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  • 1.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Presumption and prejudice: quotas may solve some problems, but create many more2017In: Mankind Quarterly, ISSN 0025-2344, Vol. 58, no 1, p. 117-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some Western countries contemplate, or have already implemented, legislative means to counter group differences. Here, I consider the arguments for, and consequences of, sex quotas. I find that it is logically incoherent to impose selection based on group membership, such as quotas, unless one acknowledges that there is a group difference in some trait that affects the outcome in the domain in which the selection takes place. If such a group difference is acknowledged, however, a quota might decrease the proportion of individuals who are more likely to have undesirable traits that are difficult to measure. However, the fact that traits are normally distributed and overlap across groups means that it is more effective to select for desirable traits than for group membership. Also, quotas inevitably entail negative consequences that should be weighed in. From the perspective of the individual, it is fairer to be selected on the basis of traits one actually has, rather than a stereotype of the group one belongs to. From the perspective of society as a whole, focussing on group differences and selecting based on group membership is divisive and conflict-driving, and stirs hostility based on competition over resources and social status. These arguments and conclusions are applicable to other groups and group differences in general.

  • 2.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sex differences in adult intelligence in Sweden2016In: Mankind Quarterly, ISSN 0025-2344, Vol. 57, no 1, p. 9-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies reporting sex differences in intelligence among the Swedish adult population were systematically reviewed. Five studies from 1959 to 2008 fulfilled the inclusion criteria, and were supplemented with three studies from 1988 to 2015 using non-representative but large samples. The analyses comprise 37 subtest effects that yielded a total of 57 effects. Males tend to exhibit higher performance on spatial and non-verbal reasoning tests, corresponding to ~0.15-0.25 standard deviations, and lower performance on memory tests (only one study). There were mostly non-significant trends for verbal test results.

  • 3. Woodley, Michael A.
    et al.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Charlton, Bruce G
    Possible dysgenic trends in simple visual reaction time performance in the Scottish Twenty-07 cohort: a reanalysis of Deary & Der (2005)2014In: Mankind Quarterly, ISSN 0025-2344, Vol. 55, no 1-2, p. 110-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a 2005 publication, Deary and Der presented data on both longitudinal and cross-sectional ageing effects for a variety of reaction time measures among a large sample of the Scottish population. This dataset is reanalysed in order to look for secular trends in mean simple reaction time performance. By extrapolating longitudinal aging effects from within each cohort across the entire age span via curve fitting, it is possible to predict the reaction time performance at the start-age of the next oldest cohort. The difference between the observed performance and the predicted one tells us whether older cohorts are slower than younger ones when age matched, or vice versa. Our data indicate a significant decline of 36 ms over a 40-year period amongst the female cohort. No trends of any sort were detected amongst the male cohort, possibly due to the well-known male neuro-maturation lag, which will be especially pronounced in the younger cohorts. These findings are tentatively supportive of the existence of secular declines in simple reaction time performance, perhaps consistent with a dysgenic effect. On the basis of a psychometric meta-analysis of the female reaction time decline, the g equivalent decline was estimated at -6.15 IQ points, or -1.54 points per decade.

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