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  • 1.
    Freeman, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Dobbertin, K
    Kohles, SS
    Uhrenholt, L
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Serious head and neck injury as a predictor of occupant position in fatal rollover crashes2012Inngår i: Forensic Science International, ISSN 0379-0738, E-ISSN 1872-6283, Vol. 222, nr 1-3, s. 228-233Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Serious head and neck injuries are a common finding in fatalities associated with rollover crashes. In some fatal rollover crashes, particularly when ejection occurs, the determination of which occupant was driving at the time of the crash may be uncertain. In the present investigation, we describe the analysis of rollover crash data from the National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System for the years 1997 through 2007 in which we examined the relationship between a serious head and neck injury in an occupant and a specified degree of roof deformation at theoccupant's seating position. We found 960 occupants who qualified for the analysis, with 142 deaths among the subjects. Using a ranked compositehead and neck injury score (the HNISS) we found a strong relationship between HNISS and the degree of roof crush. As a result of the analysis, we arrived at a predictive model, in which each additional unit increase in HNISS equated to an increased odds of roof crush as follows: for ≥8cm of roof crush compared with <8cm by 4%, for ≥15cm of roof crush compared to <8cm by 6% and for ≥30cm of roof crush compared to <8cm by 11%. We describe two hypothetical scenarios in which the model could be applied to the real world investigation of occupant position in a rollover crash-related fatality.

  • 2. Jonsson, Anna Kristina
    et al.
    Söderberg, Carl
    Espnes, Ketil Arne
    Ahlner, Johan
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Reis, Margareta
    Druid, Henrik
    Sedative and hypnotic drugs-fatal and non-fatal reference blood concentrations2014Inngår i: Forensic Science International, ISSN 0379-0738, E-ISSN 1872-6283, Vol. 236, s. 138-145Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In postmortem investigations of fatal intoxications it is often challenging to determine which drug/s caused the death. To improve the interpretation of postmortem blood concentrations of sedative and hypnotic drugs and/or clonazepam, all medico-legal autopsies in Sweden - where these drugs had been detected in femoral vein blood during 1992-2006 - were identified in the databases of the National Board of Forensic Medicine. For each drug, concentrations in postmortem control cases - where the cause of death was not intoxication and where incapacitation by drugs could be excluded - were compiled as well as the levels found in living subjects; drugged driving cases and therapeutic drug monitoring cases. Subsequently, fatal intoxications were assessed with regards to the primary substances contributing to death, and blood levels were compiled for single and multiple drug intoxications. The postmortem femoral blood levels are reported for 16 sedative and hypnotic drugs, based on findings in 3560 autopsy cases. The cases were classified as single substance intoxications (N = 498), multiple substance intoxications (N = 1555) and postmortem controls (N = 1507). Each autopsy case could be represented more than once in the group of multiple intoxications and among the postmortem controls if more than one of the included substances were detected. The concentration ranges for all groups are provided. Overlap in concentrations between fatal intoxications and reference groups was seen for most substances. However, the concentrations found in single and multiple intoxications were significantly higher than concentrations found in postmortem controls for all substances except alprazolam and triazolam. Concentrations observed among drugged drivers were similar to the concentrations observed among the therapeutic drug monitoring cases. Flunitrazepam was the substance with the highest number of single intoxications, when related to sales. In summary, this study provides reference drug concentrations primarily to be used for improving interpretation of postmortem drug levels in obscure cases, but which also may assist in drug safety work and in pharmacovigilance efforts.

    (C) 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 3.
    Junuzovic, Mensura
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Unintentional firearm hunting deaths in Sweden2012Inngår i: Forensic Science International, ISSN 0379-0738, E-ISSN 1872-6283, Vol. 216, nr 1-3, s. 12-18Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined all unintentional firearm fatalities while hunting that occurred in Sweden between 1983 through 2008. The circumstances as well as the impact of the hunter's exam on fatality frequency were analysed. During these 26 years, there were 48 such fatalities, representing 53% of all (n = 90) unintentional firearm deaths during the same period. The average annual number of fatalities decreased over the last few decades. Very restrictive firearm legislation in Sweden combined with the introduction of a mandatory hunter's exam since 1985 accounted, at least partly, for this finding. Moose hunting accounted for 46% of the fatalities and small game hunting for the remaining cases. The mean age of the victims was 50 years and 96% of them were males; all shooters were males. During moose hunting, most of the victims were mistaken for game, whereas in small game hunting most of the fatalities were related to falls and improper handling of the weapon. Human error was thus the main cause of these fatalities.

  • 4. Lindgren, Petter
    et al.
    Myrtennäs, Kerstin
    Forsman, Mats
    Johansson, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS).
    Stenberg, Per
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Department of Biological Agents, Division of CBRN Defence and Security, Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), SE-901 82 Umeå, Sweden.
    Nordgaard, Anders
    Ahlinder, Jon
    A likelihood ratio-based approach for improved source attribution in microbiological forensic investigations2019Inngår i: Forensic Science International, ISSN 0379-0738, E-ISSN 1872-6283, Vol. 302, artikkel-id 109869Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A common objective in microbial forensic investigations is to identify the origin of a recovered pathogenic bacterium by DNA sequencing. However, there is currently no consensus about how degrees of belief in such origin hypotheses should be quantified, interpreted, and communicated to wider audiences. To fill this gap, we have developed a concept based on calculating probabilistic evidential values for microbial forensic hypotheses. The likelihood-ratio method underpinning this concept is widely used in other forensic fields, such as human DNA matching, where results are readily interpretable and have been successfully communicated in juridical hearings. The concept was applied to two case scenarios of interest in microbial forensics: (1) identifying source cultures among series of very similar cultures generated by parallel serial passage of the Tier 1 pathogen Francisella tularensis, and (2) finding the production facilities of strains isolated in a real disease outbreak caused by the human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. Evidence values for the studied hypotheses were computed based on signatures derived from whole genome sequencing data, including deep-sequenced low-frequency variants and structural variants such as duplications and deletions acquired during serial passages. In the F. tularensis case study, we were able to correctly assign fictive evidence samples to the correct culture batches of origin on the basis of structural variant data. By setting up relevant hypotheses and using data on cultivated batch sources to define the reference populations under each hypothesis, evidential values could be calculated. The results show that extremely similar strains can be separated on the basis of amplified mutational patterns identified by high-throughput sequencing. In the L. monocytogenes scenario, analyses of whole genome sequence data conclusively assigned the clinical samples to specific sources of origin, and conclusions were formulated to facilitate communication of the findings. Taken together, these findings demonstrate the potential of using bacterial whole genome sequencing data, including data on both low frequency SNP signatures and structural variants, to calculate evidence values that facilitate interpretation and communication of the results. The concept could be applied in diverse scenarios, including both epidemiological and forensic source tracking of bacterial infectious disease outbreaks. 

  • 5. Mörén, Lina
    et al.
    Jonsson, Sebastian
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Tengel, Tobias
    Ostin, Anders
    Origin identification of homemade pepper spray by multivariate data analysis of chemical attribution signatures2019Inngår i: Forensic Science International, ISSN 0379-0738, E-ISSN 1872-6283, Vol. 304, artikkel-id 109956Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Riot control agents such as pepper sprays can be misused for antagonistic and criminal purposes. Several web-pages and YouTube videos are available describing how to make homemade pepper spray. In this study, we investigated whether it was possible to identify the origin of homemade pepper sprays based on chemical attribution signatures from thirteen different types of chili acquired from six different vendors analyzed by GC-MS. The results showed that it was possible to differentiate chili based on species, chili type and vendor using OPLS-DA. Application of an external test set of chilies acquired and extracted one year later than development of the models resulted in correct classification in all models. The models displayed high predictability, suggesting their use for prediction of the identity and origin of seized homemade pepper sprays. 

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