo
    Departments of Molecular, Cell and Developmental Biology, UCLA, 621 Charles E. Young Drive, CA, Los Angeles, United States; Molecular Biology Institute, UCLA, CA, Los Angeles, United States.
    de la Roca, Gabriela
    Departments of Molecular, Cell and Developmental Biology, UCLA, 621 Charles E. Young Drive, CA, Los Angeles, United States.
    Veliz, Esteban
    Departments of Molecular, Cell and Developmental Biology, UCLA, 621 Charles E. Young Drive, CA, Los Angeles, United States; Department of Plant Biology, University of California-Davis, CA, Davis, United States.
    Maymon, Maskit
    Departments of Molecular, Cell and Developmental Biology, UCLA, 621 Charles E. Young Drive, CA, Los Angeles, United States.
    Bru, Pierrick
    Departments of Molecular, Cell and Developmental Biology, UCLA, 621 Charles E. Young Drive, CA, Los Angeles, United States.
    Huntemann, Marcel
    DOE Joint Genome Institute, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, CA, Berkeley, United States.
    Clum, Alicia
    DOE Joint Genome Institute, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, CA, Berkeley, United States.
    Palaniappan, Krishnaveni
    DOE Joint Genome Institute, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, CA, Berkeley, United States.
    Varghese, Neha
    DOE Joint Genome Institute, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, CA, Berkeley, United States.
    Mukherjee, Supratim
    DOE Joint Genome Institute, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, CA, Berkeley, United States.
    Reddy, T.B.K.
    DOE Joint Genome Institute, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, CA, Berkeley, United States.
    Daum, Chris
    DOE Joint Genome Institute, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, CA, Berkeley, United States.
    Ivanova, Natalia N.
    DOE Joint Genome Institute, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, CA, Berkeley, United States.
    Kyrpides, Nikos C.
    DOE Joint Genome Institute, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, CA, Berkeley, United States.
    Shapiro, Nicole
    DOE Joint Genome Institute, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, CA, Berkeley, United States.
    Eloe-Fadrosh, Emiley A.
    DOE Joint Genome Institute, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, CA, Berkeley, United States.
    Hirsch, Ann M.
    Departments of Molecular, Cell and Developmental Biology, UCLA, 621 Charles E. Young Drive, CA, Los Angeles, United States; Molecular Biology Institute, UCLA, CA, Los Angeles, United States.
    Medicago root nodule microbiomes: insights into a complex ecosystem with potential candidates for plant growth promotion2021In: Plant and Soil, ISSN 0032-079X, E-ISSN 1573-5036Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Studying the legume nodule microbiome is important for understanding the development and nutrition of the plants inhabited by the various microbes within and upon them. We analyzed the microbiomes of these underground organs from both an important crop plant (Medicago sativa) and a related legume (M. polymorpha) using metagenomic and culture-based techniques to identify the main cultivatable contributors to plant growth enhancement.

    Methods: Using high-throughput sequencing, culturing, and in planta techniques, we identified and analyzed a broad population of the bacterial taxa within Medicago nodules and the surrounding soil.

    Results: Fifty-one distinct bacterial strains were isolated and characterized from nodules of both Medicago species and their growth-promoting activities were studied. Sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons showed that in addition to Ensifer, the dominant genus, a large number of Gram-positive bacteria belonging to the Firmicutes and Actinobacteria were also present. After performing ecological and plant growth-promoting trait analyses, selecting the most promising strains, and then performing in planta assays, we found that strains of Bacillus and Micromonospora among others could play important roles in supporting the growth, health, and productivity of the host plant.

    Conclusion: To our knowledge, the comparison of the biodiversity of the microbiota of undomesticated vs. cultivated Medicago roots and nodules is novel and shows the range of potential Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria that could be used for plants of agricultural interest. These and other nodule-isolated microbes could also serve as inoculants with rhizobia with the goal of replacing synthetic fertilizers and pesticides for sustainable agriculture.

  • 13.
    Pu, Xiao
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. College of Resource, Environment and Tourism, Capital Normal University, Beijing, China ; State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, School of Geography, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China.
    Cheng, Hongguang
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Yang, Shengtian
    Lin, Chunye
    Lu, Lu
    Xie, Jing
    Responses of soil carbon and nitrogen to successive land use conversion in seasonally frozen zones2015In: Plant and Soil, ISSN 0032-079X, E-ISSN 1573-5036, Vol. 387, no 1-2, p. 117-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Policy-oriented successive land use conversion intensively occurred in seasonally frozen zones of China during the past five decades. However, responses of soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) to land use conversion under cold temperate climates are not fully understood. The objective was to characterize C and N variations following a succession of forest, dryland and paddy. Soil cores were collected for 6 layers with a 10 cm increment from three adjacent chronosequences to determine concentrations of soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and alkaline hydrolysable nitrogen (HN). Analysis of variance with multivariate general linear model was operated on data sets. Significant losses of SOC and TN storages subject to land use conversion were merely confined within 0 - 10 cm layer, decreasing by 16 % and 38 % for forest to dryland and by 23 % and 43 % for forest to paddy, respectively. Cultivation also influenced SOC and TN stocks at 20 - 40 cm depth for dryland and 20 - 60 cm depth for paddy with increases by 38 Mg C ha(-1) and 2.8 Mg N ha(-1) for forest to dryland, and by 56 Mg C ha(-1) and 4.1 Mg N ha(-1) for forest to paddy, respectively. Successive land use conversion from forest to cropland affected C and N levels in deeper layers, demonstrating the high potentials of subsoil in sequestrating C and N. The extents of cultivation-induced SOC and TN redistribution along soil profile varied among different agricultural systems. DOC and HN changes interpreted SOC and TN changes with land use, presenting high involvements of soluble compartments in SOC and TN variations. The net variation in SOC/TN ratio effectively indicated C and N changes when dryland was converted to paddy.

  • 14.
    Sarneel, J. M. Judith
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Ecology & Biodiversity Group and Plant Ecophysiology Group, Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, 3584 CH Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Veen, G. F. Ciska
    Legacy effects of altered flooding regimes on decomposition in a boreal floodplain2017In: Plant and Soil, ISSN 0032-079X, E-ISSN 1573-5036, Vol. 421, no 1-2, p. 57-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since long-term experiments are scarce, we have poor understanding of how changed flooding regimes affect processes such as litter decomposition. We simulated short- and long-term changed flooding regimes by transplanting turfs between low (frequently flooded) and high (in-frequently flooded) elevations on the river bank in 2000 (old turfs) and 2014 (young turfs). We tested how incubation elevation, turf origin and turf age affected decomposition of standard litter (tea) and four types of local litter. For tea, we found that the initial decomposition rate (k) and stabilization (S) of labile material during the second decomposition phase were highest at high incubation elevation. We found intermediate values for k and S in young transplanted turfs, but turf origin was not important in old turfs. Local litter mass loss was generally highest at high incubation elevations, and effects of turf origin and turf age were litter-specific. We conclude that incubation elevation, i.e., the current flooding regime, was the most important factor driving decomposition. Soil origin (flooding history) affected decomposition of tea only in young turfs. Therefore, we expect that changes in flooding regimes predominantly affect decomposition directly, while indirect legacy effects are weaker and litter- or site-specific.

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  • 15.
    Schwieger, Sarah
    et al.
    Experimental Plant Ecology, Institute of Botany and Landscape Ecology, Greifswald University, Greifswald, Germany.
    Blume-Werry, Gesche
    Experimental Plant Ecology, Institute of Botany and Landscape Ecology, Greifswald University, Greifswald, Germany.
    Peters, Bo
    Smiljanic, Marko
    Kreyling, Juergen
    Patterns and drivers in spring and autumn phenology differ above- and belowground in four ecosystems under the same macroclimatic conditions2019In: Plant and Soil, ISSN 0032-079X, E-ISSN 1573-5036, Vol. 445, no 1-2, p. 217-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims: Start and end of the growing season determine important ecosystem processes, but their drivers may differ above-and belowground, between autumn and spring, and between ecosystems.

    Here, we compare above-and belowground spring and autumn phenology, and their abiotic drivers (temperature, water level, and soil moisture) in four temperate ecosystems (beech forest, alder carr, phragmites reed, and sedge reed).

    Methods: Root growth was measured in-situ with minirhizotrons and compared with aboveground phenology assessed with dendrometer data and NDVI.

    Results: Synchrony of above- and belowground phenology depended on ecosystem. Onset of root growth was later than shoot growth in all three peatlands (12–33 days), but similar in the beech forest. The growing season ended earlier belowground in the two forested ecosystems (beech forest: 27 days, understory of the alder carr: 55 days), but did not differ in the phragmites reed. Generally, root production was correlated with soil temperature (especially in spring) and water level in the peatlands, while abiotic factors were less correlated with leaf activity or root production in either spring or autumn in the beech forest.

    Conclusions: Root production on organic soils was ten times higher compared to the zonal broadleaf deciduous forest on mineral soils, highlighting the importance of peatlands. Belowground phenology cannot be projected from aboveground phenology and measuring root phenology is crucial to understand temporal dynamics of production and carbon fluxes.

  • 16. Schwieger, Sarah
    et al.
    Kreyling, Juergen
    Milbau, Ann
    Blume-Werry, Gesche
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Autumnal warming does not change root phenology in two contrasting vegetation types of subarctic tundra2018In: Plant and Soil, ISSN 0032-079X, E-ISSN 1573-5036, Vol. 424, no 1-2, p. 145-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Root phenology is important in controlling carbon and nutrient fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems, yet, remains largely unexplored, especially in the Arctic. We compared below- and aboveground phenology and ending of the growing season in two contrasting vegetation types of subarctic tundra: heath and meadow, and their response to experimental warming in autumn. Root phenology was measured in-situ with minirhizotrons and compared with aboveground phenology assessed with repeat digital photography. The end of the growing season, both below- and aboveground, was similar in meadow and heath and the belowground growing season ended later than aboveground in the two vegetation types. Root growth was higher and less equally distributed over time in meadow compared to heath. The warming treatment increased air and soil temperature by 0.5 A degrees C and slightly increased aboveground greenness, but did not affect root growth or prolong the below- and aboveground growing season in either of the vegetation types. These results imply that vegetation types differ in root dynamics and suggest that other factors than temperature control autumnal root growth in these ecosystems. Further investigations of root phenology will help to identify those drivers, in which including responses of functionally contrasting vegetation types will help to estimate how climate change affects belowground processes and their roles in ecosystem function.

  • 17. Segura, Javier H.
    et al.
    Nilsson, Mats B.
    Sparrman, Tobias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Serk, Henrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Schleucher, Juergen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Tolu, Julie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Öquist, Mats G.
    Boreal tree species affect soil organic matter composition and saprotrophic mineralization rates2019In: Plant and Soil, ISSN 0032-079X, E-ISSN 1573-5036, Vol. 441, no 1-2, p. 173-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To investigate how different tree species affect the composition of SOM and its mineralization in boreal forest ecosystems.

    Methods: We used pyrolysis GC-MS for molecular-level characterization of the SOM formed under five common boreal tree species at a replicated field experiment similar to 50years after plantation. We incubated soil samples at 4, 9, 14 and 19 degrees C and measured inherent CO2 production and substrate-induced respiration. We then evaluated if the saprotrophic microbial activity and its temperature sensitivity was controlled by the SOM composition.

    Results: The molecular composition of the SOM emerged as key factor influencing SOM properties in plots with different tree species. Most of the variance in the SOM content was explained by the organo-chemical composition of the SOM. More importantly, the fraction of the microbial community able to utilize the native SOM was largely controlled by the SOM organo-chemical composition. Temperature sensitivity of CO2 production (Q(10)) was not explained by SOM composition. However, the microbial access to different SOM pools varied with temperature.

    Conclusions: These results bridge the gap between the paradigms of short-term litter and long-term SOM decomposition showing that, on an intermediate timescale (similar to 50 years), boreal tree species affect SOM molecular composition and saprotrophic mineralization rates.

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  • 18.
    Sellstedt, Anita
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    NITROGENASE ACTIVITY, HYDROGEN EVOLUTION AND BIOMASS PRODUCTION IN DIFFERENT CASUARINA SYMBIOSES1988In: Plant and Soil, ISSN 0032-079X, E-ISSN 1573-5036, Vol. 105, no 1, p. 33-40Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Sellstedt, Anita
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    HUSSDANELL, K
    GROWTH, NITROGEN-FIXATION AND RELATIVE EFFICIENCY OF NITROGENASE IN ALNUS-INCANA GROWN IN DIFFERENT CULTIVATION SYSTEMS1984In: Plant and Soil, ISSN 0032-079X, E-ISSN 1573-5036, Vol. 78, no 1-2, p. 147-158Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Sellstedt, Anita
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    ROSBROOK, PA
    KANG, L
    REDDELL, P
    EFFECT OF CARBON SOURCE ON GROWTH, NITROGENASE AND UPTAKE HYDROGENASE ACTIVITIES OF FRANKIA ISOLATES FROM CASUARINA SP1994In: Plant and Soil, ISSN 0032-079X, E-ISSN 1573-5036, Vol. 158, no 1, p. 63-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of different carbon sources on the growth of Frankia isolates for Casuarina sp. was studied. In addition, regulation of nitrogenase and uptake hydrogenase activity by carbon sources was investigated. For each of the three isolates, JCT287, KB5 and HFPCcI3, growth was greatest on the carbon sources pyruvate and propionate. In general the carbon sources which gave the greatest growth gave the highest levels of nitrogenase activity, but repressed the activity of uptake hydrogenase. The regulation of growth, uptake hydrogenase activity and nitrogenase activity is discussed.

  • 21.
    Sundqvist, Maja K.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Department of Forest Ecology and Management, SLU, Umeå, Sweden.
    Wardle, David A.
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, SLU, Umeå, Sweden.
    Vincent, Andrea
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Giesler, Reiner
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Contrasting nitrogen and phosphorus dynamics across an elevational gradient for subarctic tundra heath and meadow vegetation2014In: Plant and Soil, ISSN 0032-079X, E-ISSN 1573-5036, Vol. 383, no 1-2, p. 387-399Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores soil nutrient cycling processes and microbial properties for two contrasting vegetation types along an elevational gradient in subarctic tundra to improve our understanding of how temperature influences nutrient availability in an ecosystem predicted to be sensitive to global warming. We measured total amino acid (Amino-N), mineral nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations, in situ net N and P mineralization, net Amino-N consumption, and microbial biomass C, N and P in both heath and meadow soils across an elevational gradient near Abisko, Sweden. For the meadow, NH4 (+) concentrations and net N mineralization were highest at high elevations and microbial properties showed variable responses; these variables were largely unresponsive to elevation for the heath. Amino-N concentrations sometimes showed a tendency to increase with elevation and net Amino-N consumption was often unresponsive to elevation. Overall, PO4-P concentrations decreased with elevation and net P immobilization mostly occurred at lower elevations; these effects were strongest for the heath. Our results reveal that elevation-associated changes in temperature can have contrasting effects on the cycling of N and P in subarctic soils, and that the strength and direction of these effects depend strongly on dominant vegetation type.

  • 22.
    Tavares, Fernando
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Department of Botany and Institute for Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Porto, Portugal.
    Bernardo, Lisandro
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Sellstedt, Anita
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Identification and expression studies of a catalase and a bifunctional catalase-peroxidase in Frankia strain R432003In: Plant and Soil, ISSN 0032-079X, E-ISSN 1573-5036, Vol. 254, no 1, p. 75-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A monofunctional catalase and a bifunctional catalase-peroxidase were revealed by activity staining of non-denaturing PAGE in Frankia strain R43. Both enzymes were shown to be cytoplasmatic, growth regulated and expressed mainly during the stationary growth phase. Nevertheless, low levels of constitutive expression could also be detected during the early stages of growth. Immunoblot analyses using a polyclonal antibody raised against a catalase-peroxidase purified from Streptomyces reticuli showed a band of 83.2 kDa, with the same growth dependent pattern as obtained by the non-denaturing PAGE analyses. Induction studies revealed that both enzymes were strongly induced by raising the intracellular concentration of H2O2 with paraquat, but not with exogenous H2O2. In addition, no acquisition of tolerance to exogenous H2O2 was observed whatever the pretreatment of the inocula, i.e. despite the expression level of both hydroperoxidases.

  • 23.
    Vincent, Andrea G.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Vestergren, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Gröbner, Gerhard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Persson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Centre for Environmental and Climate Research, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Schleucher, Jürgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Giesler, Reiner
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Soil organic phosphorus transformations in a boreal forest chronosequence2013In: Plant and Soil, ISSN 0032-079X, E-ISSN 1573-5036, Vol. 367, no 1-2, p. 149-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Aims Soil phosphorus (P) composition changes with ecosystem development, leading to changes in P bioavailability and ecosystem properties. Little is known, however, about how soil P transformations proceed with ecosystem development in boreal regions.

    Methods We used 1-dimensional 31P and 2-dimensional 1H, 31P correlation nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to characterise soil organic P transformations in humus horizons across a 7,800 year-old chronosequence in Västerbotten, northern Sweden.

    Results Total soil P concentration varied little along the chronosequence, but P compounds followed three trends. Firstly, the concentrations of DNA, 2-aminoethyl phosphonic acid, and polyphosphate, increased up to 1,200–2,700 years and then declined. Secondly, the abundances of α– and β—glycerophosphate, nucleotides, and pyrophosphate, were higher at the youngest site compared with all other sites. Lastly, concentrations of inositol hexakisphosphate fluctuated with site age. The largest changes in soil P composition tended to occur in young sites which also experience the largest shifts in plant community composition.

    Conclusions The apparent lack of change in total soil P is consistent with the youth and nitrogen limited nature of the Västerbotten chronosequence. Based on 2D NMR spectra, around 40 % of extractable soil organic P appeared to occur in live microbial cells. The observed trends in soil organic P may be related to shifts in plant community composition (and associated changes in soil microorganisms) along the studied chronosequence, but further studies are needed to confirm this.

  • 24. Zeh, Lilli
    et al.
    Limpens, Juul
    Erhagen, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Bragazza, Luca
    Kalbitz, Karsten
    Plant functional types and temperature control carbon input via roots in peatland soils2019In: Plant and Soil, ISSN 0032-079X, E-ISSN 1573-5036, Vol. 438, no 1-2, p. 19-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Northern peatlands store large amounts of soil organic carbon (C) that can be very sensitive to ongoing global warming. Recently it has been shown that temperature-enhanced growth of vascular plants in these typically moss-dominated ecosystems may promote microbial peat decomposition by increased C input via root exudates. To what extent different plant functional types (PFT) and soil temperature interact in controlling root C input is still unclear. In this study we explored how root C input is related to the presence of ericoid shrubs (shrubs) and graminoid sedges (sedges) by means of a factorial plant clipping experiment (= PFT effect) in two peatlands located at different altitude (= temperature effect).

    Methods: By selective clipping of shrub and sedge shoots in mixed vegetation at two Alpine peatland sites we interrupted the above- to belowground translocation of C, thus temporarily inhibiting root C release. Subsequent measurements of soil respiration, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration and stable isotope composition (13C) of DOC in pore water were used as proxies to estimate the above- to belowground transfer of C by different PFT.

    Results: We found that soil respiration rates and DOC concentrations temporarily decreased within 24 h after clipping, with the decrease in soil respiration being most pronounced at the 1.4 °C warmer peatland after clipping shrubs. The transient drop in DOC concentration coincided with a shift towards a heavier C isotope signature, indicating that the decrease was associated with inhibition of a light C source that we attribute to root exudates. Together these results imply that shrubs translocated more C into the peat than sedges, particularly at higher temperature.

    Conclusions: We showed that plant functional type and temperature interact in controlling root C input under field conditions in peatlands. Our results provide a mechanistic evidence that shrubs may potentially promote the release of stored soil C through root-derived C input.

  • 25. Öquist, Mats G.
    et al.
    Erhagen, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Department of Forest Ecology & Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Umeå, Sweden.
    Haei, Mahsa
    Sparrman, Tobias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Ilstedt, Ulrik
    Schleucher, Jürgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Nilsson, Mats B.
    The effect of temperature and substrate quality on the carbon use efficiency of saprotrophic decomposition2017In: Plant and Soil, ISSN 0032-079X, E-ISSN 1573-5036, Vol. 414, no 1, p. 113-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims: Mineralization of soil organic matter (SOM) constitutes a major carbon flux to the atmosphere. The carbon use efficiency (CUE) of the saprotrophic microorganisms mineralizing SOM is integral for soil carbon dynamics. Here we investigate how the CUE is affected by temperature, metabolic conditions, and the molecular complexity of the substrate.

    Methods: We incubated O-horizon soil samples (with either 13C–glucose or 13C–cellulose) from a boreal coniferous forest at 4, 9, 14, and 19 °C, and calculated CUEs based on the amount of 13C–CO2and 13C–labelled microbial biomass produced. The effects of substrate, temperature, and metabolic conditions (representing unlimited substrate supply and substrate limitation) on CUE were evaluated.

    Results: CUE from metabolizing glucose was higher as compared to cellulose. A slight decrease in CUE with increasing temperature was observed in glucose amended samples (but only in the range 9–19 °C), but not in cellulose amended samples. CUE differed significantly with metabolic conditions, i.e. CUE was higher during unlimited growth conditions as compared to conditions with substrate limitation.

    Conclusions: We conclude that it is integral to account for both differences in CUE during different metabolic phases, as well as complexity of substrate, when interpreting temperature dependence on CUE in incubation studies.

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