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  • 1.
    Girhammar, Ulf Arne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Kallsner, Bo
    Analysis of influence of imperfections on stiffness of fully anchored light-frame timber shear walls: elastic model2009In: Materials and Structures, ISSN 1359-5997, E-ISSN 1871-6873, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 321-337Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to stabilize light-frame timber buildings against horizontal loads, the diaphragm or in-plane action of roofs, floors and walls is often used. This paper deals with the influence of imperfections such as gaps and uplift on the horizontal displacement of fully anchored shear walls. The significance of analyzing the effects of imperfections is evident when evaluating the stiffness of shear walls; tests of walls show that the horizontal displacement is underestimated in calculations using the stiffness of sheathing-to-framing joints as obtained from experiments. Also, in real structures where hold-downs are used according to the elastic design method, the influence of gaps and uplift should be included in order to obtain realistic displacements in the serviceability limit state. A new elastic model for the analysis, based on linear elastic behaviour of the mechanical sheathing-to-framing joints, is presented and the equations for the stiffness and the deflection versus the number of segments in the wall are derived. The fully anchored condition for the shear walls are modelled by applying a diagonal load to the wall. Three types of imperfections are evaluated: gaps at all studs, a gap only at the trailing stud, and gaps at all studs, except at the trailing stud. It is shown that the effect of imperfections on the stiffness of the wall in the initial stage is considerable. Depending on the distribution of the gaps and the number of segments included in the shear wall, the displacement of the shear wall is increased several times compared to that of a fully anchored shear wall with no gaps; e.g. for a single segment wall more than three times. However, for walls with more than six to ten segments, the effect of imperfections can be neglected. Finally, the theoretical model is experimentally verified.

  • 2. Källsner, Bo
    et al.
    Girhammar, Ulf Arne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Analysis of fully anchored light-frame timber shear walls: elastic model2009In: Materials and Structures, ISSN 1359-5997, E-ISSN 1871-6873, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 301-320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to stabilize light-framed timber buildings against lateral loads, the diaphragm action of roofs, floors and walls is often used. This paper deals with an elastic analysis model for fully anchored sheathed wood frame shear walls. The model is based on the assumption of a linear elastic load-slip relation for the sheathing-to-framing joints. Only static loads are considered. The basic structural behaviour and assumptions for the elastic model are elucidated. Formulas for the load-bearing capacity and the deformation of the shear walls in the ultimate and serviceability limit states, respectively, are derived. Both a discrete point description and a continuous flow per unit length modelling of the fasteners are discussed. Also, the forces and displacements of the fasteners and sheathing are derived. The effect of different patterns and spacing of the fasteners on the capacity and displacement of the wall is illustrated. The influence of flexible framing members and shear deformations in the sheets, and also the effect of vertical loads on the shear wall, both with respect to tilting and second order effects, on the horizontal load-bearing capacity and displacement are evaluated. The stress distribution and the reaction forces at the ends of the different framing members are derived. The elastic model is experimentally verified and an illustrative example is given.

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