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  • 1. Chen, Ailu
    et al.
    Cao, Qingliang
    Zhou, Jin
    Yang, Bin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Chang, Wei-Chung
    Nazaroff, William
    Indoor and outdoor particles in an air-conditioned building during and after the 2013 haze in Singapore2016In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 99, p. 73-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Particles released from biomass burning can contribute to severe air pollution. We monitored indoor and outdoor particles in a mechanically ventilated and air-conditioned building during and after the 2013 haze event in Singapore. Continuous monitoring of time-and size-resolved particles in the diameter range 0.01–10 μm was conducted for two weeks in each sampling campaign. During the haze event, the averaged size-resolved outdoor particle volume concentrations (dV/d(logDp)) for diameters larger than 0.3 μm were considerably higher than those during the post-haze days (9–185 μm3 cm−3versus 1–35 μm3 cm−3). However, the average number concentration of particles with diameters in the range 10–200 nm was substantially lower on the hazy days than on the post-haze days (11,400 to 14,300 particles cm−3 for hazy days, versus an average of 23,700 particles cm−3 on post-haze days). The building mechanical ventilation system, equipped with MERV 7 filters, attenuated the penetration and persistence of outdoor particles into the monitored building. Indoor particle concentrations, in the diameter ranges 0.3–1.0 μm and 1.0–2.5 μm, closely tracked the corresponding patterns of outdoor particle concentrations. For particles in the size range 0.01–1.0 μm, the size-resolved mean indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratios were in the range 0.12–0.65 with the highest mean I/O ratio at 0.3 μm (0.59 in AC on mode and 0.64 in AC off mode). The air conditioning and mechanical ventilation system with MERV 7 filters provided low single-pass removal efficiency (less than ∼ 30%) for particles with diameters of 0.01–1.0 μm. During the haze, for particles larger than ∼0.2 μm, lower I/O ratios and higher removal efficiencies occurred with the air conditioning operating as compared to with mechanical ventilation only. This observation suggests the possibility of particle loss to air conditioning system surfaces, possibly enhanced by thermophoretic or diffusiophoretic effects.

  • 2.
    Cheng, Xiaogang
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics. College of Telecommunications and Information Engineering, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing, China.
    Yang, Bin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Liu, Guoqing
    Li, Haibo
    A pilot study of online non-invasive measuring technology based on video magnification to determine skin temperature2017In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 121, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Much attention was paid on human centered design strategies for environmental control systems of indoor built environments. The goal is to achieve thermally comfortable, healthy and safe working or living environments in energy efficient manners. Normally building Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems have fixed operating settings, which can't satisfy human thermal comfort requirements under transient and non-uniform indoor thermal environments. Therefore, human thermal physiology signal such as skin temperature, which can reflect human body thermal sensation, has to be measured over time. Several trials have been performed by minimizing measuring sensors such as i-Button and mounting measuring sensors into wearable devices such as glasses. Infrared thermography technology has also been tried to achieve non-invasive measurements. However, it would be much more convenient and feasible if normal computer camera could record images, which could be used to obtain human thermal physiology signals. In this study, skin temperature of hand back, which has a high density of blood vessels and is normally not covered by clothing, was measured by i-button sensors. Images recorded by normal camera were amplified to analyzing skin temperature variation, which are impossible to see with naked eyes. The agreement between i-button sensor measuring results and image magnification results demonstrated the possibility of non-invasive measuring technology by image magnification. Partly personalized saturation-temperature model (T = 96.5 × S + bi) can be used to predict skin temperatures for young East Asia females.

  • 3. Danielski, Itai
    et al.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Joelsson, Anna
    Fröling, Morgan
    Heated atrium in multi-storey apartment buildings, a design with potential to enhance energy efficiency and to facilitate social interactions2016In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 106, p. 352-364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The design concept of conditioned atria gains increasing popularity in commercial and service buildings all over the world, but is still not a common building design in the residential sector. This study investigates the potential of such design in residential buildings in Nordic climates as means to enhance both energy efficiency as well as social interaction among residents. Energy modelling was used to compare energy efficiency among designs of residential buildings with and without atrium and to identify important design parameters. Social interaction was analysed, based on a survey evaluating the perception of residents living in an existing multi-storey apartment building designed with a heated atrium in the north of Sweden. The results show that heated atrium in Nordic climates have a potential to reduce the total final energy demand while at the same time increase the conditioned space of the building. To positively impact energy efficiency, the atrium should fulfil three requirements: (i) it should be designed to reduce the shape factor for the whole building; (ii) it should have the minimum glazed area that comply with the building requirements concerning natural light and visual comfort; and (iii) adjustable solar shading should be installed in the atrium’s façades to avoid unwanted overheating. The survey results indicate that the additional space created by the atrium has a potential to facilitate and promote social interaction among residents and to increases a sense of neighbourliness and belongingness, which are often discussed as important parameters in relation to social sustainability.

  • 4.
    Hassan, Osama AB
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    An alternative method for evaluating the air tightness of building components2013In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 67, p. 82-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, an alternative and general approach is advanced to evaluate the air leakage area and air infiltration rate in building envelope components such as exterior/internal walls and floors. In this method, the leakage area is determined with the help of acoustical and physical methods by measuring the sound reduction index of the building. The air flow rate through air leaks is determined with the help of leakage area and pressure difference over the floor/wall. The heat losses and convective moisture rate through leaks in the building are subsequently evaluated with the help of the calculated air infiltration rate.

    (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 5.
    Ohlsson, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Yang, Bin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Ekblad, Alf
    Örebro universitet.
    Boman, Christoffer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Nyström, Robin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Stable carbon isotope labelled carbon dioxide as tracer gas for air change rate measurement in a ventilated single zone2017In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 115, p. 173-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) has often been used as tracer gas for measurement of the air change rate l (h1 ) in buildings. In such measurements, a correction is required for the presence of indoor CO2, which commonly consists of atmospheric CO2 mixed with human respired CO2. Here, 13C isotope-labelled CO2 was employed as tracer gas, and cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) was used for simultaneous measurement of the two isotope analogues 12CO2 and 13CO2. This enabled the simultaneous measurement of the 13CO2 tracer gas, with correction for background 13CO2, and the concentration of indoor CO2, allowing for presence of occupants. The background correction procedure assumes that the isotope delta of the background indoor CO2 equals dB ¼ 19‰, based on the prior information that the carbon isotope ratio RB ¼ 13C/12C of all carbon in the bio-geosphere of earth is in the interval 0.010900 < RB < 0.011237. Evidence supported that l could be accurately measured, using the new 13CO2 tracer method, even when the background 13CO2 concentration varied during the measurement time interval, or when the actual dB value differed from the assumed value. The measurement uncertainty for l was estimated at 3%. Uncertainty in l due to uncertainty in RB, uRB(l), was estimated to increase with a decreasing amount of 13CO2 tracer. This indicated that at least 4 ppm tracer must be used, in order to obtain uRB(l)/l < 2%. The temporal resolution of the l measurement was 1.25/l h.

  • 6. Raj, Uday
    et al.
    Li, Ziqi
    Ke, Ying
    Wang, Faming
    Yang, Bin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    A study of thermal comfort enhancement using three energy efficient personalized heating strategies at two low indoor temperatures2018In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 143, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7. Ramirez-Villegas, Ricardo
    et al.
    Eriksson, Ola
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Assessment of renovation measures for a dwelling area - Impacts on energy efficiency and building certification2016In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 97, p. 26-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Union has an ambitious plan to reduce energy use and emissions by the year 2030. The building and real estate sectors have a great potential to help reduce emissions by energy efficiency. However, different energy sources and environmental standards affect the decision making of these major renovations in the existing stock. This study investigates how different renovation strategies affect the energy rating of a selected Building Environmental Assessment Tool and analyses the consequences in terms of greenhouse gas emissions for the local district heating system. Both building energy simulations and energy systems cost optimization were used to determine the energy use and local emissions. The results of different renovation scenarios were used to evaluate the rating in the selected tool and the impact in the district heating local emissions. The used methodology illustrates how energy efficient renovation impacts on the district heating system's local emissions. However, a bias towards resource classification within the Swedish Building Environmental Tool, Miljobyggnad, needs to be addressed in order to assess the impact of local emissions.

  • 8. Wang, Faming
    et al.
    Ke, Ying
    Xu, Pengjun
    Yang, Bin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    On the use of a novel nanoporous polyethylene (nanoPE) passive cooling material for personal thermal comfort management under uniform indoor environments2018In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 145, p. 85-95Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Yang, Bin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics. School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi'an, China.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Wang, Faming
    Lu, Weizhuo
    Thermal comfort in primary school classrooms: A case study under subarctic climate area of Sweden2018In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 135, p. 237-245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Limited studies were focused on primary school buildings especially under subarctic climate. Thermal comfort of children was assumed to be similar as that of adults, which may cause inaccuracy. To fill data blank and enrich global database, a field study was performed from late fall 2016 to early spring 2017 covering whole heating period in north part of Sweden. Indoor CO2 concentration was continuously monitored to evaluate indoor ventilation. Thermal comfort related parameters were continuously measured and predicted mean vote (PMV) was calculated. Subjective questionnaire surveys were performed every week except holidays. Subjective thermal sensation value (TSV) was always higher than objective PMV, which reflected thermal adaptation. The thermal adaptation became not obvious in middle and late winter because of long term exposure to heating environments. Heating system should be intensified gradually in early heating period, operated based on actual outdoor climate instead of experience in middle and late heating periods, extended under part load operation in early spring if necessary. The new 13-point TSV scale was pointed out by other researchers and tested inthis study, which can explore tiny TSV deviations from thermally neutral status and reflect more accurate thermal sensations.

  • 10.
    Yang, Bin
    et al.
    Berkeley Education Alliance for Research in Singapore, Singapore; School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
    Schiavon, Stefano
    University of California, Berkeley.
    Sekhar, Chandra
    National University of Singapore.
    Cheong, David
    National University of Singapore.
    Tham, Kwok Wai
    National University of Singapore.
    Nazaroff, William W
    University of California, Berkeley.
    Cooling efficiency of a brushless direct current stand fan2015In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 85, p. 196-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The idea of far transfer effects in the cognitive sciences has received much attention in recent years. One domain where far transfer effects have frequently been reported is music education, with the prevailing idea that music practice entails an increase in cognitive ability (IQ). While cross-sectional studies consistently find significant associations between music practice and IQ, randomized controlled trials, however, report mixed results. An alternative to the hypothesis of cognitive transfer effects is that some underlying factors, such as shared genes, influence practice behaviour and IQ causing associations on the phenotypic level. Here we explored the hypothesis of far transfer within the framework of music practice. A co-twin control design combined with classical twin-modelling based on a sample of more than 10,500 twins was used to explore causal associations between music practice and IQ as well as underlying genetic and environmental influences. As expected, phenotypic associations were moderate (r = 0.11 and r = 0.10 for males and females, respectively). However, the relationship disappeared when controlling for genetic and shared environmental influences using the co-twin control method, indicating that a highly practiced twin did not have higher IQ than the untrained co-twin. In line with that finding, the relationship between practice and IQ was mostly due to shared genetic influences. Findings strongly suggest that associations between music practice and IQ in the general population are non-causal in nature. The implications of the present findings for research on plasticity, modularity, and transfer are discussed.

  • 11.
    Yang, Bin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Sekhar, Chandra
    National University of Singapore.
    Three-dimension numerical simulation of a hybrid fresh air and re-circulated air diffuser for decoupled ventilation strategy.2007In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 42, no 5, p. 1975-1982Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12. Yu, Zhun
    et al.
    Li, Jun
    Yang, Bin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Zhang, Guoqiang
    Temporarily occupied space with metabolic-rate-initiated thermal overshoots: A case study in railway stations in transition seasons2017In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 122, p. 184-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Temporarily occupied space (TOS) is defined as an air-conditioned space in which most of occupants stay for less than a certain period (e.g., 40 min), such as post offices, supermarkets, bookstores, and banks. The definition mainly emphasizes two aspects: obvious temperature step up/down and short-term exposure periods. Typical TOSs with predominantly temperature-initiated thermal overshoots have been explored in previous studies. Indeed, apart from temperature-initiated thermal overshoots, thermal overshoots can also be initiated by other parameters, such as metabolic rates. In this view, the definition of thermal overshoots was generalized and a case study was conducted at high-speed railway station in China under conditions of transition seasons. The phenomenon of metabolic-rate-initiated thermal overshoots instead of temperature-initiated thermal overshoots was observed and explored, based on objective measurements and subjective questionnaire surveys. The results could optimize the design and operation of air conditioning and mechanical ventilation (ACMV) systems in such TOSs as embodied by railway stations. In addition, the probit analysis method for analyzing neutral temperature ranges instead of neutral temperature points was also discussed.

  • 13. Yu, Zhun
    et al.
    Li, Jun
    Yang, Bin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Zhang, Guoqiang
    Temporarily occupied spacewith metabolic-rate-initiated thermal overshoots: a case study in railwaystations in transition seasons2017In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 122, p. 184-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Temporarily occupied space (TOS) is defined as an air-conditioned space in which most of occupants stay for less than a certain period (e.g., 40 min), such as post offices, supermarkets, bookstores, and banks. The definition mainly emphasizes two aspects: obvious temperature step up/down and short-term exposure periods. Typical TOSs with predominantly temperature-initiated thermal overshoots have been explored in previous studies. Indeed, apart from temperature-initiated thermal overshoots, thermal overshoots can also be initiated by other parameters, such as metabolic rates. In this view, the definition of thermal overshoots was generalized and a case study was conducted at high-speed railway station in China under conditions of transition seasons. The phenomenon of metabolic-rate-initiated thermal overshoots instead of temperature-initiated thermal overshoots was observed and explored, based on objective measurements and subjective questionnaire surveys. The results could optimize the design and operation of air conditioning and mechanical ventilation (ACMV) systems in such TOSs as embodied by railway stations. In addition, the probit analysis method for analyzing neutral temperature ranges instead of neutral temperature points was also discussed.

  • 14. Yu, Zhun
    et al.
    Yang, Bin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Zhu, Neng
    Effect of thermal transient on human thermal comfort in temporarily occupied space in winter: a case study in Tianjin2015In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 93, no 2, p. 27-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The acceptable temperature ranges of temporarily occupied space (TOS) such as supermarkets could be different from the ranges of normal indoor spaces such as offices. However, current thermal comfort standards do not distinguish such a space from normal spaces and identify its design temperature range clearly. This study proposed TOS, and explored human responses to TOS with the ultimate goal of finding its optimal design temperature range in winter. Questionnaire surveys were performed at six temperature levels in a climatic chamber in Tianjin. Human participants were exposed to outdoors for 20 min and then they stayed in the chamber for 40 min. During this period their thermal sensation, comfort and preference were recorded for evaluation at five different time points. The study shows that their neutral temperature ranges from 16.9 °C to 18.4 °C. Their thermal preference maintains “no change” in the range of 15.4 °C–19.3 °C. Meanwhile, from the viewpoint of thermal comfort, a temperature range of 15.4 °C–17.4 °C is highly desirable for occupants to stay in TOS. Considering the above three ranges, the optimal design temperature range for TOS in Tianjin is recommended to be 16.9 °C–17.4 °C, which achieves highly desirable thermal comfort, neutral thermal sensation and “no change” thermal preference simultaneously. This range is significantly lower than the design temperature range in Chinese national codes (20 °C–22 °C). The results of this study can be used as reference for future code formulation and building retrofitting.

  • 15. Yu, Zhun
    et al.
    Yang, Bin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Zhu, Neng
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Zhang, Guoqiang
    Utility of cooling overshoot for energy efficient thermal comfort in temporarily occupied space2016In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 109, p. 199-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Temporarily occupied space (TOS) is defined as an air-conditioned space in which most of occupants stay for less than a certain period (e.g., 40 min) such as post offices, supermarkets, bookstores and banks. After moving from a hot and humid outdoor environment to TOS in summer, thermal alliesthesia takes effect, which refers to 'thermal pleasure sensation and overshoot generated by the restoration of thermal stress toward a neutral interior condition'. Because of the overshoot, occupants' acceptable temperature ranges in TOS are possibly elevated while they still feel thermally comfortable. To study the temperature ranges, a human subjective response study was performed in one climatic chamber used to simulate TOS in Tianjin. Real outdoor environments, instead of chamber simulated outdoor environments, were used for exploring this thermal transient process. Sixteen healthy university students, 8 males and 8 females, were exposed to an outdoor environment for 20 min before they stayed in the chamber for 40 min. Their votes on thermal sensation, comfort and preference were recorded for evaluation at different time points. The results show that the recommended design standard effective temperature (SET) range of TOS is between 24.5 degrees C and 26.5 degrees C. Meanwhile, thermal comfort for staffs who have long term exposure to TOS could be maintained by personal comfort systems such as desk fans or personalized ventilation.

  • 16. Zhou, Jin
    et al.
    Chen, Ailu
    Cao, Qingliang
    Yang, Bin
    School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore; Berkeley Education Alliance for Research in Singapore, Singapore.
    Chang, Wei-Chung
    Nazaroff, William
    Particle Exposure during the 2013 Haze in Singapore: Importance of the Built Environment2015In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 93, no 1, p. 14-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 2013 haze was the most serious air pollution event in Singapore's history. Individual exposures to particulate matter differ (a) according to time patterns of behaviour and (b) with the varying degrees of protection provided by buildings against penetration and persistence of outdoor particles. Utilizing realtime personal monitoring, we evaluated exposures to size-segregated fine particulate matter (PM) of five office workers for six days during the latter portion of the 2013 haze event. The outdoor volume concentrations of particulate matter (0.3-2.5 mu m diameter) during moderate and light haze days were in the ranges 15-21 mu m(3)/cm(3) and 7-10 mu m(3)/cm(3), respectively. More than 80% of total daily exposures occurred indoors in workplaces and residences. The daily-integrated personal exposures for the five subjects during the moderate and light haze days were 140-454 (mu m(3)/cm(3))-h and 66-239 (mu m(3)/cm(3))-h, respectively. Exposure factors for the five participants, quantifying the extent of exposure reduction associated with being indoors, had daily average values ranging from 0.32 to 0.75. The results of this study contribute toward deeper understanding the degree of protection provided by the buildings from pollution of outdoor origin. The work also contributes knowledge regarding personal exposure to particulate matter during air pollution episodes, especially for tropical climates.

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