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  • 1. Matsakas, Leonidas
    et al.
    Gao, Qiuju
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Jansson, Stina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Rova, Ulrika
    Christakopoulos, Paul
    Green conversion of municipal solid wastes into fuels and chemicals2017In: Electronic Journal of Biotechnology, ISSN 0717-3458, E-ISSN 0717-3458, Vol. 26, article id 4Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Presently, the society is facing a serious challenge for the effective management of the increasing amount of produced municipal solid wastes. The accumulated waste has caused a series of environmental problems such as uncontrolled release of greenhouse gases. Moreover, the increasing amount of wastes has resulted in a shortage of areas available for waste disposal, resulting in a nonsustainable waste management. These problems led to serious public concerns, which in turn resulted in political actions aiming to reduce the amount of wastes reaching the environment. These actions aim to promote sustainable waste management solutions. The main objective of these policies is to promote the recycling of municipal solid waste and the conversion of waste to energy and valuable chemicals. These conversions can be performed using either biological (e.g., anaerobic digestion) or thermochemical processes (e.g., pyrolysis). Research efforts during the last years have been fruitful, and many publications demonstrated the effective conversation of municipal solid waste to energy and chemicals. These processes are discussed in the current review article together with the change of the waste policy that was implemented in the EU during the last years. 

  • 2. Mohammadi, Marzieh
    et al.
    Shafiei, Marzieh
    Karimi, Keikhosro
    Abdolmaleki, Amir
    Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Industrial Chemistry & Reaction Engineering, Johan Gadolin Process Chemistry Centre, Åbo Akademi University, Åbo-Turku, Finland.
    Larsson, Christer
    Improvement of ethanol production from birch and spruce pretreated with 1-H-3-methylmorpholinium chloride2019In: Electronic Journal of Biotechnology, ISSN 0717-3458, E-ISSN 0717-3458, Vol. 41, p. 95-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Pretreatment is the critically important step for the production of ethanol from lignocelluloses. In this study, hardwood birch (Betula pendula) and softwood spruce (Norway spruce) woods were pretreated with a newly synthesized morpholinium ionic liquid, 1-H-3-methylmorpholinium chloride ([HMMorph][Cl]), followed by enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation to ethanol.

    Results: [HMMorph][Cl] was synthesized using inexpensive raw materials, i.e., hydrochloric acid and N-methyl morpholine, following a simple process. The influence of pretreatment time (2, 3, 5, and 8 h) and temperature (120 and 140°C) in terms of hydrolysis efficiency was investigated. Glucose yields from enzymatic hydrolysis were improved from 13.7% to 45.7% and 12.9% to 51.8% after pretreatment of birch and spruce woods, respectively, under optimum pretreatment conditions (i.e., at 140°C for 3 h) as compared to those from pristine woods. Moreover, the yields of ethanol production from birch and spruce were increased to 34.8% and 44.2%, respectively, while the yields were negligible for untreated woods.

    Conclusions: This study demonstrated the ability of [HMMorph][Cl] as an inexpensive agent to pretreat both softwood and hardwood.

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