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  • 1.
    Jensen, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Beyond good and evil: the adiaphoric company2010In: Journal of Business Ethics, ISSN 0167-4544, E-ISSN 1573-0697, Vol. 96, no 3, 425-434 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, six demoralising processes in the context of the company are identified. These processes promote a realm of ‘being-with’, in which outcomes of human interaction are evaluated on rational grounds, and on whether or not a particular action accorded with stipulated ethical rules. Thereby the realm of ‘being-for’, in which individuals are supported to take increased responsibility, is marginalized. The conclusion made is that not only do the demoralizing processes systematically produce moral distance between humans, which weakens individual spontaneous outbursts of sympathy to take increased moral responsibility, they also promise to release individuals from their moral ambivalence by declaring organised action morally indifferent. Organisational action is, in other words, declared as adiaphoric – beyond good and evil.

  • 2.
    Lindblom, Lars
    KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dissolving the Moral Dilemma of Whistleblowing2007In: Journal of Business Ethics, ISSN 0167-4544, E-ISSN 1573-0697, Vol. 76, no 4, 413-426 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ethical debate on whistleblowing concerns centrally the conflict between the right to political free speech and the duty of loyalty to the organization where one works. This is the moral dilemma of whistleblowing.  Political free speech is justified because it is a central part of liberal democracy, whereas loyalty can be motivated as a way of showing consideration for one’s associates. The political philosophy of John Rawls is applied to this dilemma, and it is shown that that the requirement of loyalty, in the sense that is needed to create the moral dilemma of whistleblowing, is inconsistent with that theory. In this sense, there is no moral dilemma of whistleblowing. This position has been labeled extreme in that it says that whistleblowing is always morally permitted. In a discussion and rejection of Richard De George’s criteria on permissible whistleblowing, it is pointed out that the mere rejection of loyalty will not lead to an extreme position; harms can still be taken into account. Furthermore, it is argued that the best way is, in this as in most other political circumstances, to weigh harms is provided by the free speech argument from democracy.

     

    Keywords: Free Speech, Justice as Fairness, Loyalty, Permission for Whistleblowing, Whistleblowing

  • 3.
    Lindblom, Lars
    Department of Philosophy and the History of Technology, Division of Philosophy, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    The Structure of a Rawlsian Theory of Just Work2011In: Journal of Business Ethics, ISSN 0167-4544, E-ISSN 1573-0697, Vol. 101, no 4, 577-599 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article outlines the structure of a Rawlsian theory of justice in the employment relationship. A focus on this theory is motivated by the role it plays in debates in business ethics. The Rawlsian theory answers three central questions about justice and the workplace. What is the relationship between social justice and justice at work? How should we conceive of the problem of justice in the economic sphere? And, what is justice in the workplace? To see fully what demands justice makes on the workplace, we should first spell out the implications that domestic justice has for working conditions. When this is done, we can develop a conception of workplace justice and investigate what content such local justice should have. John Rawls’s political liberalism was constructed for the specific problem of a just basic structure; in order to apply it to another problem the key theoretical concepts must be revised. Reasons for a specific construction of a local original position are given and arguments are presented in support of a principle of local justice, which takes the form of a choice egalitarian local difference principle.

  • 4.
    Munter, Dan
    et al.
    KTH.
    Lindblom, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Beyond coercion: moral assessment in the labour market2017In: Journal of Business Ethics, ISSN 0167-4544, E-ISSN 1573-0697, Vol. 142, no 1, 59-70 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some libertarians argue that informed consent alone makes transactions in the labour market morally justified. In contrast, some of their critics claim that such an act of consent is no guarantee against coercion. To know whether agreements are voluntary, we need to assess the quality of the offers or the prevailing background conditions. ISCT theorists argue that it is imperative to take social norms into account when evaluating the labour market. We present a novel framework for moral assessment in the labour market, which takes consent, background conditions and norms into account, but which mainly focuses on the offers and demands made. Consent renders a transaction legitimate in the same way we regard a fair election legitimate even if we object to its outcome. For offers to be substantially justified, exploitation must be avoided and offers must give expression to the value of community. Only then they are morally justified.

  • 5.
    Nilsson, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Investment with a conscience: Examining the impact of pro-social attitudes and perceived financial performance on socially responsible investment behavior2008In: Journal of Business Ethics, ISSN 0167-4544, E-ISSN 1573-0697, Vol. 83, no 2, 307-325 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article addresses the growing industry of retail socially responsible investment (SRI) profiled mutual funds. Very few previous studies have examined the final consumer of SRI profiled mutual funds. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to, in an exploratory manner, examine the impact of a number of pro-social, financial performance, and socio-demographic variables on SRI behavior in order to explain why investors choose to invest different proportions of their investment portfolio in SRI profiled funds. An ordinal logistic regression analysis on 528 private investors revealed that two of the three pro-social variables had a positive impact on how much the consumer invested in SRI profiled funds. Moreover, there was proof of a non-altruistic motive for investing in SRI as consumers who perceive that financial return of SRI is equal or better than “regular” mutual funds, invested a greater proportion of their portfolio in SRI profiled mutual funds. Furthermore, the results showed that women and better-educated investors were more likely to invest a greater proportion of their investment portfolio in SRI. Overall, the findings indicate that both financial perceptions and pro-social attitudes are connected to consumer investment in SRI.

  • 6.
    Nylén, Ulrica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Humanitarian versus organizational morality: A survey of attitudes concerning business ethics among managing directors1995In: Journal of Business Ethics, ISSN 0167-4544, E-ISSN 1573-0697, Vol. 14, no 12, 977-986 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results of an empirical study of attitudes towards ethical questions in business life among managing directors. They study covers more than 240 Swedish firms of all sizes, from different lines of business, and it is based on a solid theoretical framework. It should be seen as a part of the author''s effort to develop a model explaining ethical organizational behaviour. Among the most important conclusions of the study is the concept of "corporate moral view". It seems possible to distinguish between "the humanitarian morality" versus "the organizational morality", depending on who''s interests the decision maker prefers to take in a moral dilemma.

  • 7.
    Sandberg, Joakim
    et al.
    Department of Philosophy, University of Gothenburg.
    Juravle, Carmen
    Department of Psychology, University of Bath, Bath, BA2 7AY, U.K..
    Hedesström, Ted Martin
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg.
    Hamilton, Ian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    The heterogeneity of socially responsible investment2008In: Journal of Business Ethics, ISSN 0167-4544, E-ISSN 1573-0697, Vol. 87, no 4, 519-533 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many writers have commented on the heterogeneity of the socially responsible investment (SRI) movement. However, few have actually tried to understand and explain it, and even fewer have discussed whether the opposite – standardisation – is possible and desirable. In this article, we take a broader perspective on the issue of the heterogeneity of SRI. We distinguish between four levels on which heterogeneity can be found: the terminological, definitional, strategic and practical. Whilst there is much talk about the definitional ambiguities of SRI, we suggest that there is actually some agreement on the definitional level. There are at least three explanations which we suggest can account for the heterogeneity on the other levels: cultural and ideological differences between different regions, differences in values, norms and ideology between various SRI stakeholders, and the market setting of SRI. Discussing the implications of the three explanations for the SRI market, we suggest that there is reason to be sceptical about the possibilities of standardisation if not standardisation is imposed top-down. Whether this kind of standardisation is desirable or not, we argue, depends on what the motives for it would be. To the extent that standardisation may facilitate the mainstreaming of SRI, it could be a good thing – but we entertain doubts about whether mainstreaming really requires standardisation.

  • 8.
    Semenova, Natalia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Hassel, Lars G
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    On the Validity of Environmental Performance Metrics2015In: Journal of Business Ethics, ISSN 0167-4544, E-ISSN 1573-0697, Vol. 132, no 2, 249-258 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different proprietary databases have been used extensively in research to assess the environmental performance and environmental risk of companies. This study explores the convergent validity of the environmental ratings of MSCI ESG STATS (formerly known as Kinder, Lydenberg, and Domini Research & Analytics; KLD), Thomson Reuters ASSET4 (ASSET4) and Global Engagement Services (GES). The study shows that the ratings have common dimensions, but on aggregate, they do not converge. On the environmental opportunity side, KLD environmental strengths, and ASSET4 and GES environmental performance metrics correlate highly and provide convergent scores for US companies from 2003–2011. On the environmental risk side, KLD environmental concerns converge with the GES environmental industry risk and company emissions from the ASSET4 database. Further analysis confirms that industry-related risks are drivers of company-specific environmental performance.

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