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  • 1. Ahlgren, Joakim
    et al.
    Reitzel, Kasper
    Danielsson, Rolf
    Gogoll, Adolf
    Rydin, Emil
    Biogenic phosphorus in oligotrophic mountain lake sediments: Differences in composition measured with NMR spectroscopy2006In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 40, no 20, p. 3705-3712Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phosphorus (P) composition in alkaline sediment extracts from three Swedish oligotrophic mountain lakes was investigated using P-31-NMR spectroscopy. Surface sediments from one natural lake and two mature reservoirs, one of which has received nutrient additions over the last 3 years, were compared with respect to biogenic P composition. The results show significant differences in the occurrence of labile and biogenic P species in the sediments of the different systems. The P compound groups that varied most between these three systems were pyrophosphate and polyphosphates, compound groups known to play an important role in sediment P recycling. The content of these compound groups was lowest in the reservoirs and may indicate a coupling between anthropogenic disturbances (i.e., impoundment) to a water system and the availability of labile P species in the sediment. A statistical study was also conducted to determine the accuracy and reliability of using P-31-NMR spectroscopy for quantification of sediment P forms. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 2. Ahlgren, Joakim
    et al.
    Reitzel, Kasper
    De Brabandere, Heidi
    Gogoll, Adolf
    Rydin, Emil
    Release of organic P forms from lake sediments2011In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 565-572Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of different physical and chemical conditions on the decomposition and release of organic and inorganic P compound groups from the sediment of Lake Erken were investigated in a series of laboratory experiments. Conditions investigated were temperature, oxygen level, and the effects of additions of carbon substrate (glucose) and poison (formalin). The effects on the P compound groups were determined by measurements with (31)P NMR before and after the experiments, as well as analysis of P in effluent water throughout the experiment. Phosphate analysis of the effluent water showed that oxygen level was the most influential in terms of release rates, with the sediments under anoxic conditions generally releasing more phosphate than the other treatments. (31)P NMR showed that the various treatments did influence the P compound group composition of the sediment. In particular, the addition of glucose led to a decrease in orthophosphate and polyphosphate while the addition of formalin led to a decrease in phosphorus lipids, DNA-phosphate and polyphosphate. Oxic conditions resulted in an increase in polyphosphates, and anoxic conditions in a decrease in these. Temperature did not seem to affect the composition significantly. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 3. Bijmans, Martijn FM
    et al.
    van Helvoort, Pieter-Jan
    Dar, Shabir A
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Dopson, Mark
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Lens, Piet NL
    Buisman, Cees JN
    Selective recovery of nickel over iron from a nickel-iron solution using microbial sulfate reduction in a gas-lift bioreactor2009In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 853-861Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Process streams with high concentrations of metals and sulfate are characteristic for the mining and metallurgical industries. This study aims to selectively recover nickel from a nickel-iron-containing solution at pH 5.0 using a single stage bioreactor that simultaneously combines low pH sulfate reduction and metal-sulfide formation. The results show that nickel was selectively precipitated in the bioreactor at pH 5.0 and the precipitates consisted of >= 83% of the nickel content. The nickel-iron precipitates were partly crystalline and had a metal/sulfur ratio of 1, suggesting these precipitates were NiS and FeS. Experiments focusing on nickel recovery at pH 5.0 and 5.5 reached a recovery of >99.9%, resulting in a nickel effluent concentration <0.05 mu M. The mixed microbial population included known sulfate reducers and acetogens. This study shows that selective metal precipitation in a single stage sulfate reducing bioreactor operated at low pH has the potential to produce metal-sulfides that can be used by the metallurgical industry as a resource for metal production.

  • 4. Bravo, Andrea G.
    et al.
    Kothawala, Dolly N.
    Attermeyer, Katrin
    Tessier, Emmanuel
    Bodmer, Pascal
    Ledesma, Jose U.
    Audet, Joachim
    Pere Casas-Ruiz, Joan
    Catalan, Nuria
    Cauvy-Fraunie, Sophie
    Colls, Miriam
    Deininger, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Evtimova, Vesela V.
    Fonvielle, Jeremy A.
    Fuss, Thomas
    Gilbert, Peter
    Ortega, Sonia Herrero
    Liu, Liu
    Mendoza-Lera, Clara
    Monteiro, Juliana
    Mor, Jordi-Rene
    Nagler, Magdalena
    Niedrist, Georg H.
    Nydahl, Anna C.
    Pastor, Ada
    Pegg, Josephine
    Roberts, Catherine Gutmann
    Pilotto, Francesca
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Portela, Ana Paula
    Gonzalez-Quijano, Clara Romero
    Romero, Ferran
    Rulik, Martin
    Amouroux, David
    The interplay between total mercury, methylmercury and dissolved organic matter in fluvial systems: A latitudinal study across Europe2018In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 144, p. 172-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large-scale studies are needed to identify the drivers of total mercury (THg) and monomethyl-mercury (MeHg) concentrations in aquatic ecosystems. Studies attempting to link dissolved organic matter (DOM) to levels of THg or MeHg are few and geographically constrained. Additionally, stream and river systems have been understudied as compared to lakes. Hence, the aim of this study was to examine the influence of DOM concentration and composition, morphological descriptors, land uses and water chemistry on THg and MeHg concentrations and the percentage of THg as MeHg (%MeHg) in 29 streams across Europe spanning from 41°N to 64°N. THg concentrations (0.06–2.78 ng L−1) were highest in streams characterized by DOM with a high terrestrial soil signature and low nutrient content. MeHg concentrations (7.8–159 pg L−1) varied non-systematically across systems. Relationships between DOM bulk characteristics and THg and MeHg suggest that while soil derived DOM inputs control THg concentrations, autochthonous DOM (aquatically produced) and the availability of electron acceptors for Hg methylating microorganisms (e.g. sulfate) drive %MeHg and potentially MeHg concentration. Overall, these results highlight the large spatial variability in THg and MeHg concentrations at the European scale, and underscore the importance of DOM composition on mercury cycling in fluvial systems.

  • 5.
    Cerveny, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, South Bohemian Research Center of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, Vodnany, Czech Republic.
    Grabic, Roman
    Fedorova, Ganna
    Grabicova, Katerina
    Turek, Jan
    Zlabek, Vladimir
    Randak, Tomas
    Fate of perfluoroalkyl substances within a small stream food web affected by sewage effluent2018In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 134, p. 226-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fate of fourteen target perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are described within a small stream affected by a sewage treatment plant (STP) effluent. Concentrations of target PFASs in samples of water, benthic macroinvertebrates and brown trout (Salmo trutta) are presented. Two hundred brown trout individuals originating from clean sites within the same stream were tagged and stocked into an experimental site affected by the STP's effluent. As a passive sampling approach, polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) were deployed in the water to reveal the water-macroinvertebrates-fish biotransformation processes of PFASs. Bioconcentration/bioaccumulation of target compounds was monitored one, three, and six months after stocking. Twelve of the fourteen target PFASs were found in concentration above the LOQ in at least one of the studied matrices. The compound pattern varied significantly between both the studied species and water samples. Concerning the accumulation of PFASs in fish, the highest concentrations were found in the liver of individuals sampled after three months of exposure. These concentrations rapidly decreased after six months although the water concentrations were slightly increasing during experiment.

  • 6. Grabicova, Katerina
    et al.
    Grabic, Roman
    Fedorova, Ganna
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Cerveny, Daniel
    Kolarova, Jitka
    Turek, Jan
    Zlabek, Vladimir
    Randak, Tomas
    Bioaccumulation of psychoactive pharmaceuticals in fish in an effluent dominated stream2017In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 124, p. 654-662Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The treated effluent from sewage treatment plants (STP) is a major source of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) that enter the aquatic environment. Bioaccumulation of 11 selected psychoactive pharmaceuticals (citalopram, clomipramine, haloperidol, hydroxyzine, levomepromazine, mianserin, mirtazapine, paroxetine, sertraline, tramadol and venlafaxine) was examined in Zivny Stream (tributary of the Blanice River, the Czech Republic), which is a small stream highly affected by effluent from the Prachatice STP. Six of the 11 pharmaceuticals were detected in grab water samples and in passive samplers. All pharmaceuticals were found in fish exposed to the stream for a defined time. The organs with highest presence of the selected pharmaceuticals were the liver and kidney; whereas only one pharmaceutical (sertraline) was detected in the brain of exposed fish. Fish plasma and muscle samples were not adequate in revealing exposure because the number of hits was much lower than that in the liver or kidney. Using the criterion of a bioaccumulation factor (BAF) >= 500, citalopram, mianserin, mirtazapine and sertraline could be classified as potential bioaccumulative compounds. In combination, data from integrative passive samplers and fish liver or kidney tissue samples were complimentary in detection of target compounds and simultaneously helped to distinguish between bioconcentration and bioaccumulation.

  • 7.
    Hörsing, Maritha
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Grabic, Roman
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Jansen, Jes la Cour
    Water and Environmental Engineering at Department of Chemical Engineering, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Andersen, Henrik R
    Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark .
    Determination of sorption of seventy five pharmaceuticals in sewage sludge2011In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 45, no 15, p. 4470-4482Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sorption of 75 active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) to three different types of sludge (primary sludge, secondary sludge with short and long sludge age respectively) were investigated. To obtain the sorption isotherms batch studies with the APIs mixture were performed in four nominal concentrations to water containing 1 g of sludge. The range of APIs concentrations was between ng L-1 to μg L-1 which are found in the wastewater effluents. Isotherms were obtained for approximately 45 of the APIs, providing distribution coefficients for linear (Kd), Freundlich (Kf) and Langmuir (KL) isotherms. Kd, Kf and KL ranging between 7.1×104-3.8×107, 1.1×10-2- 6.1×104 and 9.2×10-3- 1.1L kg-1, respectively. The obtained coefficients were applied to estimate the fraction of APIs in the water phase (see Abstract Graphic). For 37 of the 75 APIs the predicted presence in the liquid phase was estimated to > 80%. 24 APIs were estimated to be present in the liquid phase between 20 - 80 %, and 14 APIs were found to have < 20% presence in the liquid phase, i.e. high affinity towards sludge. Furthermore, the effect of pH at values 6, 7 and 8 was evaluated using one way ANOVA-test. A significant difference in Kds due to pH changes were found for 6 of the APIs (variation 10-20%).

    Graphical abstractHiglights

    ► Sorption isotherms were experimentally obtained for roughly 45 of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). ► By sorption to sludge the removal of 31 APIs were estimated to be < 20%.in the WWTP. ► By sorption to sludge the removal of 15 APIs were estimated to be >80% in the WWTP. ► For 13of the API the sorption to sludge was stronger than 1.2 ×106 L kg-1. ► For 10 of the API the sorption to sludge was less than 100 L kg-1

  • 8. Jiang, Tao
    et al.
    Bravo, Andrea G.
    Skyllberg, Ulf
    Björn, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Wang, Dingyong
    Yan, Haiyu
    Green, Nelson W.
    Influence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) characteristics on dissolved mercury (Hg) species composition in sediment porewater of lakes from southwest China2018In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 146, p. 146-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The origin and composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in porewater of lake sediments is intricate and decisive for fate of pollutants including mercury (Hg). While there are many reports on the relationship between dissolved organic carbon concentration (DOC) and mercury (Hg) concentrations in aquatic systems, there are few in which DOM compositional properties, that may better explain the fate of Hg, have been the focus. In this study, porewaters from sediments of three lakes, Caihai Lake (CH), Hongfeng Lake (HF) and Wujiangdu Lake (WJD), all located in southwest China, were selected to test the hypothesis that DOM optical properties control the fate of Hg in aquatic ecosystems. Porewater DOM was extracted and characterized by UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. A two end-member (autochthonous and allochthonous DOM) mixing model was used to unveil the origin of DOM in porewaters of the three lakes. Our results show a higher input of terrestrial DOM in the pristine lake CH, as compared to lakes HF and WJD lakes, which were both influenced by urban environments and enriched in autochthonous DOM. While the relationships between the concentrations of DOC and the different chemical forms of Hg forms were quite inconsistent, we found important links between specific DOM components and the fate of Hg in the three lakes. In particular, our results suggest that allochthonous, terrestrial DOM inhibits Hg(II) availability for Hg methylating micro-organisms. In contrast, autochthonous DOM seems to have been stimulated MeHg formation, likely by enhancing the activity of microbial communities. Indeed, DOM biodegradation experiments revealed that differences in the microbial activity could explain the variation in the concentration of MeHg. While relationships between concentrations of DOC and Hg vary among different sites and provide little information about Hg cycling, we conclude that the transport and transformation of Hg (e.g. the methylation process) are more strongly linked to DOM chemical composition and reactivity.

  • 9.
    Lindberg, Richard H
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Screening of antimycotics in Swedish sewage treatment plants - Waters and sludge2010In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 649-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concentrations of six pharmaceutical antimycotics were determined in the sewage water, final effluent and sludge of five Swedish sewage treatment plants (STPs) by solid phase extraction, liquid/solid extraction, and liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. The antimycotics were quantified by internal standard calibration. The results were used to estimate national flows that were compared to predictions based on sales figures. Fluconazole was the only one of the six investigated antimycotics that was detected (at concentrations ranging from 90 to 140ngL(-1)) in both raw sewage water and final effluent. Negligible amounts of this substance were removed from the aqueous phase, and its levels were below the limit of quantification in all of the analyzed sludge samples. In contrast, clotrimazole, ketoconazole and econazole were present in all of the sludge samples, at concentrations ranging between 200 and 1000mugkg(-1), dry weight. There were close correlations between the national measured and predicted antimycotic mass flows. Antimycotic fate analysis, based on sales figures, indicated that 53% of the total amount of fluconazole sold appeared in the final effluents of the STPs, while 1, 155, 35, 209 and 41% of the terbinafine, clotrimazole, ketoconazole, econazole and miconazole sold appeared in the digested dewatered sludge.

  • 10.
    Lindberg, Richard H.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Östman, Marcus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Olofsson, Ulrika
    Grabic, Roman
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Occurrence and behaviour of 105 active pharmaceutical ingredients in sewage waters of a municipal sewer collection system2014In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 58, p. 221-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concentrations and behaviour of 105 different active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in the aqueous phase of sewage water within a municipal sewer collection system have been investigated. Sewage water samples were gathered from seven pump stations (one of which was located within a university hospital) and from sewage water treatment influent and effluent. The targeted APIs were quantified using a multi-residue method based on online solid phase extraction liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The method was thoroughly validated and complies with EU regulations on sample handling, limits of quantification, quality control and selectivity. 51 APIs, including antibiotics, antidepressants, hypertension drugs, analgesics, NSAIDs and psycholeptics, were found frequently within the sewer collection system. API concentrations and mass flows were evaluated in terms of their frequency of detection, daily variation, median/minimum/maximum/average concentrations, demographic dissimilarities, removal efficiencies, and mass flow profiles relative to municipal sales data. Our results suggest that some APIs are removed from, or introduced to, the aqueous phase of sewage waters within the studied municipal collection system.

  • 11. Loos, Robert
    et al.
    Carvalho, Raquel
    António, Diana C
    Comero, Sara
    Locoro, Giovanni
    Tavazzi, Simona
    Paracchini, Bruno
    Ghiani, Michela
    Lettieri, Teresa
    Blaha, Ludek
    Jarosova, Barbora
    Voorspoels, Stefan
    Servaes, Kelly
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Lindberg, Richard H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Schwesig, David
    Gawlik, Bernd M.
    EU-wide monitoring survey on emerging polar organic contaminants in wastewater treatment plant effluents2013In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 47, no 17, p. 6475-6487Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the year 2010, effluents from 90 European wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were analyzed for 156 polar organic chemical contaminants. The analyses were complemented by effect-based monitoring approaches aiming at estrogenicity and dioxin-like toxicity analyzed by in vitro reporter gene bioassays, and yeast and diatom culture acute toxicity optical bioassays. Analyses of organic substances were performed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) or liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) or gas chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS). Target microcontaminants were pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), veterinary (antibiotic) drugs, perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), organophosphate ester flame retardants, pesticides (and some metabolites), industrial chemicals such as benzotriazoles (corrosion inhibitors), iodinated x-ray contrast agents, and gadolinium magnetic resonance imaging agents; in addition biological endpoints were measured. The obtained results show the presence of 125 substances (80% of the target compounds) in European wastewater effluents, in concentrations ranging from low nanograms to milligrams per liter. These results allow for an estimation to be made of a European median level for the chemicals investigated in WWTP effluents. The most relevant compounds in the effluent waters with the highest median concentration levels were the artificial sweeteners acesulfame and sucralose, benzotriazoles (corrosion inhibitors), several organophosphate ester flame retardants and plasticizers (e.g. tris(2-chloroisopropyl)phosphate; TCPP), pharmaceutical compounds such as carbamazepine, tramadol, telmisartan, venlafaxine, irbesartan, fluconazole, oxazepam, fexofenadine, diclofenac, citalopram, codeine, bisoprolol, eprosartan, the antibiotics trimethoprim, ciprofloxacine, sulfamethoxazole, and clindamycine, the insect repellent N,N'-diethyltoluamide (DEET), the pesticides MCPA and mecoprop, perfluoroalkyl substances (such as PFOS and PFOA), caffeine, and gadolinium.

  • 12. Malm, Annika
    et al.
    Axelsson, Gösta
    Barregard, Lars
    Ljungqvist, Jakob
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Bergstedt, Olof
    Pettersson, Thomas JR
    The association of drinking water treatment and distribution network disturbances with Health Call Centre contacts for gastrointestinal illness symptoms2013In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 47, no 13, p. 4474-4484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are relatively few studies on the association between disturbances in drinking water services and symptoms of gastrointestinal (GI) illness. Health Call Centres data concerning GI illness may be a useful source of information. This study investigates if there is an increased frequency of contacts with the Health Call Centre (HCC) concerning gastrointestinal symptoms at times when there is a risk of impaired water quality due to disturbances at water works or the distribution network. The study was conducted in Gothenburg, a Swedish city with 0.5 million inhabitants with a surface water source of drinking water and two water works. All HCC contacts due to GI symptoms (diarrhoea, vomiting or abdominal pain) were recorded for a three-year period, including also sex, age, and geocoded location of residence. The number of contacts with the HCC in the affected geographical areas were recorded during eight periods of disturbances in the water works (e.g. short stops of chlorine dosing), six periods of large disturbances in the distribution network (e.g. pumping station failure or pipe breaks with major consequences), and 818 pipe break and leak repairs over a three-year period. For each period of disturbance the observed number of calls was compared with the number of calls during a control period without disturbances in the same geographical area. In total about 55, 000 calls to the HCC due to GI symptoms were recorded over the three-year period, 35 per 1000 inhabitants and year, but much higher (>200) for children <3 yrs of age. There was no statistically significant increase in calls due to GI illness during or after disturbances at the water works or in the distribution network. Our results indicate that GI symptoms due to disturbances in water works or the distribution network are rare. The number of serious failures was, however limited, and further studies are needed to be able to assess the risk of GI illness in such cases. The technique of using geocoded HCC data together with geocoded records of disturbances in the drinking water network was feasible.

  • 13.
    Olofsson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Bignert, Anders
    Swedish Museum of Natural History.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Time-trends of metals and organic contaminants in sewage sludge2012In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 46, no 15, p. 4841-4851Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The occurrence of chemicals in sludge from sewage treatment plants (STPs) is of concern for human health and the environment, especially since STPs are considered to be major secondary sources of many toxic chemicals into the environment. Land application of sewage sludge is an attractive option for sludge management, as it consists of nutrients and organic matter. However, before sludge can be used for this purpose, the content of hazardous substances needs to be reduced to levels considered safe. Legislations and regulations are put in place to minimize the release of harmful chemicals into the environment, e.g. via sewage sludge. Temporal trends analysis of sludge contaminants can be used to assess the effectiveness of such actions. Such analyses can be performed retrospectively, using sludge stored in environmental specimen banks, to investigate new or emerging environmental contaminants. The present study provides data from time-trend analyses of metals, persistent organic pollutants, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and other organic compounds in sludge from Swedish STPs (based on seven years of measurements). The analysis showed that sludge is a suitable matrix for time-trend studies and it can take on average 12 years (range, 5-26 years) to track an annual change of ±10% (with a power of 80%). Statistically significant trends were found for 18 out of the 77 compounds subjected to analysis, of which 75% showed decreasing trends. Triclosan and the antibiotic norfloxacin followed the same trend as the national recorded usage and decreased annually by 65% and 60%, respectively. The opposite was true for the methylsiloxanes, which showed an annual average increase of about 30%. A downward trend (about 20% year−1) was observed for the polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs 154 and 183), while PBDE 209 increased by 16%. Further measurements are required to determine if the substitution of PBDEs by chlorinated paraffins or organophosphorus compounds have resulted in increased concentrations of the latter in sludge.

  • 14. Ouyang, Wei
    et al.
    Cai, Guanqing
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Yang, Wanyin
    Hao, Fanghua
    Liu, Hongbin
    Temporal-spatial patterns of three types of pesticide loadings in a middle-high latitude agricultural watershed2017In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 122, p. 377-386Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pesticide loadings to watersheds increase during agricultural development and may vary in accordance with different crop types and seasons. High pesticide loadings can potentially result in polluted stream water. The objective of this study was to determine the pesticide loadings and concentrations of three typical pesticides (atrazine, oxadiazon, and isoprothiolane) in river water from a middle high latitude agricultural watershed in northern China. During this study, we evaluated the watershed pesticide loss patterns for two crop types over three decades. For this purpose, we integrated data from field investigations, laboratory experiments, and modeling simulations involving a distributed hydrological solute transport model (Soil and Water Assessment Tool, SWAT). SWAT was employed to compare the temporal spatial fate and behaviors of atrazine, oxadiazon, and isoprothiolane from 1990 to 2014 in a watershed area amounting to 141.5 km(2). The results showed that the three pesticides could be detected at different locations throughout the watershed, and isoprothiolane was detected at the maximum value of 1.082 mu g/L in surface runoff of paddy land. The temporal trend for the yearly loading of atrazine decreased slightly over time, but the trends for oxadiazon and isoprothiolane increased markedly over an 18-year analysis period. In regard to the pesticide concentrations in water, atrazine was associated with the largest value of nearly 1.4 mu g/L. July and August were the found to be prime periods for pesticide loss from paddy land, and the biggest monthly loss of atrazine from dryland appeared in June. Under similar usage conditions, isoprothiolane loading from paddy fields ranked as the largest one among the three types of pesticides and reached up to 17 g/ha. Limited monitoring data were useful for validating the model, which yielded valuable temporal-spatial data on the fate of pesticides in this watershed. With the expansion of paddy rice cultivation, risks for pesticide contamination of water bodies will increase. The results of this study should be valuable for future exposure and risk assessments aimed at protecting the environment and human health.

  • 15. Ouyang, Wei
    et al.
    Huang, Weijia
    Hao, Xin
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Hao, Fanghua
    Watershed soil Cd loss after long-term agricultural practice and biochar amendment under four rainfall levels2017In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 122, p. 692-700Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some heavy metals in farmland soil can be transported into the waterbody, affecting the water quality and sediment at the watershed outlet, which can be used to determine the historical loss pattern. Cd is a typical heavy metal leached from farmland that is related to phosphate fertilizers and carries serious environmental risk. The spatial-vertical pattern of Cd in soil and the vertical trend of Cd in the river sediment core were analyzed, which showed the migration and accumulation of Cd in the watershed. To prevent watershed Cd loss, biochar was employed, and leaching experiments were conducted to investigate the Cd loss from soil depending on the initial concentration. Four rainfall intensities, 1.25 mm/h, 2.50 mm/h, 5.00 mm/h, and 10.00 mm/h, were used to simulate typical rainfall scenarios for the study area. Biochar was prepared from corn straw after pretreatment with ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP) and pyrolysis at 400 °C under anoxic conditions. To identify the effects of biochar amendment on Cd migration, the biochar was mixed with soil for 90 days at concentrations of 0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 3.0%, and 5.0% soil by weight. The results showed that the Cd leaching load increased as the initial load and rainfall intensity increased and that eluviation caused surface Cd to diffuse to the deep soils. The biochar application caused more of the heavy metals to be immobilized in the amended soil rather than transported into the waterbody. The sorption efficiency of the biochar for Cd increased as the addition level increased to 3%, which showed better performance than the 5% addition level under some initial concentration and rainfall conditions. The research indicated that biochar is a potential material to prevent diffuse heavy metal pollution and that a lower addition makes the application more feasible.

  • 16. Ouyang, Wei
    et al.
    Yang, Wanxin
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Xu, Yixue
    Lin, Chunye
    Gao, Xiang
    Hao, Zengchao
    Using river sediments to analyze the driving force difference for non-point source pollution dynamics between two scales of watersheds2018In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 139, p. 311-320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The formation and transportation processes of non-point source (NPS) pollution varied among the studied watersheds in the Northeastern China, so we hypothesized that the driving force behind NPS pollution followed the spatial scale effect. With a watershed outlet sedimentary flux analysis and a distributed NPS pollution loading model, we investigated the temporal dynamics of NPS and the differences in driving forces. Sediment core samples were collected from two adjacent watersheds, the smaller Abujiao watershed and the larger Naoli watershed. The natural climatic conditions, long-term variations in the distribution of land use, soil properties and tillage practices were the same in the two watersheds. The vertical distributions of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, Zn and As at 1-cm intervals in the section showed clear differences between the watersheds. There were higher concentrations of total nitrogen and total phosphorus in the larger watershed, but the heavy metals were more concentrated in the smaller watershed. Lead-210 (Pb-210) analyses and the constant rate of supply model provided a dated sedimentary flux, which was correlated with the corresponding yearly loading of NPS total nitrogen and total phosphorus in the two watersheds. The total phosphorus showed a stable relationship in both watersheds with an R-2 value that ranged from 0.503 to 0.682. A rose figure comparison also demonstrated that the pollutant flux in the sediment was very different in the two watersheds, which had similar territorial conditions and different hydrological patterns. Redundancy analysis further indicated that expanding paddy areas had a large impact on the sedimentary flux of nitrogen and phosphorus in the smaller watershed, but precipitation had a direct impact on NPS loading in the larger watershed. We concluded that the spatial scale effect affected the NPS pollution via the transport processes in the waterway, which was mainly influenced by branch length and drainage density. 

  • 17. Ouyang, Wei
    et al.
    Zhao, Xuchen
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Hao, Fanghua
    Typical agricultural diffuse herbicide sorption with agricultural waste-derived biochars amended soil of high organic matter content2016In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 92, p. 156-163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biochar application has been identified as the effective soil amendment and the materials to control the diffuse herbicide pollution. The atrazine was selected as the typical diffuse herbicide pollutant as the dominant proportion in applications. The biochar treated from four types of crops biomass were added to soil with high organic matter content. The basic sorption characteristics of biocahrs from corn cob (CC), corn stalk (CS), soybean straw (SS), rice straw (RS) and corn stalk paralyzed with 5% of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ACS) were analyzed, along with the comparison of the sorption difference of the raw soil and soil amended with biochars at four levels of ratio (0.5%, 1.0%, 3.0% and 5.0%). It was found that the linear distribution isotherm of raw soil was much effective due to the high organic matter background concentration. The addition of five types of biochars under two kinds of initial atrazine concentration (1 mg/L and 20 mg/L) demonstrated the sorption variances. Results showed the soil amended with RS and CS biochar had the biggest removal rate in four regular biochars and the removal rate of the ACS was the biggest. The sorption coefficient and the normalized sorption coefficient from Freundlich modeling presented the isothermal sorption characteristics of atrazine with soil of high organic matter content. The normalized sorption coefficient increased with the equilibrium concentration decreased in the biochar amended soil, which indicated the sorption performance will be better due to the low atrazine concentration in practice. Results showed that biochar amendment is the effective way to prevent leakage of diffuse herbicide loss.

  • 18. Reitzel, Kasper
    et al.
    Ahlgren, Joakim
    Gogoll, Adolf
    Rydin, Emil
    Effects of aluminum treatment on phosphorus, carbon, and nitrogen distribution in lake sediment: A P-31 NMR study2006In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 647-654Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of aluminum (Al) treatment on sediment composition of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) were investigated in sediment representing pre- and post-treatment years in the Danish Lake Sonderby. P-31 NMR spectroscopy analysis of EDTA-NaOH extracts revealed six functional P groups. Direct effects of the Al treatment were reflected in the orthophosphate profile revealing increased amounts of AI-P in the sediment layers representing the post-treatment period, as well as changes in organic P groups due to precipitation of phytoplankton and bacteria at the time of Al addition. Furthermore, changes in phytoplankton community structure and lowered production due to the Al treatment resulted in decreased concentrations of sediment organic P groups and total C. Exponential regressions were used to describe the diagenesis of C, N, and P in the sediment. From these regressions, half-life degradation times and C, N, and P burial rates were determined. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 19. Rusiol, Marta
    et al.
    Fernandez-Cassi, Xavier
    Hundesa, Ayalkibet
    Vieira, Carmen
    Kern, Anita
    Eriksson, Irene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Ziros, Panos
    Kay, David
    Miagostovich, Marize
    Vargha, Marta
    Allard, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Vantarakis, Apostolos
    Wyn-Jones, Peter
    Bofill-Mas, Silvia
    Girones, Rosina
    Application of human and animal viral microbial source tracking tools in fresh and marine waters from five different geographical areas2014In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 59, p. 119-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Integrated river basin management planning to mitigate the impacts of economic, demographic and climate change is an important issue for the future protection of water resources. Identifying sources of microbial contamination via the emerging science of Microbial Source Tracking (MST) plays a key role in risk assessment and the design of remediation strategies. Following an 18-month surveillance program within the EU-FP7-funded VIROCLIME project, specific MST tools were used to assess human markers such as adenoviruses (HAdV) and JC polyomaviruses (JCPyV) and porcine and bovine markers such as porcine adenoviruses (PAdV) and bovine polyomaviruses (BPyV) via quantification with real-time PCR to analyze surface water collected from five sites within different climatic zones: the Negro River (Brazil), Glafkos River (Greece), Tisza River (Hungary), Llobregat River (Spain) and Umealven River (Sweden). The utility of the viral MST tools and the prevalence and abundance of specific human and animal viruses in the five river catchments and adjacent seawater, which is impacted by riverine contributions from the upstream catchments, were examined. In areas where no sanitation systems have been implemented, sewage can directly enter surface waters, and river water exhibited high viral loads; HAdV and JCPyV could be detected at mean concentrations of 10(5) and 10(4) Genome Copies/Liter (GC/L), respectively. In general, river water samples upstream of urban discharges presented lower human viral loads than downstream sampling sites, and those differences appeared to increase with urban populations but decrease in response to high river flow, as the elevated river water volume dilutes microbial loads. During dry seasons, river water flow decreases dramatically, and secondary effluents can represent the bulk of the riverine discharge. We also observed that ice cover that formed over the river during the winter in the studied areas in North Europe could preserve viral stability due to the low temperatures and/or the lack of solar inactivation. Porcine and bovine markers were detected where intensive livestock and agricultural activities were present; mean concentration values of 10(3) GC/L indicated that farms were sometimes unexpected and important sources of fecal contamination in water. During spring and summer, when livestock is outdoors and river flows are low, animal pollution increases due to diffuse contamination and direct voiding of feces onto the catchment surface. The field studies described here demonstrate the dynamics of fecal contamination in all catchments studied, and the data obtained is currently being used to develop dissemination models of fecal contamination in water with respect to future climate change scenarios. The results concerning human and animal targets presented in this study demonstrate the specificity and applicability Of the viral quantitative parameters developed to widely divergent geographical areas and their high interest as new indicators of human and animal fecal contamination in water and as MST tools.

  • 20.
    Tornevi, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Simonsson, Magnus
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Säve-Söderbergh, Melle
    Toljander, Jonas
    Efficacy of water treatment processes and endemic gastrointestinal illness: A multi-city study in Sweden2016In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 102, p. 263-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Outbreaks of acute gastrointestinal illnesses (AGI) have been linked to insufficient drinking water treatment on numerous occasions in the industrialized world, but it is largely unknown to what extent public drinking water influences the endemic level of AGI. This paper aimed to examine endemic AGI and the relationship with pathogen elimination efficacy in public drinking water treatment processes. For this reason, time series data of all telephone calls to the Swedish National Healthcare Guide between November 2007 and February 2014 from twenty Swedish cities were obtained. Calls concerning vomiting, diarrhea or abdominal pain (AGI calls) were separated from other concerns (non-AGI calls). Information on which type of microbial barriers each drinking water treatment plant in these cities have been used were obtained, together with the barriers' theoretical pathogen log reduction efficacy. The total log reduction in the drinking water plants varied between 0.0 and 6.1 units for viruses, 0.0-14.6 units for bacteria and 0.0-7.3 units regarding protozoans. To achieve one general efficacy parameter for each plant, a weighted mean value of the log reductions (WLR) was calculated, with the weights based on how commonly these pathogen groups cause AGI. The WLR in the plants varied between 0.0 and 6.4 units. The effect of different pathogen elimination efficacy on levels of AGI calls relative non-AGI calls was evaluated in regression models, controlling for long term trends, population size, age distribution, and climatological area. Populations receiving drinking water produced with higher total log reduction was associated with a lower relative number of AGI calls. In overall, AGI calls decreased by 4% (OR = 0.96, CI: 0.96-0.97) for each unit increase in the WLR. The findings apply to both groundwater and surface water study sites, but are particularly evident among surface water sites during seasons when viruses are the main cause of AGI. This study proposes that the endemic level of gastroenteritis can indeed be reduced with more advanced treatment processes at many municipal drinking water treatment plants.

  • 21.
    Östman, Marcus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Lindberg, Richard H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Björn, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Screening of biocides, metals and antibiotics in Swedish sewage sludge and wastewater2017In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 115, p. 318-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Incoming sewage water, treated effluent and digested sludge were collected from 11 Swedish sewage treatment plants (STPs) on 3 different days. Analytical protocols were established for a large number of compounds (47) with antimicrobial properties and the collected samples were then screened for the presence of these selected substances. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were used to analyse the samples. Thirty organic compounds and 10 metals were detected above their respective detection limit. Quaternary ammonium compounds were the most abundant substances in the particulate phases with levels up to 370 μg/g and benzotriazoles were the most common in the aqueous phases with levels up to 24 μg/L. Several compounds with no, or very limited, previously reported data were detected in this study, including chlorhexidine, hexadecylpyridinium chloride and 10-benzalkonium chloride. Some of these were both frequently detected (>60% detection frequency) and found in high levels (up to 19 μg/g d.w. sludge). This study gives a comprehensive overview of the presence in Swedish STPs of a number of antimicrobial substances, providing crucial information in designing relevant studies on potential microbial co- and cross resistance development between antibiotics, biocides, and metals in the sewage system.

1 - 21 of 21
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