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  • 1.
    Fors, Filip
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Kulin, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Bringing Affect Back In: Measuring and Comparing Subjective Well-being across Countries2016In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 127, no 1, p. 323-339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, researchers and policymakers have paid increasing attention to cross-country comparisons of subjective well-being. Whereas classical theories of quality of life emphasize the central role of affective well-being (i.e., whether a person feels good or bad), previous comparative studies have focused almost exclusively on life satisfaction (i.e., cognitive evaluations of life). This study brings affect into the comparative study of subjective well-being, constructing a new measurement instrument that captures both the affective and cognitive dimensions of subjective well-being. Using European Social Survey data and multi-group confirmatory factor analysis, we estimate latent country means for the two dimensions and compare country rankings across the two measures. The results reveal important differences in country rankings depending on whether one focuses on affective well-being or life satisfaction. We identify crucial differences among top-ranking countries and, perhaps even more importantly, considerable differences in rankings among more moderately ranking countries. In a second step, we compare and evaluate the single-item measures commonly used in previous research with the results based on our new measures. We conclude by discussing our results in relation to previous studies, and in terms of their possible implications for future research and for policymakers bent on improving national levels of subjective well-being. 

  • 2.
    Halleröd, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Bask, Miia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Accumulation of Welfare Problems in a Longitudinal Perspective2008In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 88, no 2, p. 311-327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The central aim of the present paper is to analyse the degree to which welfare problems accumulate over time and to what extent such an accumulation is related to class position and household formation. We utilize longitudinal data from the Swedish Survey of Living Conditions, following a panel that was first interviewed in 1979 and, thereafter, re-interviewed three times (1986–87, 1994–95 and 2002–03). We use structural equation modelling to extract latent deprivation indexes based on seven manifest indicators. Thereafter, the indexes are used as input values in a latent growth curve (LGC) model when estimating an intercept variable and a slope variable. We finally estimate two structural models. In the first model, the relation over time between class position, class mobility and deprivation are estimated, and the second model deals with the relationship between household types, change of household type and deprivation. Several interesting results can be reported. We find a strong relationship between the deprivation indexes over time. The LGC model can also confirm a positive relationship between deprivation intercept and deprivation slope. That is, individuals who score high on the deprivation index from the beginning are increasingly prone to accumulate additional welfare problems over time. The analysis also reveals a clear class gradient as well as effects of class mobility. In addition, it is shown that deprivation affects class mobility, meaning that we can confirm selection effects. Also household constellation and changes of household type are closely connected to deprivation and changes in deprivation over time. The analysis reveals selection effects even in this case.

  • 3.
    Hirve, Siddhivinayak
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Vadu Rural Health Program, KEM Hospital Research Center, Pune, India .
    Oud, JH
    Behavioural Science Institute, Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Sambhudas, Somnath
    Vadu Rural Health Program, KEM Hospital Research Center, Pune, India .
    Juvekar, Sanjay
    Vadu Rural Health Program, KEM Hospital Research Center, Pune, India.
    Blomstedt, Yulia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Tollman, Stephen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Health and Population Division, School of Public Health, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Wall, Stig
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Unpacking self-rated health and quality of life in older adults and elderly in India: a structural equation modelling approach2014In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 117, no 1, p. 105-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) aims at improving empirical understanding of the health and well-being of older adults in low- and middle-income countries. A total of 321 adults aged 50 years and older were interviewed in rural Pune district, India, in 2007. We used Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) to examine the pathways through which social factors, functional disability, risk behaviours, and chronic disease experience influence self-rated health (SRH) and quality of life (QOL) amongst older adults in India. Both SRH and QOL worsened with increased age (indirect effect) and limitations in functional ability (direct effect). QOL, socio-economic status (SES), and social networking had no significant effect on SRH. Smoking was associated with the presence of at least one chronic illness, but this did not have a statistically significant effect on SRH. Higher social networking was seen amongst the better educated and those with regular income, which in turn positively affected the QOL rating. QOL had a direct, but statistically not significant, effect on SRH. In conclusion, the indirect effects of age on SRH mediated through functional ability, and the effects of SES on QOL mediated through social networking, provide new understanding of how age and socio-economic status affect SRH and QOL. By allowing for measurement errors, solving for collinearity in predictor variables by integrating them into measurement models, and specifying causal dependencies between the underlying latent constructs, SEM provides a strong link between theory and empirics.

  • 4.
    Hjerm, Mikael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Eger, Maureen A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Bohman, Andrea
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Fors Connolly, Filip
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    A New Approach to the Study of Tolerance: Conceptualizing and Measuring Acceptance, Respect, and Appreciation of Difference2019In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous empirical research on tolerance suffers from a number of shortcomings, the most serious being the conceptual and operational conflation of (in)tolerance and prejudice. We design research to remedy this. First, we contribute to the literature by advancing research that distinguishes analytically between the two phenomena. We conceptualize tolerance as a value orientation towards difference. This definition—which is abstract and does not capture attitudes towards specific out-groups, ideas, or behaviors—allows for the analysis of tolerance within and between societies. Second, we improve the measurement of tolerance by developing survey items that are consistent with this conceptualization. We administer two surveys, one national (Sweden) and one cross-national (Australia, Denmark, Great Britain, Sweden, and the United States). Results from structural equation models show that tolerance is best understood as a three-dimensional concept, which includes acceptance of, respect for, and appreciation of difference. Analyses show that measures of tolerance have metric invariance across countries, and additional tests demonstrate convergent and discriminant validity. We also assess tolerance’s relationship to prejudice and find that only an appreciation of difference has the potential to reduce prejudice. We conclude that it is not only possible to measure tolerance in a way that is distinct from prejudice but also necessary if we are to understand the causes and consequences of tolerance.

  • 5. Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa W.
    et al.
    Houle, Brian
    Collinson, Mark A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt), School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana.
    Kahn, Kathleen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt), School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana.
    Tollman, Stephen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt), School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana.
    Clark, Samuel
    Assessing Changes in Household Socioeconomic Status in Rural South Africa, 2001-2013: A Distributional Analysis Using Household Asset Indicators2017In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 133, no 3, p. 1047-1073Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the distribution of socioeconomic status (SES) and its temporal dynamics within a population is critical to ensure that policies and interventions adequately and equitably contribute to the well-being and life chances of all individuals. This study assesses the dynamics of SES in a typical rural South African setting over the period 2001-2013 using data on household assets from the Agincourt Health and Demographic Surveillance System. Three SES indices, an absolute index, principal component analysis index and multiple correspondence analysis index, are constructed from the household asset indicators. Relative distribution methods are then applied to the indices to assess changes over time in the distribution of SES with special focus on location and shape shifts. Results show that the proportion of households that own assets associated with greater modern wealth has substantially increased over time. In addition, relative distributions in all three indices show that the median SES index value has shifted up and the distribution has become less polarized and is converging towards the middle. However, the convergence is larger from the upper tail than from the lower tail, which suggests that the improvement in SES has been slower for poorer households. The results also show persistent ethnic differences in SES with households of former Mozambican refugees being at a disadvantage. From a methodological perspective, the study findings demonstrate the comparability of the easy-to-compute absolute index to other SES indices constructed using more advanced statistical techniques in assessing household SES.

  • 6.
    Vossemer, Jonas
    Department of Sociology, University of Bamberg, Bamberg, Germany.
    The Effects of Unemployment on Non-monetary Job Quality in Europe: The Moderating Role of Economic Situation and Labor Market Policies2019In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 144, no 1, p. 379-401Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has illustrated that unemployment not only has short-term, but also medium-term negative effects on workers’ careers. While most studies have focused on employment chances and earnings losses, this article examines the effects of unemployment on four different facets of non-monetary job quality in Europe. Specifically, I take a comparative perspective investigating to what extent the effects of unemployment on subsequent occupational status, autonomy, authority, and job security are moderated by countries’ economic situation and institutions, including active and passive labor market policies in addition to employment protection legislation. The analyses draw on micro data from round 1–7 (2002–2014) of the European Social Survey including harmonized information about 125,000 workers nested in 34 countries for up to 7 rounds. Using two-stage multi-level models, the first-stage micro-level analyses reveal that unemployment has negative effects on all four facets of non-monetary job quality in the majority of the 164 country-rounds examined. Specifically, job security is negatively affected by experiences of unemployment within the last 5 years. However, at odds with the theoretical predictions, the second-stage macro-level analyses do not provide consistent empirical evidence for the moderating role of economic situation and labor market policies.

  • 7.
    Vossemer, Jonas
    et al.
    Department of Sociology, University of Bamberg, Bamberg, Germany.
    Gebel, Michael
    Department of Sociology, University of Bamberg, Bamberg, Germany.
    Täht, Kadri
    Institute of International Social Studies, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Unt, Marge
    Institute of International Social Studies, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Högberg, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Strandh, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    The effects of unemployment and insecure jobs on well-being and health: the moderating role of labor market policies2018In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 138, no 3, p. 1229-1257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Labor market insecurities have been growing in Europe and previous research has illustrated that unemployment and insecure jobs negatively affect individuals’ well-being and health. Although empirical evidence suggests that these effects vary substantially across different welfare states, we still know little about the moderating role of specific labor market policies. Taking a cross-national comparative perspective, this article investigates how passive and active labor market policies (PLMP, ALMP) as well as employment protection legislation (EPL) shape the experience of unemployment and insecure jobs. We complement micro data of round 1–6 (2002–2012) of the European Social Survey with time-varying macro indicators of PLMP, ALMP, and EPL. The data include about 89,000 individuals nested in 112 country-rounds and 26 countries respectively. We apply three-level random intercept models as well as pooled linear regression models including country fixed effects. The results show that labor market policies are important in shaping the experience of unemployment, but are less relevant for workers in insecure jobs. Specifically, higher unemployment benefit generosity buffers the negative effects of unemployment on well-being but not health. Moreover, we discuss different interpretations for the finding that higher ALMP expenditures are associated with more negative effects of unemployment on well-being and health. With respect to EPL it is found that in countries with high insider protection, deregulating the restrictions on the use of temporary employment increases the negative effects of unemployment on well-being and health.

1 - 7 of 7
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