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  • 1.
    Breznau, Nate
    et al.
    University of Mannheim, Mannheim Centre for European Social Research.
    Eger, Maureen A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Immigrant presence, group boundaries, and support for the welfare state in Western European societies2016In: Acta Sociologica, ISSN 0001-6993, E-ISSN 1502-3869, Vol. 59, no 3, p. 195-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The intersection of group dynamics and socioeconomic status theories is applied as a framework for the puzzling relationship of immigration and support for the welfare state in Western Europe. Group dynamics theories suggest that how individuals define their group boundaries moderates the impact of immigration on support for the welfare state. Immigrant presence should have the strongest effects for those with exclusive national group boundaries; weaker for those with conditionally inclusive boundaries based on reciprocity; and weakest or non-existent for those with inclusive group boundaries. Group boundaries should interact with material self-interest, leading individuals with less material security who are more likely to face social risks to be more supportive of the welfare state. Using data from the 4th European Social Survey linked to regional and national data, we find that group boundary salience plays a large moderating role in the relationship between immigration and native support for the welfare state, and that this role is intricately linked to material self-interest. Group dynamics should therefore be viewed in conjunction with existing structural welfare state theories as opposed to an alternative or isolated mechanism. 

  • 2.
    Edlund, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Attitudes towards tax reform and progressive taxation: Sweden 1991-961999In: Acta Sociologica, ISSN 0001-6993, E-ISSN 1502-3869, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 337-355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most debated elements of the Social Democratic reform of the Swedish tax system was the lowered income tax rate, which mainly affected the upper tax brackets. An analysis of public attitudes to the tax reform during three time periods reveals that attitudinal patterns are characterized by stability, both on aggregate and individual levels, and by profound social divisions. Support is more prevalent among more affluent social strata and those affiliated with Bourgeoisie parties compared to workers, low-income earners and those with left-wing preferences. Following attitudinal developments in the aftermath of the tax reform, social conflicts - mainly structured along class dimensions - as well as demands for tax progression tended to increase between 1991 and 1996.

  • 3.
    Edlund, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    The influence of the class situations of husbands and wives on class identity, party preference and attitudes towards redistribution: Sweden, Germany and the United States2003In: Acta Sociologica, ISSN 0001-6993, E-ISSN 1502-3869, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 195-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influences of female employment on working couples' class-based identities, preferences towards government redistribution, and choice of political party in Sweden, Germany, and the US are analysed in this article. Two issues are of interest. The first is the unit of class composition: families (conventional approach) versus individuals (individual approach). The results indicate that the conventional approach explains more of the variation in the dependent variables than does the individual approach. However, in many cases the inclusion of female employment within the class schema increases the explanatory power of social class significantly. The second issue is cross-country variation. Based on assumptions about the post-industrial economy, a hypothesis concerning cross-country variation in class-gender patterns is tested. In contrast to the hypothesis, the data show that female employment influences are greatest in Germany, closely followed by Sweden. In the US, influences of female employment on working couples' socio-political orientations are negligible.

  • 4.
    Edlund, Jonas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Grönlund, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Class and work autonomy in 21 countries: A question of production regime or power resources?2010In: Acta Sociologica, ISSN 0001-6993, E-ISSN 1502-3869, Vol. 53, no 3, p. 213-228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomy, or the extent to which employees can control their own work, is a central theme in debates on organizational flexibility and labour market stratification. Predictions of upskilling and autonomy, for manual workers too, have been a striking component in visions of post-Fordism and post-industrialism. The two main comparative labour market theories - the varieties of capitalism school and the power resources approach - suggest that both the level and the distribution of autonomy vary across production contexts, either because of national differences in skill requirements or because of the varying strength of organized labour. The objective of the article, based on the 2004 European Social Survey, is to test these two hypotheses by examining national variation regarding mean levels and class differences in autonomy among 21 countries. The main conclusion is that both mean levels and class differences in autonomy have much more to do with the strength of organized labour than with the skill requirements of production. The analysis also questions a central element of the varieties of capitalism theory, namely the notion of national production strategies based on differences in skill specificity.

  • 5.
    Edlund, Jonas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Lindh, Arvid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    The democratic class struggle revisited: the welfare state, social cohesion and political conflict2015In: Acta Sociologica, ISSN 0001-6993, E-ISSN 1502-3869, Vol. 58, no 4, p. 311-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper attempts to resolve disagreements concerning how class conflicts are manifested in contemporary welfare states. An analytical distinction is made between social (tensions/antagonism between classes) and political (class based differences in political preferences) manifestations of class conflict. Using ISSP data (1999/2009) from 20 countries, the results indicate that social conflict is more common in meagre welfare states where material inequality is relatively high compared to encompassing highly redistributive welfare states where levels of material inequality are relatively low. When it comes to distributive struggles in the political sphere – political conflict – the pattern is reversed. The results do not support arguments emphasizing that class as an analytical concept is irrelevant for understanding socio-political phenomena in modern industrial democracies. Instead, the results suggest that the character of class conflict varies across national socio-economic contexts in tandem with between-country variation in the institutional setup of the welfare state. The results support the theory outlined in The Democratic Class Struggle, which suggests that in modern welfare states, institutionalized political conflict tends to replace less institutionalized and unorganized social conflict. This is more the case in encompassing welfare states than in residual welfare states.  

  • 6.
    Edlund, Jonas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Öun, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Who should work and who should care?: attitudes towards the desirable division of labour between mothers and fathers in five European countries2016In: Acta Sociologica, ISSN 0001-6993, E-ISSN 1502-3869, Vol. 59, no 2, p. 151-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we study attitudes towards the gendered division of paid and unpaid work from a comparative perspective. Based on the notion that political institutions are important in structuring individuals’ orientations, five countries with different family policy arrangements are included in the analysis: Denmark, Finland, Germany, Poland and Sweden. Previous comparative attitude research has a strong bias towards public opinion about women’s employment, while research on attitudes towards men’s participation in care work is rare. Drawing on data from the International Social Survey Programme (ISSP) 2012, we use latent class analysis to explore public opinion about: (a) how parents should divide the responsibilities of economic provision and unpaid work; and (b) whether and how parents should divide paid parental leave between them. The strongest support for a traditional organization of work and care is found in Poland, while the strongest support for an equal sharing of work and care responsibilities is found in Sweden. Among the Nordic countries, results differ. While those holding non-traditional ideals in Denmark and Finland emphasize the importance of full-time work for both parents, non-traditional Swedes instead emphasize that both parents should cut back their work hours and thereby share the responsibility for earning and caring in the family.

  • 7.
    Grönlund, Anne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Halldén, Karin
    Magnusson, Charlotta
    A Scandinavian success story?: women's labour market outcomes in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden2017In: Acta Sociologica, ISSN 0001-6993, E-ISSN 1502-3869, Vol. 60, no 2, p. 97-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In current research, the extensive family policies of the Scandinavian countries have been problematized and described as hampering women?s careers. However, mechanisms have been little investigated and the Scandinavian countries are often regarded as a single policy model. Based on an account of institutional variety we study gender gaps in hourly wages and access to authority positions in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden and explore the importance of segregation, skills and work interruptions. The analysis uses pooled cross-sectional data from the European Social Survey (ESS) for 2004 and 2010. The results show that gender gaps vary both in size and regarding the mechanisms producing them. In particular, we find that gender segregation has a radically different impact in the four countries. The analysis suggests that the mechanisms linking family policies to labour market outcomes are more complex than envisaged in the current debate and point to the importance of comparing seemingly similar countries.

  • 8.
    Hjerm, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Anti-Immigrant Attitudes and Cross-Municipal Variation in the Proportion of Immigrants2009In: Acta Sociologica, ISSN 0001-6993, E-ISSN 1502-3869, Vol. 52, no 1, p. 47-62Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Johansson Sevä, Ingemar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Local contexts, social risks and social spending preferences: a multi-level approach2009In: Acta Sociologica, ISSN 0001-6993, E-ISSN 1502-3869, Vol. 52, no 3, p. 249-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, I analyse the relationship between local context and individuals´ social spending preferences in Sweden. The contextual unit studied is the municipality and the analyses are based on both individual-level survey data (n = 5,324) and municipal-level data. Multi-level modelling is used to handle data at both levels simultaneously. It is suggested that the presence of social risks in the local community affects whether individuals are willing to support high social spending. It is argued that the interdependent nature of certa in social risks, such as local unemployment rates, depopulation and labour market structure, is an important factor explaining contextual influence on social spending preferences. The results indicate that the prevalence of social risks in a municipality affect the willingness of local inhabitants to support high social spending. Support for high social spending tends to be greater, taking individual-level determinants into account, in municipalities suffering from unemployment, ill health, depopulation, a low tax base and an industry sector dominated by agriculture and manufacturing. This finding also indicates that contextual influence on olitical attitudes might not be restricted to interpersonal interaction, as often suggested in past research.

  • 10.
    Nilsson, Karina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Social medicine.
    Strandh, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Karlstad University, Sweden.
    The relationship between work and family preferences and behaviors: a longitudinal study of gender differences in Sweden2017In: Acta Sociologica, ISSN 0001-6993, E-ISSN 1502-3869, Vol. 60, no 2, p. 120-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Proposed theories to explain gender inequality in the labor market and family, such as gender specialization within families and gender segregation in the labor markets, lack consideration for individual preferences. Preference theory accounts for individual choice and gendered preferences but has been substantially criticized, indicating a need for further research. This study uses Swedish longitudinal data to explore how preferences for work and family relate to behavior. We explore three critical issues raised in previous research: gender differences in preferences; the relationship between work and family changes and subsequent preferences; how preferences relate to work and family behaviors. Our results showed small general gender differences in preferences, although women had a stronger preference for both children and work than men. Changes in work status were further related to changes in work preferences, while changes in family status were related to changes in family preferences. Moreover, preferences had poor predictive power in relation to work and family behaviors. Our results indicate that preferences do not explain gender inequality in Sweden. The relationship between preferences and behaviors seems bidirectional and preferences and behavior within the family sphere has little to do with preferences and behavior within the work sphere.

  • 11.
    Nordenmark, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Employment Commitment and Psychological Well-being among Unemployed Men and Women1999In: Acta Sociologica, ISSN 0001-6993, E-ISSN 1502-3869, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 135-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies employment commitment and psychological well-being among a random sample of 3,500 unemployed men and women in Sweden. The study observes which factors govern levels of employment commitment and if there are any significant differences between unemployed men and women in this respect. The article also discusses the importance of commitment to employment when analysing psychological well-being among the unemployed. As regards employment commitment among both men and women, the results emphasize the psychosocial value of the former job, the activity level while unemployed and age. However, the results also indicate that age and family situation affect unemployed women's and men's levels of commitment to paid employment in different ways. Further, both unemployed men and women who are strongly motivated to find employment for non-financial reasons have significantly higher risks of poor mental well-being than those with lower commitments to employment. Finally, The results speak against the hypothesis that the high unemployment rates among certain categories of people are mainly a result of low motivation to be employed.

  • 12.
    Rauch, Dietmar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Is there really a Scandinavian social service model?: A comparison of childcare and elderlycare in six european countries2007In: Acta Sociologica, ISSN 0001-6993, E-ISSN 1502-3869, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 249-269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Scandinavian countries are often assumed to constitute a coherent and unique social service model characterized by a comparatively high level of universalism and a strong capacity to defamilialize care responsibilities. In examining whether we really can identify such a model when comparing current social service systems, social services in the Scandinavian countries are contrasted with their counterparts in three continental European countries. The resulting data indicate that only Denmark complies with the image of the Scandinavian social service model. Both Norway and Sweden deviate significantly. Norwegian childcare services and Swedish elderlycare services do not stand out as particularly universalistic or defamilializing compared with those of other Western European countries. Given these findings, it may be questioned whether it is reasonable to speak of a `Scandinavian social service model'.

  • 13. Westberg, Annika
    et al.
    Halleröd, Björn
    How Problematic Are Youth Problems in the Long Run?2006In: Acta Sociologica, ISSN 0001-6993, E-ISSN 1502-3869, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 83-102Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14. Westberg, Annika
    et al.
    Halleröd, Björn
    Youth Problems: What's the Problem?: A Longitudinal Study of Incomes and Economic Hardship Among Swedish Youth2006In: Acta Sociologica, ISSN 0001-6993, E-ISSN 1502-3869, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 83-102Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Wisselgren, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    A Historical Account of Danish Sociology: A Troubled Perspective2017In: Acta Sociologica, ISSN 0001-6993, E-ISSN 1502-3869, Vol. 60, no 3, p. 286-287Article, book review (Other academic)
1 - 15 of 15
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