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  • 1.
    Adom, Philip Kofi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Umeå, Sweden; Department of Banking and Finance, University of Professional Studies, Accra, Ghana.
    The transition between energy efficient and energy inefficient states in Cameroon2016In: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 54, p. 248-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    I use a two-state (energy efficient/inefficient) Markov-switching dynamic model to study energy efficiency in Cameroon in a novel manner, employing yearly data covering 1971 to 2012. I find that the duration of an energy inefficient state is about twice as long as an energy efficient state, mainly due to fuel subsidies, low income, high corruption, regulatory inefficiencies, poorly developed infrastructure and undeveloped markets. To escape from an energy inefficient state a broad policy overhaul is needed. Trade liberalization and related growth policies together with the removal of fuel subsidies are useful, but insufficient policy measures; the results suggest that they should be combined with structural policies, aiming at institutional structure and investment in infrastructure. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 2.
    Amjadi, Golnaz
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    The Rebound Effect in Swedish Heavy Industry2018In: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 71, p. 140-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy efficiency improvement (EEI) benefits the climate and matters for energy security. The potential emission and energy savings due to EEI may however not fully materialize due to the rebound effect. In this study, we measure the size of the rebound effect for fuel and electricity within the four most energy intensive sectors in Sweden: pulp and paper, basic iron and steel, chemical, and mining. We use a detailed firm-level panel data set for 2000–2008 and apply Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) for measuring the rebound effect. We find that neither fuel nor electricity rebound effects fully offset the potential energy and emission savings. Among the determinants, we find CO2 intensity and fuel/electricity share to be useful indicators for identifying firms with higher or lower rebound effect within each sector.

  • 3. Bostian, Moriah
    et al.
    Färe, Rolf
    Grosskopf, Shawna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Department of Economics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Environmental investment and firm performance: a network approach2016In: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 57, p. 243-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the role of investment in environmental production practices for both environmental performance and energy efficiency over time. We employ a network DEA approach that links successive production technologies through intertemporal investment decisions with a period by period estimation. This allows us to estimate energy efficiency and environmental performance separately, as well as productivity change and its associated decompositions into efficiency change and technology change. Incorporating a network model also allows us to account for both short-term environmental management practices and long-term environmental investments in each of our productivity measures. We apply this framework to a panel of detailed plant-level production data for Swedish manufacturing firms covering the years 2002-2008.

  • 4.
    Broberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Egüez, Alejandro
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Blame it on the owner – Ownership and energy performance of multi-dwelling buildings2018In: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 72, p. 108-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we investigate the energy efficiency of multi-dwelling buildings in Sweden to find out whether the type of ownership matters. More specifically, we investigate whether rental apartment buildings are less energy efficient than cooperative apartment buildings and whether public ownership has a negative impact on energy efficiency. A conceptual framework is presented to illustrate that such differences could be explained by the split incentives problem and deviations from profit maximizing interests. The empirical analysis is based on a unique dataset that combines data from energy performance certificates with ownership data on residential units. The results indicate that cooperative apartment buildings are significantly more energy efficient than buildings with rental apartments. The results also indicate that publicly owned buildings have somewhat lower energy performance than privately owned ones.

  • 5.
    Broberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Egüez, Alejandro
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Kazukauskas, Andrius
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Vilnius University.
    Effects of energy performance certificates on investment: A quasi-natural experiment approach2019In: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Incomplete information may be one reason why some households do not invest in energy efficiency even though it would benefit them to do so. Energy performance certificates (EPCs) have been promoted to overcome such information shortages. In this paper, we investigate whether EPCs together with mandatory home energy audits make households more likely to invest in energy efficiency. Our study takes advantage of the mandatory nature of the EPCs to avoid the potential selection bias problem that typically applies to studies using voluntary energy audits as the treatment. Our treatment group consists of single-household houses in Sweden sold from 2008, i.e., when EPCs became legally required in connection with sales of residential buildings, to 2015; while the control group consists of houses sold between 2002 and 2008, i.e., without an EPC. The results show that there is no statistically significant treatment effect for most of the measures that a household can take to improve the energy performance of their house. The significant treatment effect that we do find concerns a few heating system-related measures.

  • 6.
    Broberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Is our everyday comfort for sale?: preferences for demand management on the electricity market2016In: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 54, p. 24-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a European perspective, the electricity markets have been experiencing major changes via deregulation, new technologies and changes in the production mix. Together with the daily and seasonal peak hours on the demand side, the changing markets put pressure on increased flexibility to handle and sustain balance in the grid systems. This paper focuses on the demand side and analyzes preferences related to demand management of Swedish households' energy use. In a web-based choice experiment respondents were faced with three hypothetical electricity contracts. The choices of preferred contracts revealed preferences for attributes related to external control of heating, household electricity and information dissemination (integrity). The results show that people put a substantial value on not being controlled, illustrated by compensations up to thousands of SEK for accepting a contract characterized by external control of energy use in various dimensions. In addition, the results show that household composition, age, gender and income play a role for the perceived discomfort from the external control and information dissemination. 

  • 7.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Patrik, Söderholm
    Luleå technical university.
    Convergence of carbon dioxide performance across Swedish industrial sectors: An environmental index approach2015In: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 51, p. 227-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall objective of the paper is to analyze convergence of CO2 emission intensity across manufacturing sectors in Sweden. Our approach differs from previous work on carbon convergence in that it employs a theoretical framework to construct a COperformance index, which explicitly takes into account that industrial firms produce good as well as bad outputs. This index is then used as the dependent variable in a growth-type regression equation. We employ a data set covering 14 industrial sectors over the time period 1990–2008. The results suggest the presence of conditional β-convergence in CO2 performance among the industrial sectors in Sweden. Moreover, the speed of convergence varies significantly in the sense that the higher the capital intensity is, the lower is the convergence rate to the different steady states. This is likely to reflect the importance of – and in part the costs associated with – capital turnover to achieve a transition towards lower CO2 emission paths.

  • 8.
    Daniel, Aemiro Melkamu
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Sandorf, Erlend Dancke
    Accounting for elimination-by-aspects strategies and demand management in electricity contract choice2018In: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 73, p. 80-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we report on a discrete choice experiment aimed at eliciting Swedish households' willingness-to-accept a compensation for restrictions on household electricity and heating use during peak hours. When analyzing data from discrete choice experiments it is typically assumed that people make rational utility maximizing decisions, i.e., that they consider all of the attribute information and compare all alternatives. However, mounting evidence shows that people use a wide range of simplifying strategies that are inconsistent with utility maximization. We use a flexible model capturing a two-stage decision process. In the first stage, respondents are allowed to eliminate from their choice set alternatives that contain an unacceptable level, in this case restrictions on the use of heating and electricity. In the second stage, respondents choose in a compensatory manner between the remaining alternatives. Our results show that about half of the respondents choose according to an elimination-by-aspects strategy, and that, on average, they are unwilling to accept any restrictions on heating in the evening or electricity use irrespective of time-of-day. Furthermore, considering elimination-by-aspects behavior leads to a downward shift in elicited willingness-to-accept. We discuss implications for policy.

  • 9.
    Ghalwash, Tarek
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Nordström, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Increased energy efficiency and the rebound effect: Effects on consumption and emissions2007In: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this paper is to examine how exogenous technological progress, in terms of an increase in energy efficiency, affects consumption choice by Swedish households and thereby emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx). The aim of the paper is closely related to the discussion of what is termed the “rebound effect”. To neutralise the rebound effect, we estimate the necessary change in CO2 tax, i.e. the CO2 tax that keeps CO2emissions at their initial level. In addition, we estimate how this will affect emissions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. The results indicate that an increase in energy efficiency of 20% will increase emissions of CO2 by approximately 5%. To reduce the CO2 emissions to their initial level, the CO2 tax must be raised by 130%. This tax increase will reduce the emissions of sulphur dioxide to below their initial level, but will leave the emissions of nitrogen oxides at a higher level than initially. Thus, if marginal damages from sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide are non-constant, additional policy instruments are needed.

  • 10.
    Hellström, Jörgen
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Lundgren, Jens
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Yu, Haishan
    Department of Economics, Dalarna University, 78188 Borlänge, Sweden.
    Why do electricity prices jump?: Empirical evidence from the Nordic electricity market2012In: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 34, no 6, p. 1774-1781Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper empirically explores the possible causes behind electricity price jumps in the Nordic electricity market, Nord Pool. A time-series model (a mixed GARCH–EARJI jump model) capturing the common statistical features of electricity prices is used to identify price jumps. By the model, a categorical variable is defined distinguishing no, positive and negative jumps. The causes for the jumps are then explored through the use of ordered probit models in a second stage. The empirical results indicate that the structure of the market plays an important role in whether shocks in the demand and supply for electricity translate into price jumps.

  • 11.
    Jaraite, Jurate
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Andrius, Kazukauskas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    The profitability of electricity generating firms and policies promoting renewable energy2013In: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 40, p. 858-865Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a cross-country firm-level dataset this study empirically analyses how the implemented renewable electricity promotion systems Tradable Green Certificates vs. Feed-in-Tariffs affected the profitability of the electricity production sector in Europe during the 2002-2010 period. In particular, it tests the hypothesis that due to market imperfections, namely because of higher investment risk, higher capital constraints and higher transaction costs, TGC schemes will be associated with excess profits for renewable electricity generating firms. The results somewhat support this hypothesis, showing that electricity generating firms, operating in EU countries that implemented TGC, were more profitable compared to FIT firms. 

  • 12.
    Jaraite, Jurate
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Di Maria, Corrado
    University of Birmingham, Department of Economics.
    Efficiency, productivity and environmental policy: A case study of power generation in the EU2012In: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 1557-1568Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study uses the EU public power generating sector as a case study to investigate the environmental efficiency and productivity enhancing performance of the European Union's CO2 Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) in its first phase. Using Data Envelopment Analysis methods, we measure the environmental efficiency and the productivity growth registered in public power generation across the EU over the 1996–2007 period. In the second stage of our analysis we attempt to explain changes in productivity and efficiency over time using econometric techniques. Our analysis suggests two conclusions: carbon pricing led to an increase in environmental efficiency and to a shift outwards of the technological frontier; and, the overly generous allocation of emission permits had a negative impact on both measures. These results are shown to be robust to changes in controls and specifications.

  • 13.
    Karimu, Amin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Functional form and aggregate energy demand elasticities: a nonparametric panel approach for 17 OECD countries2013In: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 36, p. 19-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies whether the commonly used linear parametric model for estimating aggregate energy demand is the correct functional specification for the data generating process. Parametric and nonparametric econometric approaches to analyzing aggregate energy demand data for 17 OECD countries are used. The results from the nonparametric correct model specification test for the parametric model rejects the linear, log-linear and translog specifications. The nonparametric results indicate that the effect of the income variable is nonlinear, while that of the price variable is linear but not constant. The nonparametric estimates for the price variable is relatively low, approximately -0.2. 

  • 14.
    Karimu, Amin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Energy intensity and convergence in Swedish industry: a combined econometric and decomposition analysis2017In: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 62, p. 347-356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How to reduce the carbon footprint associated with energy use is still a major concern for most decision-makers. Against this background, a better understanding of energy intensity—the ratio of energy use to output and its convergence could be important in the design of policies targeting the reduction in the carbon footprint related to energy use. This paper analyzes the determinants of energy intensity and tests for energy intensity convergence across 14 Swedish industrial sectors. This analysis builds on a nonparametric regression analysis of an intensity index constructed at the industry sector level as well as indices constructed from a decomposition of this index. The latter isolates two key determinants of changes in energy intensity and convergence patterns: the ef- ficiency channel-fundamental improvement in the use of energy and activity channel-structural shifts in the economy. The empirical analysis relies on a detailed sectorial dataset covering the period 1990–2008. The findings indicate that input prices, including the price of energy, have been significant determinants of energy intensity in the Swedish industrial sectors. This effect can primarily be attributed to the efficiency channel and with a less profound influence from the activity channel. We also find evidence of energy intensity convergence among the industrial sectors, and this primarily stems from the activity channel rather than from the efficiency channel.

  • 15.
    Sandra, Schusser
    et al.
    Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Jaraite, Jurate
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Explaining the interplay of three markets: green certificates, carbon emissions and electricity2018In: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 71, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Union's Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) and the Swedish-Norwegian Tradable Green Certificate System (Swedish-Norwegian TGC system) are two market-based instruments that have the overlapping goals to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by shifting economies to cleaner energy sources. Understanding the price signals and interactions of these two newly created markets is essential for all decision makers – regulators and direct market participants – who aim to reach the predefined policy goals in the most efficient manner. The interaction between these policy instruments has been widely examined from the theoretical perspective. This research contributes to the literature by empirically examining the interplay between the prices of three markets: (1) the price of tradable green certificates (TGC) in the Swedish-Norwegian TGC system, (2) the price of carbon in the EU ETS and (3) the price of electricity in the Nord Pool. We use a multivariate vector-autoregressive (VAR) approach to take into account the endogenous relationships between these prices. Our empirical results do not support the theoretical considerations that the impacts of carbon prices on TGC prices and hence on renewable electricity production are negative. Contrary, we find that, to date, increases in carbon prices positively affect TGC prices in the short run.

  • 16.
    Vesterberg, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    The effect of price on electricity contract choice2018In: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 69, p. 59-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    I explore how households switch between fixed-price and variable-price electricity contracts in response to variations in price and temperature, conditional on previous contract choice. Using panel data with roughly 54,000 Swedish households, a dynamic probit model is estimated. The results suggest that the choice of contract exhibits substantial state dependence, with an estimated marginal effect of previous contract choice of 0.96, and that the short-run effects of variation in prices and temperature on the choice of electricity contract are small. Further, the state dependence and price responsiveness are similar across housing types, income levels and other dimensions. A plausible explanation of these results is that transaction costs are perceived to be larger than the relatively small cost savings from switching between contracts.

  • 17.
    Vesterberg, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    The hourly income elasticity of electricity2016In: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 59, p. 188-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a detailed data set on appliance-level electricity consumption at the hourly level, we provide the first estimates of hourly and end-use-specific income elasticities for electricity. Such estimates are informative about how consumption patterns in general, and peak demand in particular, will develop as households’ income changes. We find that the income elasticities are highest during peak hours for kitchen and lighting, with point estimates of roughly 0.4, but insignificant for space heating.

  • 18.
    Zhang, Shanshan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Zhou, Wenchao
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Energy efficiency in Swedish Industry: A firm-level data envelopment analysis2016In: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 55, p. 42-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper assesses energy efficiency in Swedish industry. Using unique firm-level panel data covering the years 2001–2008, the efficiency estimates are obtained for firms in 14 industrial sectors by using data envelopment analysis (DEA). The analysis accounts for multi-output technologies where undesirable outputs are produced alongside with the desirable output. The results show that there was potential to improve energy efficiency in all the sectors and relatively large energy inefficiencies existed in small energy-use industries in the sample period. Also, we assess how the EU ETS, the carbon dioxide (CO2) tax and the energy tax affect energy efficiency by conducting a second-stage regression analysis. To obtain consistent estimates for the regression model, we apply a modified, input-oriented version of the double bootstrap procedure of Simar and Wilson (2007). The results of the regression analysis reveal that the EU ETS and the CO2 tax did not have significant influences on energy efficiency in the sample period. However, the energy tax had a positive relation with the energy efficiency.

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