umu.sePublications
Change search
Refine search result
1 - 28 of 28
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Andersson, Linus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ledin, Lisa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wisting, Frida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The influence of health-risk perception and distress on reactions to low-level chemical exposure2013In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 4, p. 816-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The general aim of the current study was to investigate how perceived health risk of a chemical exposure and self-reported distress are related to perceived odor intensity and odor valence, symptoms, cognitive performance over time as well as reactions to blank exposure. Based on ratings of general distress, 20 participants constituted a relatively low distress group, and 20 other participants a relatively high distress group. Health risk perception was manipulated by providing positively and negatively biased information regarding n-butanol. Participants made repeated ratings of intensity, valence and symptoms and performed cognitive tasks while exposed to 4.7 ppm n-butanol for 60 min (first 10 min were blank exposure) inside an exposure chamber. Ratings by the positive and negative bias groups suggest that the manipulation influenced perceived health risk of the exposure. The high distress group did not habituate to the exposure in terms of intensity when receiving negative information, but did so when receiving positive information. The high distress group, compared with the low distress group, rated the exposure as significantly more unpleasant, reported greater symptoms and performed worse on a cognitively demanding task over time. The positive bias group and high distress group rated blank exposure as more intense. The main findings suggest that relatively distressed individuals are negatively affected by exposures to a greater degree than non-distressed.

  • 2.
    Bergström, Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Eriksson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    The conjunction of non-consciously perceived object identity and spatial position can be retained during a visual short-term memory task2015In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, article id 1470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although non-consciously perceived information has previously been assumed to be short-lived (<500 ms), recent findings show that non-consciously perceived information can be maintained for at least 15s Such findings can be explained as working memory without a conscious experience of the information to be retained. However, whether or not working memory can operate on non-consciously perceived information remains controversial, and little is known about the nature of such non-conscious visual short-term memory (VSTM). Here we used continuous flash suppression to render stimuli non-conscious, to investigate the properties of non-consciously perceived representations in delayed match-to-sample (DMS) tasks. In Experiment I we used variable delays (5 or 15s) and found that performance was significantly better than chance and was unaffected by delay duration, thereby replicating previous findings. In Experiment II the DMS task required participants to combine information of spatial position and object identity on a trial-by-trial basis to successfully solve the task. We found that the conjunction of spatial position and object identity was retained, thereby verifying that non-conscious, trial-specific information can be maintained for prospective use. We conclude that our results are consistent with a working memory interpretation, but that more research is needed to verify this interpretation.

  • 3.
    Davis, Paul A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Halvarsson, Anton
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lundstrom, Wictor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lundqvist, Carolina
    Alpine Ski Coaches' and Athletes' Perceptions of Factors Influencing Adaptation to Stress in the Classroom and on the Slopes2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 1641Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research examining the student-athlete experience proposes a number of factors that can be both sources of stress and/or support. The dual career pathway offers a number of potential positive outcomes including psychological, social, and financial benefits; however, challenges including time management, fatigue, and restricted social activities are well documented. In consideration of the multidimensional student-athlete experience and the numerous factors that influence the complexity of potential stress, a mixed methods research study design was used in the study. First, data collected from surveys completed by 173 elite junior alpine skiers were analyzed to identify the degree to which athletes report experiencing stress associated with specific aspects pertaining to training, life, and organizational factors. These factors were then explored through semi-structured interviews with six coaches at the associated national elite sport schools. Taken collectively, athletes' reports of psychophysiological training stress on the Multidimensional Training Distress Scale were low. Scores on the college studentathletes' life stress scale revealed very low levels of general life stress; although the subscales associated with "performance demand" and "academic requirements" scored marginally higher. Scores on the Organizational Stressor Indicator for Sport Performers indicated low levels of organizational stress. The interviews with coaches elucidated the underlying factors potentially influencing athletes' positive adaptations to stress as they reported programming a number of strategies to reduce negative outcomes. Coaches aimed to teach athletes self-awareness and regulation strategies through the use of the training diaries and ongoing communication to promote positive adaptation to stress. A number of coaches also worked with sport psychology consultants to optimize athletes' training and study situations. Traditionally, research has noted high levels of stress in student-athletes due to co-occurring demands (school & sport); however, the data in the present study suggests that optimizing support mechanisms across domains can promote positive adaptations to potential sources of stress.

  • 4.
    Domellöf, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Barbu-Roth, Marianne
    Laboratoire Psychologie de la Perception, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique-Université Paris Descartes, Paris, France.
    Rönnqvist, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jacquet, Anne-Yvonne
    Laboratoire Psychologie de la Perception, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique-Université Paris Descartes, Paris, France.
    Fagard, Jacqueline
    Laboratoire Psychologie de la Perception, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique-Université Paris Descartes, Paris, France.
    Infant manual performance during reaching and grasping for objects moving in depth2015In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, article id 1142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Few studies have investigated manual performance in infants when reaching and grasping for objects moving in directions other than across the fronto-parallel plane. The present preliminary study explored object-oriented behavioral strategies and side preference in 8- and 10-month-old infants during reaching and grasping for objects approaching in depth from three positions (midline, and 27° diagonally from the left and right). Effects of task constraint by using objects of three different types and two sizes were further examined for behavioral strategies and hand opening prior to grasping. Additionally, assessments of hand preference by a dedicated handedness test were performed. Regardless of object starting position, the 8-month-old infants predominantly displayed right-handed reaches for objects approaching in depth. In contrast, the older infants showed more varied strategies and performed more ipsilateral reaches in correspondence with the side of the approaching object. Conversely, 10-month-old infants were more successful than the younger infants in grasping the objects, independent of object starting position. The findings regarding infant hand use strategies when reaching and grasping for objects moving in depth are similar to those from earlier studies using objects moving along a horizontal path. Still, initiation times of reaching onset were generally long in the present study, indicating that the object motion paths seemingly affected how the infants perceived the intrinsic properties and spatial locations of the objects, possibly with an effect on motor planning. Findings are further discussed in relation to future investigations of infant reaching and grasping for objects approaching in depth.

  • 5.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Körning Ljungberg, Jessica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Different Features of Bilingualism in Relation to Executive Functioning2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, no 269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The notion that the long-term practice of managing two languages is beneficial for the executive control system is an ongoing debate. Criticism have been raised that studies demonstrating a bilingual advantage often suffer from small sample sizes, and do not control for fluid intelligence as a possible confound. Taking those suggested factors into account, focusing on older bilingual age groups and investigating the potential effects of linguistic distances, this study aimed to improve the interpretations of the bilinguals’ advantages. Measures of inhibition (Flanker, Stroop, Simon task) and switching (Number-letter, Color-Shape, Local-global task) were collected in participants in the ages 50-75 years (n = 193). Despite a large study sample, results did not support any beneficial effects related to improve processing costs in executive functioning. Sub-analyses of the two different language groups (Swedish – Finnish / Swedish – English) intended to investigate the effect of linguistic distances did not change this outcome. Future studies exploring the potential long-term term effects of bilingualism would benefit from identifying tests of cognitive control with greater ecological validity and include other measures of cognitive functioning. Language learning interventions may also be a promising tool for future research.

  • 6.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Pritschke, Ilona
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Körning-Ljungberg, Jessica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Complexity of Primary Lifetime Occupation and Cognitive Processing2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, p. 1-12, article id 1861Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, there are a lack of studies focusing on the relationship between occupational complexity and executive functioning. This is noteworthy since executive functions are core aspects of cognitive processing. The present study was aimed to investigate if three occupational complexity factors (with data, people, and things) of main lifetime occupation were related to performance in executive tasks (inhibition, switching, updating). We analyzed cross-sectional data that were available for 225 participants aged 50–75 years. Results from structural equation models showed that higher complexity levels of working with data were related to lower error rates in the updating component of cognitive control. In addition, higher rates of complexity working with people was associated with lower error rates in task-switching, which also persisted after adjustment of fluid intelligence. Complexity with things, however, was not related to performance in the executive tasks. Future studies would benefit from a longitudinal design to investigate if the results from this study also hold in the long term and to further investigate the directionality between factors.

  • 7.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Körning Ljungberg, Jessica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Reading Habits Among Older Adults in Relation to Level and 15-Year Changes in Verbal Fluency and Episodic Recall2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 1872Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this study was to investigate reading habits in older adults in relation to level and 15-year changes in verbal fluency and episodic recall. We examined a sample of 1157 participants (55 years at baseline) up to 15 years after the baseline assessment using latent growth curve modeling of cognitive measures with baseline reading frequency (books, weekly magazines) as a predictor of cognitive level (intercept) and rate of change (slope). Subgroup analyses were performed to investigate the role of an early adult g factor in the association between reading habits and cognitive ability in midlife. Frequent reading of books, but not of magazines, was associated with higher levels of verbal fluency and recall but unrelated to rate of longitudinal decline. Subgroup analyses indicated that the g factor in early adulthood predicted reading and cognitive level in midlife and this factor removed the current association between reading habits and level of cognitive ability (both cognitive factors). The results indicate an enduring relationship between book reading and level of cognitive ability across the adult life span and provide little support of the hypothesis that frequent reading protects against latelife cognitive decline. The extent to which book reading promotes cognitive functioning in childhood/youth remains to be demonstrated. Intervention studies may be useful in this regard.

  • 8.
    Eriksson, Terese
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Germundsjö, Linnea
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Mindful self-compassion training reduces stress and burnout symptoms among practicing psychologists: a randomized controlled trial of a brief web-based intervention2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 2340Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aims of this study were (a) to examine the effects of a 6 weeks web-based mindful self-compassion program on stress and burnout symptoms in a group of practicing psychologists, and (b) to examine relationships between changes in self-compassion and self-coldness and changes in stress and burnout symptoms.

    Method: In a randomized controlled trial, 101 practicing psychologists were assigned to a training group (n = 51) or a wait-list control group (n = 49). The training encompassed 15min exercises per day, 6 days a week, for 6 weeks. The participants completed the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS), the Five Facets of Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and the Shirom Melamed Burnout Questionnaire (SMBQ) pre and post intervention.

    Results: Eighty-one participants (n = 40 in the training group, n = 41 in the control group) took part in the pre and post intervention assessments. Selective gains for the intervention group were observed for SCS total scores (d = 0.86; d = 0.94 for the SCS), FFMQ scores (d = 0.60), while levels of self-coldness was reduced (d = 0.73). Critically, levels of perceived stress (d = 0.59) and burnout symptoms (d = 0.44 for SMBQ total) were additionally lowered post intervention. Finally, the results confirmed the hypothesis that the measures of distress would be more strongly related to self-coldness than self-compassion, a pattern seen in cross-sectional analyses and, for burnout, also in the longitudinal analyses.

    Conclusions: This training program appeared effective to increase self-compassion/reduce self-coldness, and to alleviate stress and symptoms of burnout and provide support of the distinction between self-compassion and self-coldness. Additional studies, preferably three-armed RCTs with long-term follow-up, are warranted to further evaluate the effectiveness of the program.

  • 9.
    Ferronato, Priscilla A. M.
    et al.
    Department of Pedagogy of Human Movement, São Paulo University, São Paulo, Brazil and Physical Education Course, Institute of Health Sciences, Paulista University, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Domellöf, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnqvist, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Early influence of auditory stimuli on upper-limb movements in young human infants: an overview2014In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 5, no 1043Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given that the auditory system is rather well developed at the end of the third trimester of pregnancy, it is likely that couplings between acoustics and motor activity can be integrated as early as at the beginning of postnatal life. The aim of the present mini-review was to summarize and discuss studies on earlyauditory-motor integration, focusing particularly on upper-limb movements (one of the most crucial means to interact with the environment) in association with auditory stimuli, to develop further understanding of their significance with regard to early infant development. Many studies have investigated the relationship between various infant behaviors (e.g., sucking, visual fixation,head turning) and auditory stimuli, and established that human infants can beobserved displaying couplings between action and environmental sensory stimulation already from just after birth, clearly indicating a propensity forintentional behavior. Surprisingly few studies, however, have investigated the associations between upper-limb movements and different auditory stimuli in newborns and young infants, infants born at risk for developmental disorders/delays in particular. Findings from studies of early auditory-motor interaction support that the developing integration of sensory and motor systems is a fundamental part of the process guiding the development of goal-directed action in infancy, of great importance for continued motor, perceptual, and cognitive development. At-risk infants (e.g., those bornpreterm) may display increasing central auditory processing disorders,negatively affecting early sensory-motor integration, and resulting inlong-term consequences on gesturing, language development, and social communication. Consequently, there is a need for more studies on such implications.

  • 10.
    Forman, Helen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Events and children's sense of time: a perspective on the origins of everyday time-keeping2015In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, article id 259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article I discuss abstract or pure time versus the content of time, (i.e., events, activities, and other goings-on). Or, more specifically, the utility of these two sorts of time in time-keeping or temporal organization. It is often assumed that abstract, uniform, and objective time is a universal physical entity out there, which humans may perceive of. However, this sort of evenly flowing time was only recently introduced to the human community, together with the mechanical clock. Before the introduction of mechanical clock-time, there were only events available to denote the extent of time. Events defined time, unlike the way time may define events in our present day culture. It is therefore conceivable that our primeval or natural mode of time keeping involves the perception, estimation, and coordination of events. I find it likely that events continues to subserve our sense of time and time-keeping efforts, especially for children who have not yet mastered the use of clock time. Instead of seeing events as a distraction to our perception of time, I suggest that our experience and understanding of time emerges from our perception of events.

  • 11. Ho, Tiffany C.
    et al.
    Zhang, Shunan
    Sacchet, Matthew D.
    Weng, Helen
    Connolly, Colm G.
    Henje Blom, Eva
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA; Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Han, Laura K. M.
    Mobayed, Nisreen O.
    Yang, Tony T.
    Fusiform gyrus dysfunction is associated with perceptual processing efficiency to emotional faces in adolescent depression: a model-based approach2016In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7, article id 40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While the extant literature has focused on major depressive disorder (MDD) as being characterized by abnormalities in processing affective stimuli (e.g., facial expressions), little is known regarding which specific aspects of cognition influence the evaluation of affective stimuli, and what are the underlying neural correlates. To investigate these issues, we assessed 26 adolescents diagnosed with MDD and 37 well-matched healthy controls (HCL) who completed an emotion identification task of dynamically morphing faces during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We analyzed the behavioral data using a sequential sampling model of response time (RT) commonly used to elucidate aspects of cognition in binary perceptual decision making tasks: the Linear Ballistic Accumulator (LBA) model. Using a hierarchical Bayesian estimation method, we obtained group-level and individual-level estimates of LBA parameters on the facial emotion identification task. While the MDD and HCL groups did not differ in mean RT, accuracy, or group-level estimates of perceptual processing efficiency (i.e., drift rate parameter of the LBA), the MDD group showed significantly reduced responses in left fusiform gyrus compared to the HCL group during the facial emotion identification task. Furthermore, within the MDD group, fMRI signal in the left fusiform gyrus during affective face processing was significantly associated with greater individual-level estimates of perceptual processing efficiency. Our results therefore suggest that affective processing biases in adolescents with MDD are characterized by greater perceptual processing efficiency of affective visual information in sensory brain regions responsible for the early processing of visual information. The theoretical, methodological, and clinical implications of our results are discussed.

  • 12.
    Holmbom, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Brymer, Eric
    Schweitzer, Robert D.
    Transformations through proximity flying: a phenomenological investigation2017In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, article id 1831Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Participation in extreme sports has been linked to personal transformations in everyday life. Descriptions of lived experience resulting from transformative experiences are limited. Proximity flying, a relatively new discipline involving BASE jumping with a wingsuit where participants fly close to solid structures, is arguably one of the most extreme of extreme sports. The aim of this paper, part of a larger phenomenological study on the lived experience of proximity flying, is to explicate the ways in which participating in proximity flying influences the everyday lives of participants. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to explicate the lived experience of six proximity pilots. An analysis of interview transcripts revealed three significant themes describing the lived experience of participants. First, experiences of change were described as positive and skills developed through proximity flying were transferable into everyday life. Second, transformative experiences were considered fundamental to participants' perspectives on life. Third, experience of transformation influenced their sense of personal identity and facilitated flourishing in other aspects of everyday life. Participants were clear that their experiences in proximity flying facilitated a profound process of transformation which manifest as changes in everyday capabilities and behaviors, values and sense of identity.

  • 13.
    Madison, Guy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Aasa, Ulrika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Wallert, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Woodley, Michael A
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Vrije Univ Brussel, Ctr Leo Apostel, Brussels, Belgium.
    Feminist activist women are masculinized in terms of digit-ratio and social dominance: a possible explanation for the feminist paradox2014In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 5, p. 1011-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The feminist movement purports to improve conditions for women, and yet only a minority of women in modern societies self-identify as feminists. This is known as the feminist paradox. It has been suggested that feminists exhibit both physiological and psychological characteristics associated with heightened masculinization, which may predispose women for heightened competitiveness, sex-atypical behaviors, and belief in the interchangeability of sex roles. If feminist activists, i.e., those that manufacture the public image of feminism, are indeed masculinized relative to women in general, this might explain why the views and preferences of these two groups are at variance with each other. We measured the 2D:4D digit ratios (collected from both hands) and a personality trait known as dominance (measured with the Directiveness scale) in a sample of women attending a feminist conference. The sample exhibited significantly more masculine 2D:4D and higher dominance ratings than comparison samples representative of women in general, and these variables were furthermore positively correlated for both hands. The feminist paradox might thus to some extent be explained by biological differences between women in general and the activist women who formulate the feminist agenda.

  • 14.
    Madison, Guy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sioros, George
    Sound and Music Computing Group, INESC TEC, Porto, Portugal.
    What musicians do to induce the sensation of groove in simple and complex melodies, and how listeners perceive it2014In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 5, p. 894-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15. Marsh, John E.
    et al.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Körning Ljungberg, Jessica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Division of Human Work Science, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Executive Processes Underpin the Bilingual Advantage on Phonemic Fluency: Evidence from Analyses of Switching and Clustering2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 1355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bilinguals often show a disadvantage in lexical access on verbal fluency tasks wherein the criteria require the production of words from semantic categories. However, the pattern is more heterogeneous for letter (phonemic) fluency wherein the task is to produce words beginning with a given letter. Here, bilinguals often outperform monolinguals. One explanation for this is that phonemic fluency, as compared with semantic fluency, is more greatly underpinned by executive processes and that bilinguals exhibit better performance on phonemic fluency due to better executive functions. In this study, we re-analyzed phonemic fluency data from the Betula study, scoring outputs according to two measures that purportedly reflect executive processes: clustering and switching. Consistent with the notion that bilinguals have superior executive processes and that these can be used to offset a bilingual disadvantage in verbal fluency, bilinguals (35-65 years at baseline) demonstrated greater switching and clustering throughout the 15-year study period.

  • 16.
    Marsja, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Marsh Everett, John
    Hansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Neely, Gregory
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Examining the Role of Spatial Changes in Bimodal and Uni-Modal To-Be-Ignored Stimuli and How They Affect Short-Term Memory Processes2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, p. 1-8, article id 299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the potential vulnerability of short-term memory processes to distraction by spatial changes within to-be-ignored bimodal, vibratory, and auditory stimuli. Participants were asked to recall sequences of serially presented dots or digits while being exposed to to-be-ignored stimuli. On unexpected occasions, the bimodal (Experiment 1), vibratory (Experiment 2), or auditory (Experiment 3) stimuli changed their spatial origin from one side of the body (e.g., ear and arm, arm only, ear only) to the other. It was expected that the bimodal stimuli would make the spatial change more salient compared to that of the uni-modal stimuli and that this, in turn, would yield an increase in distraction of serial short-term memory in both the verbal and spatial domains. Performance across three experiments support this assumption as a disruptive effect of the spatial deviant was only observed when presented within the bimodal to-be-ignored sequence (Experiment 1): Uni-modal to-be-ignored sequences, whether vibratory (Experiment 2) or auditory (Experiment 3), had no impact on either verbal or spatial short-term memory. Implications for models of attention capture, short-term memory, and the potential special role attention capturing role of bimodal stimuli is discussed.

  • 17.
    Molander, Bo
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Olsson, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Borg, Elisabet
    Psychology, Stockholms University, Sweden.
    Regulating force in putting by using the Borg CR100 scale®2013In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 4, no 82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies investigating the regulation of force of motor actions are scarce, and particularlyso in the area of sports. This is surprising, considering that in most sports precise forceis of great importance. The current study demonstrates how a psychophysical scale, theBorg CR100 scale® (Borg and Borg, 2001), can be used to assess subjective force aswell as regulate force in putting. Psychophysical functions were calculated on the relationships between judgments of force using the CR100 scale and the length of puttingshots, examined in a laboratory setting, where 44 amateur golfers played on both flatand uphill surfaces. High agreement and consistency between CR 100 ratings and distancesputted was demonstrated. No significant differences in handling the scale wereobserved between younger (mean age 37 years) and older (mean age 69 years) playersor between players of different skill level. This study provides a new innovative use of anexisting instrument, the Borg CR 100 scale®, in order to understand the regulation of forceneeded for putts of various lengths and surfaces. These results and the potential futurebenefits of the psychophysical approach in golf are discussed.

  • 18. Pantzar, Alexandra
    et al.
    Jonasson, Lars S.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Ekblom, Orjan
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Danish Research Center for Magnetic Resonance, Center for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark.
    Ekblom, Maria M.
    Relationships Between Aerobic Fitness Levels and Cognitive Performance in Swedish Office Workers2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 2612Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Aerobic exercise influence cognition in elderly, children, and neuropsychiatric populations. Less is known about the influence of aerobic exercise in healthy samples (particularly working age), and of different fitness levels on cognition. Two hypotheses were posed: (1) low fitness levels, compared to moderate and high, will be related to poorer cognitive performance, and (2) breakpoints for the beneficial relationship between VO2 and cognition will be observed within the moderate-to-high fitness span.

    Design and Methods: The sample consisted of n=362 office workers. A submaximal cycle ergometer test estimated maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max, mL·kg−1·min−1). Based on estimated VO2max participants were split into tertiles; low (n = 121), moderate (n = 119), and high (n = 122). A cognitive test battery (9 tests), assessed processing speed, working memory, executive functions and episodic memory.

    Results: Both hypotheses were confirmed. Groups of moderate (≈40) and high (≈49) fitness outperformed the group of low (≈31) fitness for inhibition and episodic recognition, whereas no significant differences between moderate and high fitness were observed (ANCOVAs). Breakpoints between benefits fromVO2maxfor inhibition and recognition were estimated to ≈44/43 mL·kg−1·min−1 (multivariate broken line regressions).

    Conclusions: Results suggest that it is conceivable to expect a beneficial relationship between VO2max and some cognitive domains up to a certain fitness level. In a sample of healthy office workers, this level was estimated to 44 mL·kg−1·min−1. This has implications on organizational and societal levels; where incentives to improve fitness levels from low to moderate could yield desirable cognitive and health benefits in adults.

  • 19. Poromaa, Inger Sundstrom
    et al.
    Comasco, Erika
    Bäckström, Torbjörn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynecology.
    Bixo, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynecology.
    Jensen, Peter
    Frokjaer, Vibe G.
    Negative Association Between Allopregnanolone and Cerebral Serotonin Transporter Binding in Healthy Women of Fertile Age2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 2767Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Allopregnanolone is a metabolite of the sex hormone progesterone, with suggested relevance for female mood disorders. While allopregnanolone and serotonin are known to influence psychological well-being, the molecular and psychological specifics of their relationship are to date poorly understood, especially in women of fertile age who experience regular fluctuations of progesterone across the menstrual cycle. Availability of serotonin in the synaptic cleft is regulated by the serotonin transporter (SERT), which can be imaged in the living human brain by use of positron emission tomography (PET) and the radiotracer [C-11]DASB. To evaluate sex-specific allopregnanolone-SERT interactions, the present study investigated the relationship between cerebral SERT availability, serum allopregnanolone levels and psychological well-being in women of fertile age. Brain imaging data, self-reported symptoms of mental distress and emotion regulation, and biobank material from ninety healthy women were available from the Center for Integrated Molecular Brain Imaging (CIMBI) database. Age, BMI, and daylight minutes were included as covariates in the analyses and SERT genotype (5-HTTLPR) was considered a potential confounder. Lower serum allopregnanolone levels were associated with higher SERT binding in the prefrontal cortex. Moreover, allopregnanolone levels were negatively associated with measures of alertness, although this finding was not mediated by prefrontal cortex SERT binding. These findings suggest a link between the typical psychological well-being experienced in the follicular phase when allopregnanolone levels are low and higher SERT in the prefrontal cortex, a region for higher cognitive functions and top-down regulation of emotions.

  • 20. Ravignani, Andrea
    et al.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The Paradox of Isochrony in the Evolution of Human Rhythm2017In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, article id 1820Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Isochrony is crucial to the rhythm of human music. Some neural, behavioral and anatomical traits underlying rhythm perception and production are shared with a broad range of species. These may either have a common evolutionary origin, or have evolved into similar traits under different evolutionary pressures. Other traits underlying rhythm are rare across species, only found in humans and few other animals. Isochrony, or stable periodicity, is common to most human music, but isochronous behaviors are also found in many species. It appears paradoxical that humans are particularly good at producing and perceiving isochronous patterns, although this ability does not conceivably confer any evolutionary advantage to modern humans. This article will attempt to solve this conundrum. To this end, we define the concept of isochrony from the present functional perspective of physiology, cognitive neuroscience, signal processing, and interactive behavior, and review available evidence on isochrony in the signals of humans and other animals. We then attempt to resolve the paradox of isochrony by expanding an evolutionary hypothesis about the function that isochronous behavior may have had in early hominids. Finally, we propose avenues for empirical research to examine this hypothesis and to understand the evolutionary origin of isochrony in general.

  • 21.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Time Perspective Biases Are Associated With Poor Sleep Quality, Daytime Sleepiness, and Lower Levels of Subjective Well-Being Among Older Adults2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 1356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the extent to which individual differences in time perspective, i.e., habitual way of relating to the personal past, present, and future, are associated with sleep quality and daytime sleepiness in a sample of older adults. The participants (N = 437, 60-90 years) completed the Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire (KSQ), a the Swedish version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (S-ZTPI), and two ratings of subjective well-being (SWB) (life satisfaction, happiness). Based on established relationships between dimension of time perspective and other variables (e.g., depression) and relations between negative retrospection (rumination) and negative prospection (worry) in prior studies, we expected higher scores on Past Negative and Future Negative to be linked to poor sleep quality and (indirectly) increased daytime sleepiness. Moreover, we examined the possibility that variations in perceived sleep and sleepiness during the day mediates the expected association between an aggregate measure of deviations from a so called balanced time perspective (DBTP) and SWB. In regression analyses controlling for demographic factors (age, sex, and work status), higher scores on Past Negative and Future Negative predicted poorer sleep quality and higher levels of daytime sleepiness. Additionally, most of the association between time perspective and daytime sleepiness was accounted for by individual differences in sleep quality. Finally, structural equation modeling yielded results consistent with the hypothesis that variations in sleep mediate part of the negative relationship between DBTP and SWB. Given that good sleep is essential to multiple aspects of health, future studies evaluating relationships between time perspective and adverse health outcomes should consider sleep quality as a potentially contributing factor.

  • 22.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Perceived stress in adults aged 65 to 90: Relations to facets of time perspective and COMT Val158Met polymorphism2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the relation between perceived stress and time perspective (views of past, present, future) in a population-based sample of older adults (65-90 years, N = 340). The Perceived Questionnaire (PSQ index) was used to measure stress and the Swedish version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (S-ZTPI) was used to operationalize time perspective. Unlike the original inventory, S-ZTPI separates positive and negative aspects of a future time perspective and we hypothesized that the Future Negative (FN) scale would be important to account for variations in stress. Additionally, associations with Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val(158)Met polymorphism were examined, motivated by prior associations of this single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) with stress (or "anxiety") related personality traits. In line with the hypotheses, FN was the strongest predictor of PSQ index scores in multiple regression analyses. In a related vein, the dichotomization of the unitary Future scale increased the association between PSQ scores and a measure of deviations from a balanced time perspective, i.e., the difference between a proposed optimal and observed ZTPI profile. Finally, higher levels of stress as well as higher scores on FN were observed in COMT Val/Val carriers, at least among men. This suggests a shared dopaminergic genetic influence on these variables. Collectively, the results demonstrate that perceived stress is closely linked to time perspective and highlight the need to take negative aspects of a future temporal orientation into account to understand this relation.

  • 23.
    Rönnqvist, Louise
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    McDonald, Rachel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sommer, Marius
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Influences of Synchronized Metronome Training on Soccer Players’ Timing Ability,Performance Accuracy, and Lower-Limb Kinematics2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, p. 1-16, article id 2469Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Planning and performance of all complex movement requires timing, integration, and coordination between sensory-perception and motor production to be successful. Despite this, there is limited research into “if” and “how” timing training may influence movement performance in athletes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of synchronized metronome training (SMT) on sensorimotor timing ability, and in view of that, if improved timing may be transferred to lower-limb movement planning, precision performance, and kinematics. The sample consisted of 24 female elite- and semi-elite soccer players, randomly assigned to receive SMT and a control group. The SMT group received 12 sessions of Interactive Metronome® (IM) training over 4 weeks. At pre- and post-test, timing-precision was assessed through hand and feet movement synchronization with rhythmic sound; and leg-movements performance accuracy, duration, and kinematics were recorded during embodied high cognitive-load stepping task (6 trials×20 s) by use of a optoelectronic motion capture system. Pre- to post-test comparisons showed significant timing improvements as an effect of the IM training. Significant pre- to post-test improvements on the stepping task performance were seen in an increasing number of accurate foot taps during the stepping task sequence and by shorter duration for the SMT-group only. No evident pre- to post-test effects of SMT on the kinematic parameters investigated were found. These findings signify that the guided attention and working-memory functioning may be positively affected by SMT training; thereby, resulting in better motor planning, performance, and movement precision. Still, independent of group and test-occasion, significant correlations were found between the participants’ outcome performance differences and the kinematic parameters. It was found that a decreasing 3D movement distance and less segmented movements correlating negatively, and increasing velocity (speed) positively, with accuracy and performance duration, respectively. These findings are likely associated with inter-individual variations in the nature of higher-order cognitive processing capacity due to the highly cognitive demanding stepping task.

  • 24. Sioros, George
    et al.
    Miron, Marius
    Davies, Matthew
    Gouyon, Fabien
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Syncopation creates the sensation of groove in synthesized music examples2014In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 5, article id 1036Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to better understand the musical properties which elicit an increased sensation of wanting to move when listening to music groove we investigate the effect of adding syncopation to simple piano melodies, under the hypothesis that syncopation is correlated to groove. Across two experiments we examine listeners' experience of groove to synthesized musical stimuli covering a range of syncopation levels and densities of musical events, according to formal rules implemented by a computer algorithm that shifts musical events from strong to weak metrical positions. Results indicate that moderate levels of syncopation lead to significantly higher groove ratings than melodies without any syncopation or with maximum possible syncopation. A comparison between the various transformations and the way they were rated shows that there is no simple relation between syncopation magnitude and groove.

  • 25.
    Stenling, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Hassmén, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Faculty of Health, Research Institute for Sport and Exercise, University of Canberra, Canberra, ACT, Australia.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Using bifactor exploratory structural equation modeling to examine global and specific factors in measures of sports coaches’ interpersonal styles2015In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, article id 1303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work we investigated distinct sources of construct-relevant psychometric multidimensionality in two sport-specific measures of coaches’ need-supportive (ISS-C) and controlling interpersonal (CCBS) styles. A recently proposed bifactor exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) framework was employed to achieve this aim. In Study 1, using a sample of floorball players, the results indicated that the ISS-C can be considered as a unidimensional measure, with one global factor explaining most of the variance in the items. In Study 2, using a sample of male ice hockey players, the results indicated that the items in the CCBS are represented by both a general factor and specific factors, but the subscales differ with regard to the amount of variance in the items accounted for by the general and specific factors. These results add further insight into the psychometric properties of these two measures and the dimensionality of these two constructs.

  • 26.
    Uzzell, David
    et al.
    School of Psychology, University of Surrey, UK.
    Räthzel, Nora
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Border Crossing and the Logics of Space: A Case Study in Pro-Environmental Practices2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 2096Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate whether and how workers in a transnational oil corporation carry practices, meanings, and identities between the places of work and home, focusing on environmental and health and safety practices, in order to understand the larger question, how can environmentally relevant practices be generalized in society at large? Our theoretical starting point is that societal institutions function according to different logics (Thornton et al., 2012) and the borders (Clark, 2000) between these institutions create affordances and constraints on the transfer of practices between these places. By connecting their theoretical ideas, we suggest that these provide an alternative critique and explanatory account of the transfer of environmental practices between home and work than a “spillover” approach. We employ life history interviews to explore the development and complexity of the causes, justifications, and legitimations of people’s actions, social relationships, and the structural constraints which govern relationships between these spaces. While Clark’s concepts of permeable, strong, or blended borders are useful heuristic tools, people may simultaneously strengthen, transgress, or blend the borders between work and home in terms of practices, meanings, identities, or institutional logics. Individuals have to be understood as creators of the border crossing process, which is why their life histories and the ways in which their identities and their attachments to places (i.e., institutions) are shaped by the logics of these places are important. For environmental practices to travel from work to home, they need to become embedded in a company culture that allows their integration into workers’ identities.

  • 27.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Korhonen, Johan
    Faculty of Education and Welfare Studies, Åbo Akademi University, Vaasa, Finland.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Untangling the Contribution of the Subcomponents of Working Memory to Mathematical Proficiency as Measured by the National Tests: A Study among Swedish Third Graders2016In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7, article id 1062Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim with the present study was to examine the relationship between the subcomponents in working memory (WM) and mathematical performance, as measured by the National tests in a sample of 597 Swedish third-grade pupils. In line with compelling evidence of other studies, individual differences in WM capacity significantly predicted mathematical performance. Dividing the sample into four groups, based on their mathematical performance, revealed that mathematical ability can be conceptualized in terms of different WM profiles. Pupils categorized as High-math performers particularly differed from the other three groups in having a significant higher phonological ability. In contrast, pupils categorized as Low-math performers were particularly characterized by having a significant lower visuo-spatial ability. Findings suggest that it is important for educators to recognize and acknowledge individual differences in WM to support mathematical achievement at an individual level.

  • 28. Woodley, M.A
    et al.
    Figueredo, A.J
    Cabeza de Baca, T
    Fernandes, H. B. F
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wolf, P
    Black, C
    Strategic differentiation and integration of genomic-level heritabilities facilitate individual differences in preparedness and plasticity of human life history2015In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, article id 422Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Life history (LH) strategies refer to the pattern of allocations of bioenergetic and material resources into different domains of fitness. While LH is known to have moderate to high population-level heritability in humans, both at the level of the high-order factor (Super-K) and the lower-order factors (K, Covitality, and the General Factor of Personality), several important questions remain unexplored. Here, we apply the Continuous Parameter Estimation Model to measure individual genomic-level heritabilities (termed transmissibilities). These transmissibility values were computed for the latent hierarchical structure and developmental dynamics of LH strategy, and demonstrate; (1) moderate to high heritability of factor loadings of Super-K on its lower-order factors, evidencing biological preparedness, genetic accommodation, and the gene-culture coevolution of biased epigenetic rules of development; (2) moderate to high heritability of the magnitudes of the effect of the higher-order factors upon their loadings on their constituent factors, evidencing genetic constraints upon phenotypic plasticity; and (3) that heritability of the LH factors, their factor loadings, and the magnitudes of the correlations among factors, are weaker among individuals with slower LH speeds. The results were obtained from an American sample of 316 monozygotic (MZ) and 274 dizygotic (DZ) twin dyads and a Swedish sample of 863 MZ and 475 DZ twin dyads, and indicate that inter-individual variation in transmissibility is a function of individual socioecological selection pressures. Our novel technique, opens new avenues for analyzing complex interactions among heritable traits inaccessible to standard structural equation methods.

1 - 28 of 28
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf