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  • 1.
    Al-Tammemi, Ala'a B.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Doctoral School of Health Sciences, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary.
    Akour, Amal
    Alfalah, Laith
    Is It Just About Physical Health?: An Online Cross-Sectional Study Exploring the Psychological Distress Among University Students in Jordan in the Midst of COVID-19 Pandemic2020In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 11, article id 562213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Since the spread of COVID-19 on a global scale, most of efforts at national and international levels were directed to mitigate the spread of the disease and its physical harm, paying less attention to the psychological impacts of COVID-19 on global mental health especially at early stages of the pandemic.

    Objectives: This study aimed to assess and explore (i) The levels of psychological distress and its correlates (ii) Motivation for distance learning (iii) Coping activities and pandemic related concerns, among university students in Jordan in the midst of COVID-19 pandemic.

    Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using an online self-administered questionnaire. The measure of psychological distress was obtained using the 10-item Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, while other questions have explored our study’s second and third aims.

    Results: A total of 381 completed questionnaires were included in the analysis. Female participants slightly predominated the sample (n = 199, 52.2%). The respondents aged 18–38 years (mean 22.6 years, SD: 3.16). Concerning distress severity, most of respondents were regarded as having severe psychological distress (n = 265, 69.5%). 209 students (54.9%) reported that they had no motivation for distance learning. Ordinal logistic regression revealed a significant correlation between distress severity and many predictors. Among the predictors that were found to act as protective factors against higher levels of distress included older age (aOR = 0.64, P = 0.022; 95% CI: 0.44–0.94), and having a strong motivation for distance learning (aOR = 0.10, P = 0.048; 95% CI: 0.01–0.96). In contrary, being a current smoker (aOR = 1.99, P = 0.049; 95% CI: 1.10–3.39), and having no motivation for distance learning (aOR = 2.49, P = 0.007; 95% CI: 1.29–4.80) acted as risk factors for having higher levels of psychological distress among the students. The most common coping activity reported was spending more time on social media platforms (n = 269, 70.6%), and 209 students (54.9%) reported distance learning as their most distressing concern.

    Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic and related control measures could impact the mental health of individuals, including students. We recommend a nationwide psychological support program to be incorporated into Jordan’s preparedness plan and response strategy in combating the COVID-19 pandemic.

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  • 2.
    Andersson, Linus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ledin, Lisa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wisting, Frida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The influence of health-risk perception and distress on reactions to low-level chemical exposure2013In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 4, p. 816-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The general aim of the current study was to investigate how perceived health risk of a chemical exposure and self-reported distress are related to perceived odor intensity and odor valence, symptoms, cognitive performance over time as well as reactions to blank exposure. Based on ratings of general distress, 20 participants constituted a relatively low distress group, and 20 other participants a relatively high distress group. Health risk perception was manipulated by providing positively and negatively biased information regarding n-butanol. Participants made repeated ratings of intensity, valence and symptoms and performed cognitive tasks while exposed to 4.7 ppm n-butanol for 60 min (first 10 min were blank exposure) inside an exposure chamber. Ratings by the positive and negative bias groups suggest that the manipulation influenced perceived health risk of the exposure. The high distress group did not habituate to the exposure in terms of intensity when receiving negative information, but did so when receiving positive information. The high distress group, compared with the low distress group, rated the exposure as significantly more unpleasant, reported greater symptoms and performed worse on a cognitively demanding task over time. The positive bias group and high distress group rated blank exposure as more intense. The main findings suggest that relatively distressed individuals are negatively affected by exposures to a greater degree than non-distressed.

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  • 3.
    Andersson, Sara
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University Hospital.
    Josefsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Stiernman, Lars J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Rieckmann, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Center for the Economics of Aging, Max Planck Institute for Social Law and Social Policy, Germany.
    Cognitive decline in Parkinson’s disease: a subgroup of extreme decliners revealed by a data-driven analysis of longitudinal progression2021In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 12, article id 729755Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive impairment is an important symptom of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and predicting future cognitive decline is crucial for clinical practice. Here, we aim to identify latent sub-groups of longitudinal trajectories of cognitive change in PD patients, and explore predictors of differences in cognitive change. Longitudinal cognitive performance data from 349 newly diagnosed PD patients and 145 healthy controls from the Parkinson Progression Marker Initiative were modeled using a multivariate latent class linear mixed model. Resultant latent classes were compared on a number of baseline demographics, and clinical variables, as well as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers and striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) density markers of neuropathology. Trajectories of cognitive change in PD were best described by two latent classes. A large subgroup (90%), which showed a subtle impairment in cognitive performance compared to controls but remained stable over the course of the study, and a small subgroup (10%) which rapidly declined in all cognitive performance measures. Rapid decliners did not differ significantly from the larger group in terms of disease duration, severity or motor symptoms at baseline. However, rapid decliners had lower CSF amyloidß42 levels, a higher prevalence of sleep disorder and pronounced loss of caudate DAT density at baseline. These data suggest the existence of a distinct minority sub-type of PD in which rapid cognitive change in PD can occur uncoupled from motor symptoms or disease severity, likely reflecting early pathological change that extends from motor areas of the striatum into associative compartments and cortex.

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  • 4.
    Appleby, Ralph
    et al.
    The Talented Athlete Scholarship Scheme (TASS), Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom.
    Davis, Paul Anthony
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Davis, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Vickery, Will
    Coaching and Officiating, Sport Australia, Canberra, ACT, Australia.
    Preliminary Psychometric Validation of the Teammate Burnout Questionnaire2022In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 13, article id 894308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to provide support for the validation of the Teammate Burnout Questionnaire (TBQ). Athletes from a variety of team sports (N = 290) completed the TBQ and the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (ABQ). Confirmatory factor analysis revealed acceptable fit indexes for the three-dimensional models (i.e., physical and emotional exhaustion, sport devaluation, reduced accomplishment) of the TBQ and the ABQ. Multi-trait multi-method analysis revealed that the TBQ and ABQ showed acceptable convergent and discriminant validity. The preliminary validation of the TBQ indicates the utility of the scale to reflect athletes' perceptions of their teammates' burnout and offers researchers the opportunity to quantitatively assess an important aspect of the social environment in the development of athlete burnout.

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  • 5.
    Bergström, Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Eriksson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    The conjunction of non-consciously perceived object identity and spatial position can be retained during a visual short-term memory task2015In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, article id 1470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although non-consciously perceived information has previously been assumed to be short-lived (<500 ms), recent findings show that non-consciously perceived information can be maintained for at least 15s Such findings can be explained as working memory without a conscious experience of the information to be retained. However, whether or not working memory can operate on non-consciously perceived information remains controversial, and little is known about the nature of such non-conscious visual short-term memory (VSTM). Here we used continuous flash suppression to render stimuli non-conscious, to investigate the properties of non-consciously perceived representations in delayed match-to-sample (DMS) tasks. In Experiment I we used variable delays (5 or 15s) and found that performance was significantly better than chance and was unaffected by delay duration, thereby replicating previous findings. In Experiment II the DMS task required participants to combine information of spatial position and object identity on a trial-by-trial basis to successfully solve the task. We found that the conjunction of spatial position and object identity was retained, thereby verifying that non-conscious, trial-specific information can be maintained for prospective use. We conclude that our results are consistent with a working memory interpretation, but that more research is needed to verify this interpretation.

  • 6.
    Blomquist, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Farashah, Ali
    Management & Organization Department, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Editorial: exploring human resources in the context of projects2023In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 14, article id 1166597Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 7.
    Brulin, Emma
    et al.
    Unit of Occupational Medicine, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekberg, Kerstin
    Department of Health, Medicine, and Caring Sciences (HMV), Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Landstad, Bodil J.
    Faculty of Human Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden; Unit of Research, Education and Development, Östersund Hospital, Östersund, Sweden.
    Lidwall, Ulrik
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Official Statistics Unit, Department for Analysis, Swedish Social Insurance Agency, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sjöström, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Wilczek, Alexander
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Money talks: performance-based reimbursement systems impact on perceived work, health and patient care for physicians in Sweden2023In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 14, article id 1216229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The study aimed to investigate in which way performance-based reimbursement (PBR) systems in Swedish healthcare services (1) subjectively impacted physicians’ work and patient care and (2) were associated with the occurrence of stress-induced exhaustion disorders among physicians.

    Method: The study applied a mixed-method design. Data were collected from a representative sample of Swedish physicians. In the questionnaire, respondents were asked to answer an open-ended question regarding their reflections on PBR. The answers to the open-ended question were analysed using thematic analysis. Respondents were also asked to rate the impact of PBR on their work. The association between PBR and self-rated stress-induced exhaustion disease was analysed with logistic regressions. Stress-induced exhaustion disorder was measured using the Burnout Assessment Scale.

    Results: Thematic analysis resulted in four themes: (1) Money talks, (2) Patients are affected, (3) Medical morals are challenged, and (4) PBR increase the quantity of illegitimate tasks. Logistic regressions showed that physicians who experienced PBR had an impact on their work and had a two-fold higher risk of stress-induced exhaustion disorder.

    Discussion: Our findings suggest that current reimbursement systems in Sweden play an essential role in Swedish healthcare and negatively influence physicians’ work and health. Also, current PBR impact patients negatively. No previous study has explored the potentially harmful impact of PBR on how physicians perceive work, health and patient care. Results indicate that policymakers should be encouraged to deeply review PBR systems and focus on ways that they can limit the negative impact on physicians’ work and health while meeting future challenges.

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  • 8.
    Bubna, Kabir
    et al.
    The International Federation of Esports Coaches (IFoEC), London, United Kingdom.
    Trotter, Michael Geoffrey
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Watson, Matthew
    The International Federation of Esports Coaches (IFoEC), London, United Kingdom; Department of Performance Psychology, German Sport University Cologne, Cologne, Germany.
    Polman, Remco
    Institute of Health and Wellbeing, Federation University Australia, VIC, Berwick, Australia.
    Coaching and talent development in esports: a theoretical framework and suggestions for future research2023In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 14, article id 1191801Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Esports is a growing phenomenon that is capturing the attention of individuals worldwide, and has grown to provide professional and lucrative careers for those who reach the upper echelons. One question that arises, is how esports athletes develop the necessary skills required to improve and compete. This perspective piece opens the door to skill acquisition within esports and how research through an ecological approach can benefit researchers and practitioners as they understand the various perception-action couplings and decision-making challenges faced by esports athletes. We will identify and discuss what constraints look like in esports, the role of affordances, and theorize the implementation of a constraints-led approach in contrasting esports genres. As esports is technology-heavy in nature and generally sedentary, the use of eye-tracking technology is argued to represent an effective method to better understand perceptual attunement between individuals and teams. Future research into skill acquisition in esports is needed to develop a clearer picture of what makes the greatest esports player so great, and how newer players can be developed effectively.

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  • 9.
    Davis, Louise
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Brown, Daniel J.
    School of Sport, Health and Exercise Science, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, United Kingdom.
    Arnold, Rachel
    Department for Health, University of Bath, Bath, United Kingdom.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden; Department of Sport and Social Sciences, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Thriving Through Relationships in Sport: The Role of the Parent–Athlete and Coach–Athlete Attachment Relationship2021In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 12, article id 694599Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this research was to examine whether attachment relationships to significant others, such as to parents and/or sports coaches, enable thriving and competition performance within sport. Two studies employing cross-sectional and prospective designs were carried out across different samples of athletes of varied skill levels and sports. In Study 1, we found athletes' attachment to their sports coach was significantly associated with athlete thriving and mediated by psychological needs satisfaction. Results of Study 2 found that athletes' secure attachment to their mother and/or father positively predicted the experience of thriving at the competition while athletes' insecure attachment did not predict thriving. Furthermore, athletes' attachment to both mother and father did not predict competition performance. Together, these two studies acknowledge the significant role that athletes' secure attachment relationships with parents and coaches play in facilitating thriving in athletes. These findings have significant implications for research and practice.

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  • 10.
    Davis, Louise
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jowett, Sophia
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Communication Strategies: The Fuel for Quality Coach-Athlete Relationships and Athlete Satisfaction2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 2156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present two-study paper examined the role of communication strategies that athletes use to develop their coach-athlete relationship. Study 1 examined the mediating role of motivation, support, and conflict management strategies between the quality of the coach-athlete relationship and athletes' perceptions of sport satisfaction. Study 2 examined the longitudinal and mediational associations of communication strategies and relationship quality across two time points, over a 6-week period. Within both studies, data were collected through multi-section questionnaires assessing the studies' variables. For study 1, structural equation modeling highlighted significant indirect effects for motivation and support strategies between the quality of the coach-athlete relationship and athletes' experiences of sport satisfaction. For study 2, significant indirect effects were found for the athletes' perceptions of the quality of the coach-athlete relationship at time 2 between athletes' use of communication strategies at time point 1 and time point 2. Together these findings provide support for the practical utility of communications strategies in enhancing the quality of the coach-athlete relationship and athlete's experiences of sport satisfaction. In addition, the findings provide evidence to highlight the potential cyclical relationship between communication and relationship quality across time.

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  • 11.
    Davis, Paul A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Callow, Nichola
    Woodman, Tim
    Written Emotional Disclosure can Promote Athletes’ Mental Health and Performance Readiness during the COVID-19 Pandemic2020In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 11, article id 599925Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The widespread effects of the COVID-19 pandemic have negatively impacted upon many athletes’ mental health and increased reports of depression as well as symptoms of anxiety. Disruptions to training and competition schedules can induce athletes’ emotional distress, while concomitant government-imposed restrictions (e.g., social isolation, quarantines) reduce the availability of athletes’ social and emotional support. Written Emotional Disclosure has been used extensively in a variety of settings with diverse populations as a means to promote emotional processing. The expressive writing protocol has been used to a limited extent in the context of sport, and predominantly in support of athletes’ emotional processing during injury rehabilitation. We propose that Written Emotional Disclosure offers an evidence-based treatment that can promote athletes’ mental health and support their return to competition. Research exploring the efficacy of the expressive writing protocol highlights a number of theoretical models underpinning the positive effects of Written Emotional Disclosure; we outline how each of these potential mechanisms can address the multidimensional complexity of the challenging circumstances arising from the COVID-19 pandemic (e.g., loss of earnings, returning to training and competition). Considerations and strategies for using Written Emotional Disclosure to support athletes during the COVID-19 pandemic are presented.

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  • 12.
    Davis, Paul A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Halvarsson, Anton
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lundstrom, Wictor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lundqvist, Carolina
    Alpine Ski Coaches' and Athletes' Perceptions of Factors Influencing Adaptation to Stress in the Classroom and on the Slopes2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 1641Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research examining the student-athlete experience proposes a number of factors that can be both sources of stress and/or support. The dual career pathway offers a number of potential positive outcomes including psychological, social, and financial benefits; however, challenges including time management, fatigue, and restricted social activities are well documented. In consideration of the multidimensional student-athlete experience and the numerous factors that influence the complexity of potential stress, a mixed methods research study design was used in the study. First, data collected from surveys completed by 173 elite junior alpine skiers were analyzed to identify the degree to which athletes report experiencing stress associated with specific aspects pertaining to training, life, and organizational factors. These factors were then explored through semi-structured interviews with six coaches at the associated national elite sport schools. Taken collectively, athletes' reports of psychophysiological training stress on the Multidimensional Training Distress Scale were low. Scores on the college studentathletes' life stress scale revealed very low levels of general life stress; although the subscales associated with "performance demand" and "academic requirements" scored marginally higher. Scores on the Organizational Stressor Indicator for Sport Performers indicated low levels of organizational stress. The interviews with coaches elucidated the underlying factors potentially influencing athletes' positive adaptations to stress as they reported programming a number of strategies to reduce negative outcomes. Coaches aimed to teach athletes self-awareness and regulation strategies through the use of the training diaries and ongoing communication to promote positive adaptation to stress. A number of coaches also worked with sport psychology consultants to optimize athletes' training and study situations. Traditionally, research has noted high levels of stress in student-athletes due to co-occurring demands (school & sport); however, the data in the present study suggests that optimizing support mechanisms across domains can promote positive adaptations to potential sources of stress.

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  • 13.
    Domellöf, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Barbu-Roth, Marianne
    Laboratoire Psychologie de la Perception, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique-Université Paris Descartes, Paris, France.
    Rönnqvist, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jacquet, Anne-Yvonne
    Laboratoire Psychologie de la Perception, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique-Université Paris Descartes, Paris, France.
    Fagard, Jacqueline
    Laboratoire Psychologie de la Perception, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique-Université Paris Descartes, Paris, France.
    Infant manual performance during reaching and grasping for objects moving in depth2015In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, article id 1142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Few studies have investigated manual performance in infants when reaching and grasping for objects moving in directions other than across the fronto-parallel plane. The present preliminary study explored object-oriented behavioral strategies and side preference in 8- and 10-month-old infants during reaching and grasping for objects approaching in depth from three positions (midline, and 27° diagonally from the left and right). Effects of task constraint by using objects of three different types and two sizes were further examined for behavioral strategies and hand opening prior to grasping. Additionally, assessments of hand preference by a dedicated handedness test were performed. Regardless of object starting position, the 8-month-old infants predominantly displayed right-handed reaches for objects approaching in depth. In contrast, the older infants showed more varied strategies and performed more ipsilateral reaches in correspondence with the side of the approaching object. Conversely, 10-month-old infants were more successful than the younger infants in grasping the objects, independent of object starting position. The findings regarding infant hand use strategies when reaching and grasping for objects moving in depth are similar to those from earlier studies using objects moving along a horizontal path. Still, initiation times of reaching onset were generally long in the present study, indicating that the object motion paths seemingly affected how the infants perceived the intrinsic properties and spatial locations of the objects, possibly with an effect on motor planning. Findings are further discussed in relation to future investigations of infant reaching and grasping for objects approaching in depth.

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  • 14.
    Ekelund, Rebecka
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Sport Sciences.
    Holmström, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Sport Sciences.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Sport Sciences. Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Mental Health in Athletes: Where Are the Treatment Studies?2022In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 13, article id 781177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, athletes’ mental health has gained interest among researchers, sport practitioners, and the media. However, the field of sport psychology lacks empirical evidence on the effectiveness of psychotherapeutic interventions for mental health problems and disorders in athletes. Thus far, intervention research in sport psychology has mainly focused on performance enhancement using between-subject designs and healthy athlete samples. In the current paper, we highlight three interrelated key issues in relation to treating mental health problems and disorders in athletes. (i) How are mental health and mental health problems and disorders defined in the sport psychology literature? (ii) How are prevalence rates of mental health problems and disorders in athletes determined? (iii) What is known about psychotherapeutic interventions for mental health problems and disorders in athletes? We conclude that the reliance on different definitions and assessments of mental health problems and disorders contributes to heterogeneous prevalence rates. In turn, this limits our understanding of the extent of mental health problems and disorders in athletes. Furthermore, knowledge of the effectiveness of psychotherapeutic interventions for athletes with mental health problems and disorders is scarce. Future research should include athletes with established mental health problems and disorders in intervention studies. We also propose an increased use of N-of-1 trials to enhance the knowledge of effective psychotherapeutic interventions in this population.

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  • 15.
    Eriksson, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Fontan, Aurelie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Pedale, Tiziana
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Make the Unconscious Explicit to Boost the Science of Consciousness2020In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 11, article id 260Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 16.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Körning Ljungberg, Jessica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Different Features of Bilingualism in Relation to Executive Functioning2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, no 269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The notion that the long-term practice of managing two languages is beneficial for the executive control system is an ongoing debate. Criticism have been raised that studies demonstrating a bilingual advantage often suffer from small sample sizes, and do not control for fluid intelligence as a possible confound. Taking those suggested factors into account, focusing on older bilingual age groups and investigating the potential effects of linguistic distances, this study aimed to improve the interpretations of the bilinguals’ advantages. Measures of inhibition (Flanker, Stroop, Simon task) and switching (Number-letter, Color-Shape, Local-global task) were collected in participants in the ages 50-75 years (n = 193). Despite a large study sample, results did not support any beneficial effects related to improve processing costs in executive functioning. Sub-analyses of the two different language groups (Swedish – Finnish / Swedish – English) intended to investigate the effect of linguistic distances did not change this outcome. Future studies exploring the potential long-term term effects of bilingualism would benefit from identifying tests of cognitive control with greater ecological validity and include other measures of cognitive functioning. Language learning interventions may also be a promising tool for future research.

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  • 17.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Pritschke, Ilona
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Körning-Ljungberg, Jessica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Complexity of Primary Lifetime Occupation and Cognitive Processing2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 1861Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, there are a lack of studies focusing on the relationship between occupational complexity and executive functioning. This is noteworthy since executive functions are core aspects of cognitive processing. The present study was aimed to investigate if three occupational complexity factors (with data, people, and things) of main lifetime occupation were related to performance in executive tasks (inhibition, switching, updating). We analyzed cross-sectional data that were available for 225 participants aged 50–75 years. Results from structural equation models showed that higher complexity levels of working with data were related to lower error rates in the updating component of cognitive control. In addition, higher rates of complexity working with people was associated with lower error rates in task-switching, which also persisted after adjustment of fluid intelligence. Complexity with things, however, was not related to performance in the executive tasks. Future studies would benefit from a longitudinal design to investigate if the results from this study also hold in the long term and to further investigate the directionality between factors.

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  • 18.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Körning Ljungberg, Jessica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Reading Habits Among Older Adults in Relation to Level and 15-Year Changes in Verbal Fluency and Episodic Recall2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 1872Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this study was to investigate reading habits in older adults in relation to level and 15-year changes in verbal fluency and episodic recall. We examined a sample of 1157 participants (55 years at baseline) up to 15 years after the baseline assessment using latent growth curve modeling of cognitive measures with baseline reading frequency (books, weekly magazines) as a predictor of cognitive level (intercept) and rate of change (slope). Subgroup analyses were performed to investigate the role of an early adult g factor in the association between reading habits and cognitive ability in midlife. Frequent reading of books, but not of magazines, was associated with higher levels of verbal fluency and recall but unrelated to rate of longitudinal decline. Subgroup analyses indicated that the g factor in early adulthood predicted reading and cognitive level in midlife and this factor removed the current association between reading habits and level of cognitive ability (both cognitive factors). The results indicate an enduring relationship between book reading and level of cognitive ability across the adult life span and provide little support of the hypothesis that frequent reading protects against latelife cognitive decline. The extent to which book reading promotes cognitive functioning in childhood/youth remains to be demonstrated. Intervention studies may be useful in this regard.

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  • 19.
    Eriksson, Terese
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Germundsjö, Linnea
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Mindful self-compassion training reduces stress and burnout symptoms among practicing psychologists: a randomized controlled trial of a brief web-based intervention2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 2340Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aims of this study were (a) to examine the effects of a 6 weeks web-based mindful self-compassion program on stress and burnout symptoms in a group of practicing psychologists, and (b) to examine relationships between changes in self-compassion and self-coldness and changes in stress and burnout symptoms.

    Method: In a randomized controlled trial, 101 practicing psychologists were assigned to a training group (n = 51) or a wait-list control group (n = 49). The training encompassed 15min exercises per day, 6 days a week, for 6 weeks. The participants completed the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS), the Five Facets of Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and the Shirom Melamed Burnout Questionnaire (SMBQ) pre and post intervention.

    Results: Eighty-one participants (n = 40 in the training group, n = 41 in the control group) took part in the pre and post intervention assessments. Selective gains for the intervention group were observed for SCS total scores (d = 0.86; d = 0.94 for the SCS), FFMQ scores (d = 0.60), while levels of self-coldness was reduced (d = 0.73). Critically, levels of perceived stress (d = 0.59) and burnout symptoms (d = 0.44 for SMBQ total) were additionally lowered post intervention. Finally, the results confirmed the hypothesis that the measures of distress would be more strongly related to self-coldness than self-compassion, a pattern seen in cross-sectional analyses and, for burnout, also in the longitudinal analyses.

    Conclusions: This training program appeared effective to increase self-compassion/reduce self-coldness, and to alleviate stress and symptoms of burnout and provide support of the distinction between self-compassion and self-coldness. Additional studies, preferably three-armed RCTs with long-term follow-up, are warranted to further evaluate the effectiveness of the program.

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  • 20.
    Fellman, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Lincke, Alisa
    Department of Computer Science and Media Technology, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Do Individual Differences in Cognition and Personality Predict Retrieval Practice Activities on MOOCs?2020In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 11, article id 2076Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Online quizzes building upon the principles of retrieval practice can have beneficial effects on learning, especially long-term retention. However, it is unexplored how interindividual differences in relevant background characteristics relate to retrieval practice activities in e-learning. Thus, this study sought to probe for this research question on a massive open online course (MOOC) platform where students have the optional possibility to quiz themselves on the to-be-learned materials. Altogether 105 students were assessed with a cognitive task tapping on reasoning, and two self-assessed personality measures capturing need for cognition (NFC), and grittiness (GRIT-S). Between-group analyses revealed that cognitively high performing individuals were more likely to use the optional quizzes on the platform. Moreover, within-group analyses (n = 56) including those students using the optional quizzes on the platform showed that reasoning significantly predicted quiz performance, and quiz processing speed. NFC and GRIT-S were unrelated to each of the aforementioned retrieval practice activities.

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  • 21.
    Fellman, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science. Department of Psychology, Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland; Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ritakallio, Liisa
    Waris, Otto
    Jylkka, Jussi
    Laine, Matti
    Beginning of the Pandemic: COVID-19-Elicited Anxiety as a Predictor of Working Memory Performance2020In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 11, article id 576466Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing evidence indicates that the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is associated with adverse psychological effects, including heightened levels of anxiety. This study examined whether COVID-19-related anxiety levels during the early stage of the pandemic predicted demanding working memory (WM) updating performance. Altogether, 201 healthy adults (age range, 18-50) mostly from North America and the British Isles were recruited to this study via the crowdsourcing site . The results showed that higher levels of COVID-19-related anxiety during the first weeks of the pandemic outbreak were associated with poorer WM performance as measured by the n-back paradigm. Critically, the unique role of COVID-19-related anxiety on WM could not be explained by demographic factors, or other psychological factors such as state and trait anxiety or fluid intelligence. Moreover, across three assessment points spanning 5-6 weeks, COVID-19-related anxiety levels tended to decrease over time. This pattern of results may reflect an initial psychological "shock wave" of the pandemic, the cognitive effects of which may linger for some time, albeit the initial anxiety associated with the pandemic would change with habituation and increasing information. Our results contribute to the understanding of cognitive-affective reactions to a major disaster.

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  • 22.
    Ferronato, Priscilla A. M.
    et al.
    Department of Pedagogy of Human Movement, São Paulo University, São Paulo, Brazil and Physical Education Course, Institute of Health Sciences, Paulista University, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Domellöf, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnqvist, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Early influence of auditory stimuli on upper-limb movements in young human infants: an overview2014In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 5, no 1043Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given that the auditory system is rather well developed at the end of the third trimester of pregnancy, it is likely that couplings between acoustics and motor activity can be integrated as early as at the beginning of postnatal life. The aim of the present mini-review was to summarize and discuss studies on earlyauditory-motor integration, focusing particularly on upper-limb movements (one of the most crucial means to interact with the environment) in association with auditory stimuli, to develop further understanding of their significance with regard to early infant development. Many studies have investigated the relationship between various infant behaviors (e.g., sucking, visual fixation,head turning) and auditory stimuli, and established that human infants can beobserved displaying couplings between action and environmental sensory stimulation already from just after birth, clearly indicating a propensity forintentional behavior. Surprisingly few studies, however, have investigated the associations between upper-limb movements and different auditory stimuli in newborns and young infants, infants born at risk for developmental disorders/delays in particular. Findings from studies of early auditory-motor interaction support that the developing integration of sensory and motor systems is a fundamental part of the process guiding the development of goal-directed action in infancy, of great importance for continued motor, perceptual, and cognitive development. At-risk infants (e.g., those bornpreterm) may display increasing central auditory processing disorders,negatively affecting early sensory-motor integration, and resulting inlong-term consequences on gesturing, language development, and social communication. Consequently, there is a need for more studies on such implications.

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  • 23.
    Finell, Jonatan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Sammallahti, Ellen
    Korhonen, Johan
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Working Memory and Its Mediating Role on the Relationship of Math Anxiety and Math Performance: A Meta-Analysis2022In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 12, article id 798090Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well established that math anxiety has a negative relationship with math performance (MP). A few theories have provided explanations for this relationship. One of them, the Attentional Control Theory (ACT), suggests that anxiety can negatively impact the attentional control system and increase one's attention to threat-related stimuli. Within the ACT framework, the math anxiety (MA)—working memory (WM) relationship is argued to be critical for math performance. The present meta-analyses provides insights into the mechanisms of the MA—MP relation and the mediating role of WM. Through database searches with pre-determined search strings, 1,346 unique articles were identified. After excluding non-relevant studies, data from 57 studies and 150 effect sizes were used for investigating the MA—MP correlation using a random-effects model. This resulted in a mean correlation of r = −0.168. The database search of WM as a mediator for the MA—MP relation revealed 15 effects sizes leading to a descriptive rather than a generalizable statistic, with a mean indirect effect size of −0.092. Overall, the results confirm the ACT theory, WM does play a significant role in the MA—MP relationship.

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  • 24.
    Forman, Helen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Events and children's sense of time: a perspective on the origins of everyday time-keeping2015In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, article id 259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article I discuss abstract or pure time versus the content of time, (i.e., events, activities, and other goings-on). Or, more specifically, the utility of these two sorts of time in time-keeping or temporal organization. It is often assumed that abstract, uniform, and objective time is a universal physical entity out there, which humans may perceive of. However, this sort of evenly flowing time was only recently introduced to the human community, together with the mechanical clock. Before the introduction of mechanical clock-time, there were only events available to denote the extent of time. Events defined time, unlike the way time may define events in our present day culture. It is therefore conceivable that our primeval or natural mode of time keeping involves the perception, estimation, and coordination of events. I find it likely that events continues to subserve our sense of time and time-keeping efforts, especially for children who have not yet mastered the use of clock time. Instead of seeing events as a distraction to our perception of time, I suggest that our experience and understanding of time emerges from our perception of events.

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  • 25.
    Granholm Valmari, Elin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Occupational Therapy.
    Nygren, Ulla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Occupational Therapy.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Gilenstam, Kajsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Occupational Therapy.
    How police officers juggle work, a life partner, and kids2023In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 14, article id 1178314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Police officers frequently encounter stressful social situations during their working days. Furthermore, previous research on policing and families show that police officers’ families are impacted in different ways when at least one member of the family has the role of a police officer. Despite work spilling over to family life there is currently little research on police officers’ role-balancing. Thus, the purpose of this study was to explore and describe the challenges that arise at the intersection between police officers’ professional roles and their private life roles as parents and life partners, as well as how police officers balance these roles in between. We used qualitative content analysis after interviewing 13 uniformed police officers. The findings show how the police officers’ professional roles affect their private life roles within three different sub-themes and are summarized under the theme of "Balancing conflicting roles: Coping with professional and private life commitments". The theme revolves around the various challenges of working as a uniformed police officer, such as hypervigilance and risks, as well as the enrichments and conflicts of working shifts while also juggling private life roles. The results also touch on gender and equality in life-partner relationships. The study raises an important question about how these challenges can be mitigated within Police authorities to enable uniformed police officers to balance their professional and personal lives in a healthy and sustainable manner.

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  • 26.
    Hansson, Jonas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    How the availability and adequacy of social support affect the general mental health of Swedish police officers2023In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 14, article id 1196320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Police work is stressful. A protective function against work stress and harm to mental health is social support, either within or outside work. This cross-sectional study analyzes the associations of quantitative (availability) and qualitative (adequacy) aspects of social support with general mental health among Swedish police officers. A total of 728 officers responded to a national survey. Bivariate analyses (t-test and chi square) identified continuous and categorical variables (respectively) statistically significantly associated with sex and social support. Pearson correlation coefficient was provided to indicate the associations between general mental health and different types of social support. Sex-stratified logistic regression modeling calculated crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and assessed the relationships between different types of social support, sociodemographic variables and general mental health. The findings show that low adequacy of attachment is associated with poorer mental health among female officers, although female officers also reported higher availability of both social interaction and attachment compared to male officers. We found an association between low work-related social support and poorer mental health among single male police officers. Moreover, police officers who worked shifts, were younger, had less work experience, and/or had no children reported higher availability of attachment, whereas older police officers reported higher adequacy of social interaction compared to younger police officers. Variation in the quantity and quality of close social relationships seems to be important to mental health. Police organizations need to be aware of this in their efforts to make the work environment more supportive. Social support might create an environment where officers feel more comfortable discussing their mental health concerns and seeking assistance. 

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  • 27. Ho, Tiffany C.
    et al.
    Zhang, Shunan
    Sacchet, Matthew D.
    Weng, Helen
    Connolly, Colm G.
    Henje Blom, Eva
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA; Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Han, Laura K. M.
    Mobayed, Nisreen O.
    Yang, Tony T.
    Fusiform gyrus dysfunction is associated with perceptual processing efficiency to emotional faces in adolescent depression: a model-based approach2016In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7, article id 40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While the extant literature has focused on major depressive disorder (MDD) as being characterized by abnormalities in processing affective stimuli (e.g., facial expressions), little is known regarding which specific aspects of cognition influence the evaluation of affective stimuli, and what are the underlying neural correlates. To investigate these issues, we assessed 26 adolescents diagnosed with MDD and 37 well-matched healthy controls (HCL) who completed an emotion identification task of dynamically morphing faces during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We analyzed the behavioral data using a sequential sampling model of response time (RT) commonly used to elucidate aspects of cognition in binary perceptual decision making tasks: the Linear Ballistic Accumulator (LBA) model. Using a hierarchical Bayesian estimation method, we obtained group-level and individual-level estimates of LBA parameters on the facial emotion identification task. While the MDD and HCL groups did not differ in mean RT, accuracy, or group-level estimates of perceptual processing efficiency (i.e., drift rate parameter of the LBA), the MDD group showed significantly reduced responses in left fusiform gyrus compared to the HCL group during the facial emotion identification task. Furthermore, within the MDD group, fMRI signal in the left fusiform gyrus during affective face processing was significantly associated with greater individual-level estimates of perceptual processing efficiency. Our results therefore suggest that affective processing biases in adolescents with MDD are characterized by greater perceptual processing efficiency of affective visual information in sensory brain regions responsible for the early processing of visual information. The theoretical, methodological, and clinical implications of our results are discussed.

  • 28.
    Hofverberg, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Winberg, Mikael T.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Palmberg, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Andersson, Catarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Palm, Torulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Relationships Between Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction, Regulations, and Behavioral Engagement in Mathematics2022In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 13, article id 829958Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Behavioral engagement is a key determinant of students’ learning. Hence, knowledge about mechanisms affecting engagement is crucial for educators and stakeholders. Self-determination theory (SDT) offers a framework to understand one of these mechanisms. However, extant studies mostly consider only parts of SDT’s theoretical paths from basic psychological need satisfaction via regulations to student engagement. Studies that investigate the full model are rare, especially in mathematics, and results are inconclusive. Moreover, constructs are often merged in ways that may preclude detailed understanding. In this study, we used structural equation modeling to test several hypothesized paths between the individual variables that make up higher-order constructs of need satisfaction, regulations, and behavioral engagement. Satisfaction of the need for competence had a dominating effect on engagement, both directly and via identified regulation. Similarly, satisfaction of the need for relatedness predicted identified regulation, that in turn predicted engagement. Satisfaction of the need for autonomy predicted intrinsic regulation as expected but, in contrast to theory, was also positively associated with controlled motivation (external and introjected regulation). Neither intrinsic nor controlled regulation predicted engagement. Theoretical and method-related reasons for this unexpected pattern are discussed, as well as implications for research and teaching.

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  • 29.
    Holmbom, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Brymer, Eric
    Schweitzer, Robert D.
    Transformations through proximity flying: a phenomenological investigation2017In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, article id 1831Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Participation in extreme sports has been linked to personal transformations in everyday life. Descriptions of lived experience resulting from transformative experiences are limited. Proximity flying, a relatively new discipline involving BASE jumping with a wingsuit where participants fly close to solid structures, is arguably one of the most extreme of extreme sports. The aim of this paper, part of a larger phenomenological study on the lived experience of proximity flying, is to explicate the ways in which participating in proximity flying influences the everyday lives of participants. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to explicate the lived experience of six proximity pilots. An analysis of interview transcripts revealed three significant themes describing the lived experience of participants. First, experiences of change were described as positive and skills developed through proximity flying were transferable into everyday life. Second, transformative experiences were considered fundamental to participants' perspectives on life. Third, experience of transformation influenced their sense of personal identity and facilitated flourishing in other aspects of everyday life. Participants were clear that their experiences in proximity flying facilitated a profound process of transformation which manifest as changes in everyday capabilities and behaviors, values and sense of identity.

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  • 30.
    Hulaj, Rame
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyström, Markus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    E. Sörman, Daniel
    Department of Human Work Science, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Backlund, Christian
    Department of Human Work Science, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Röhlcke, Sebastian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    A motivational model explaining performance in video games2020In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 11, article id 1510Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Esports are a rapidly growing phenomenon and understanding of factors underlying game performance are therefore of great interest. The present study investigated the influence of satisfaction of basic psychological needs (competence, autonomy, and relatedness), type of motivation (amotivation, external regulation, introjected regulation, identified regulation, integrated regulation, and intrinsic motivation), and number of matches played (time on task) on individuals' performance on a matchmaking rating (MMR) in the video game Defence of the Ancients 2 (Dota 2). Collected data from 315 participants was included in the analyses. A web-based questionnaire was used to collect data and structural equation modelling (SEM) was performed to analyze the data. The results show that perceived competence and autonomy were the only significant predictors of MMR performance beyond matches played. Fulfillment of relatedness, as well as motivational factors, were not found to be predictors of MMR scores. The strong effect of matches played, used as proxy of time on task, emphasize the effect of time and practice as a critical aspect of video-game expertise.

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  • 31.
    Härgestam, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Jacobsson, Maritha
    Department of Social Work, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bååthe, Fredrik
    Institute of Stress Medicine, Gothenburg, Sweden; Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden; Institute for Studies of the Medical Profession, Oslo, Norway.
    Brulin, Emma
    Unit of Occupational Medicine, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Challenges in preserving the “good doctor” norm: physicians' discourses on changes to the medical logic during the initial wave of the COVID-19 pandemic2023In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 14, article id 1083047Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic was a tremendous challenge to the practice of modern medicine. In this study, we use neo-institutional theory to gain an in-depth understanding of how physicians in Sweden narrate how they position themselves as physicians when practicing modern medicine during the first wave of the pandemic. At focus is medical logic, which integrates rules and routines based on medical evidence, practical experience, and patient perspectives in clinical decision-making.

    Methods: To understand how physicians construct their versions of the pandemic and how it impacted the medical logic in which they practice, we analyzed the interviews from 28 physicians in Sweden by discursive psychology.

    Results: The interpretative repertoires showed how COVID-19 created an experience of knowledge vacuum in medical logic and how physicians dealt with clinical patient dilemmas. They had to find unorthodox ways to rebuild a sense of medical evidence while still being responsible for clinical decision-making for patients with critical care needs.

    Discussion: In the knowledge vacuum occurring during the first wave of COVID-19, physicians could not use their common medical knowledge nor rely on published evidence or their clinical judgment. They were thus challenged in their norm of being the “good doctor”. One practical implication of this research is that it provides a rich empirical account where physicians are allowed to mirror, make sense, and normalize their own individual and sometimes painful struggle to uphold the professional role and related medical responsibility in the early phases of the COVID-19 pandemic. It will be important to follow how the tremendous challenge of COVID-19 to medical logic plays out over time in the community of physicians. There are many dimensions to study, with sick leave, burnout, and attrition being some interesting areas.

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  • 32.
    Inzunza, Miguel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Brown, Gavin T. L.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science. Faculty of Education and Social Work, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Stenlund, Tova
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wikström, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    The relationship between subconstructs of empathy and general cognitive ability in the context of policing2022In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 13, article id 907610Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Empathy has been widely theorized as an important ability in professions such as policing, in which to perform well individuals require multiple and interacting abilities, not least when resolving conflict situations. Even so, there are few studies investigating how subconstructs of empathy relate to other constructs such as general cognitive ability. The purpose of this paper is to establish, after evaluating psychometric properties, relationships among measures of empathy and cognitive ability in a sample of Swedish police students (n = 157).

    Design/methodology/approach: Multiple latent variable models of how the different measures work to predict tasks that can be seen as proxies for the ability to understand another person’s situation and intentions are evaluated to determine the most robust relationship(s) within the data.

    Findings: We find support for the psychometric properties reported in previous studies with the used instruments. We also find support for perspective-taking, a cognitive empathy subconstruct predicting the ability to recognize emotions, and also the affective part of empathy, predicting general cognitive ability. These findings are discussed at length in the paper.

    Originality/value: This research adds more knowledge to the issue of how general cognitive ability relates to cognitive empathy and other subconstructs of empathy or Theory of Mind.

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  • 33.
    Irehill, Hanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The well-being of young leaders: demands and resources from a lifespan perspective2023In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 14, article id 1187936Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Building on the job demand resources (JD-R) model, we examined the experience of work environment and well-being among young leaders in a two-wave survey study of 1,033 leaders within the private sector in Sweden. Our results reveal that young leaders report higher levels of burnout and lower rates of vigor compared to older colleagues. Further, they appraise demand and resources differently, perceiving higher emotional demands and less organizational support, and they seem to struggle with the leader role, seeing it as unclear and conflicting. Our findings underline the necessity of viewing the leader role from a lifespan perspective as well as considering age-specific aspects in the JD-R model. In practice, we urge organizations to improve prerequisites for young leaders by providing support and role clarifications to prevent impaired well-being and improve retention. By bringing leadership and lifespan studies together, we aim for a better understanding of what specific prerequisites young leaders need to thrive in the leader role thus showing how age matters and bring the field of research forward.

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  • 34.
    Jonsson, Bert
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Granberg, Carina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Gaining Mathematical Understanding: The Effects of Creative Mathematical Reasoning and Cognitive Proficiency2020In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 11, article id 574366Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the field of mathematics education, one of the main questions remaining under debate is whether students’ development of mathematical reasoning and problem-solving is aided more by solving tasks with given instructions or by solving them without instructions. It has been argued, that providing little or no instruction for a mathematical task generates a mathematical struggle, which can facilitate learning. This view in contrast, tasks in which routine procedures can be applied can lead to mechanical repetition with little or no conceptual understanding. This study contrasts Creative Mathematical Reasoning (CMR), in which students must construct the mathematical method, with Algorithmic Reasoning (AR), in which predetermined methods and procedures on how to solve the task are given. Moreover, measures of fluid intelligence and working memory capacity are included in the analyses alongside the students’ math tracks. The results show that practicing with CMR tasks was superior to practicing with AR tasks in terms of students’ performance on practiced test tasks and transfer test tasks. Cognitive proficiency was shown to have an effect on students’ learning for both CMR and AR learning conditions. However, math tracks (advanced versus a more basic level) showed no significant effect. It is argued that going beyond step-by-step textbook solutions is essential and that students need to be presented with mathematical activities involving a struggle. In the CMR approach, students must focus on the relevant information in order to solve the task, and the characteristics of CMR tasks can guide students to the structural features that are critical for aiding comprehension.

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  • 35.
    Jonsson, Bert
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Mossegård, Julia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Karlsson Wirebring, Linnea
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Creative Mathematical Reasoning: Does Need for Cognition Matter?2022In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 12, article id 797807Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large portion of mathematics education centers heavily around imitative reasoning and rote learning, raising concerns about students’ lack of deeper and conceptual understanding of mathematics. To address these concerns, there has been a growing focus on students learning and teachers teaching methods that aim to enhance conceptual understanding and problem-solving skills. One suggestion is allowing students to construct their own solution methods using creative mathematical reasoning (CMR), a method that in previous studies has been contrasted against algorithmic reasoning (AR) with positive effects on test tasks. Although previous studies have evaluated the effects of CMR, they have ignored if and to what extent intrinsic cognitive motivation play a role. This study investigated the effects of intrinsic cognitive motivation to engage in cognitive strenuous mathematical tasks, operationalized through Need for Cognition (NFC), and working memory capacity (WMC). Two independent groups, consisting of upper secondary students (N = 137, mean age 17.13, SD = 0.62, 63 boys and 74 girls), practiced non-routine mathematical problem solving with CMR and AR tasks and were tested 1 week later. An initial t-test confirmed that the CMR group outperformed the AR group. Structural equation modeling revealed that NFC was a significant predictor of math performance for the CMR group but not for the AR group. The results also showed that WMC was a strong predictor of math performance independent of group. These results are discussed in terms of allowing for time and opportunities for struggle with constructing own solution methods using CMR, thereby enhancing students conceptual understanding.

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  • 36.
    Kaiser, Niclas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Butler, Emily
    Family Studies and Human Development, University of Arizona, AZ, Tucson, United States.
    Introducing Social Breathing: A Model of Engaging in Relational Systems2021In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 12, article id 571298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We address what it means to "engage in a relationship" and suggest Social Breathing as a model of immersing ourselves in the metaphorical social air around us, which is necessary for shared intention and joint action. We emphasize how emergent properties of social systems arise, such as the shared culture of groups, which cannot be reduced to the individuals involved. We argue that the processes involved in Social Breathing are: (1) automatic, (2) implicit, (3) temporal, (4) in the form of mutual bi-directional interwoven exchanges between social partners and (5) embodied in the coordination of the brains and behaviors of social partners. We summarize cross-disciplinary evidence suggesting that these processes involve a multi-person whole-brain-body network which is critical for the development of both we-ness and relational skills. We propose that Social Breathing depends on each individual's ability to sustain multimodal interwovenness, thus providing a theoretical link between social neuroscience and relational/multi-person psychology. We discuss how the model could guide research on autism, relationships, and psychotherapy.

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  • 37.
    Kaiser, Niclas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Henry, Kimberly
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eyjólfsdóttir, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eye Contact in Video Communication: Experiences of Co-creating Relationships2022In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 13, article id 852692Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, increased number of persons have been forced to limit their interactions with friends and families to contact via video, which excludes eye-contact. The aim of this study was to examine individuals' experiences of the difference between forced skewed visuality and the ability for eye-contact in conversations. Two custom-made units allowed 15 participants interacting in dyads to alternate between being able to make eye contact and having that ability removed through skewed visuality. Participants reported their experiences in semi-structured interviews. Data analyzed with qualitative content analysis resulted in three themes: Shared eye contact allows us to create our relationship together; With eye contact, we adjust to each other to feel more connected and less intimidated; and We get more self-conscious when the visuality is skewed or shifting. The results imply that skewed visuality as forced lack of eye-contact in video conversations effects embodied non-verbal processes related to sense of connectedness and participatory sensemaking, creating a sense of both emotional and physical distance, as well as heightening self-awareness about the need of actively regulating the other. We argue that this is one of the ways to understand the impact of moving interactions to online communication.

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  • 38. Kalén, Anton
    et al.
    Padron Cabo, Alexis
    Lundkvist, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ray, Ezequiel
    Perez-Ferreiros, Alexandra
    Talent selection strategies and relationship with success in European basketball national team programs2021In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 12, article id 666839Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is limited knowledge of the talent selection strategies used by national sporting organizations to identify and develop talented players in basketball. Therefore, we aimed to explore differences in selection strategies between European youth basketball national team programs, and how they relate to the program’s success. Specifically, we examined differences in the number of youth national team players and within-country variance in the 1988-1999 generations between 38 countries (n men = 38, women = 32). Further, we tested if the number of youth national team players and within-country variance was related to the national teams senior ranking, youth ranking, and youth-to-senior player promotion, using generalized Bayesian multilevel models. We further checked the moderating effect of the sport’s popularity in each country.On average, 15.6 ± 2.0 male and 12.4 ± 1.8 female players were selected per generation. Over a third of the national teams consistently selected a higher or lower number of players than the average, with a difference of 8.1 players (95% CI [5.8, 10.8]) for men and 7.6 players (95% CI [5.4, 10.0]) for women between the countries with the highest and lowest average. When licensed players were used as moderator, the differences decreased but did not disappear, in both genders. There was an above 99.2% probability that a higher number of players was positively related to higher men’s senior and youth rankings, and women’s youth ranking. Within countries, generations with a higher number of youth players generated more senior players, with a probability of 98.4% on the men’s, and 97.3% on the women’s side. When licensed players were used as moderator, the probabilities for these relationships remained largely unaffected, apart from women’s youth ranking, which sank to 80.5%.In conclusion, the selection strategy in basketball national team programs varies between European countries and selecting a higher number of players possibly relates to better long-term performance and more players promoted to the senior national teams. These findings show that talent development programs should make conscious decisions about their selection strategies as it can affect their success.

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  • 39.
    Kegelaers, Jolan
    et al.
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium.
    Trotter, Michael G.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Watson, Matthew
    German Sport University Cologne, Cologne, Germany.
    Pedraza-Ramirez, Ismael
    German Sport University Cologne, Cologne, Germany; G2 Esports, Berlin, Germany.
    Bonilla, Iván
    Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Wylleman, Paul
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium.
    Mairesse, Olivier
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium.
    Van Heel, Martijn
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium.
    Promoting mental health in esports2024In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 15, article id 1342220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is growing recognition of the demands and health challenges experienced by esports athletes. The purpose of this perspective paper is to draw specific attention to the mental health of competitive gamers and spur on both future research and applied initiatives focussing on this important but under-addressed topic. We will briefly discuss the prevalence of mental health concerns, domain-specific stressors, and the need for comprehensive mental health support systems tailored to the esports context. It is our hope that, with this perspective paper, we can help set a new research agenda addressing mental health in esports.

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  • 40.
    Lundkvist, Erik
    et al.
    Performance and Training Unit, The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Gerber, Markus
    Lundqvist, Carolina
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Madigan, Daniel J.
    Commentary: Early Risk Detection of Burnout2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 2721Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 41.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    A power-sharing perspective on employees' participatory influence over organizational interventions: conceptual explorations2023In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 14, article id 1185735Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A participatory approach is widely recommended for organizational interventions aiming to improve employee well-being. Employees' participatory influence over organizational interventions implies that managers share power over decisions concerning the design and/or implementation of those interventions. However, a power-sharing perspective is generally missing in organizational intervention literature. The aim of this paper is therefore broaden the picture of the mechanisms that influence, more or less, participatory processes by conceptually exploring this missing part to the puzzle. These conceptual explorations departs from both an empowerment and a contingency perspective and results in six propositions on what to consider in terms of power-sharing strategies, reach, amount, scope, culture and capacity. Implications for research, as well as for organizations and practitioners interested in occupational health improvements, are then discussed. Especially, the importance of aligning power-sharing forms with the needs of the participating employees, and taking factors that can facilitate or hinder the power-sharing process into consideration, are stressed. The importance of training managers in power-sharing practices and supporting a participatory process is also highlighted.

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  • 42.
    Lundmark, Robert
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Health, Education and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Agrell, Alexander
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Industrial Doctoral School for Research and Innovation, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Simonsen Abildgaard, Johan
    Department of Organization, Copenhagen Business School, Copenhagen, Denmark; The National Research Center for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Wahlström, Jens
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    A joint training of healthcare line managers and health and safety representatives in facilitating occupational health interventions: a feasibility study protocol for the co-pilot project2024In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 15, article id 1340279Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Healthcare employees are experiencing poor wellbeing at an increasing rate. The healthcare workforce is exposed to challenging tasks and a high work pace, a situation that worsened during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. In turn, exposure to these high demands contributes to poor health, increased turnover, reduced job satisfaction, reduced efficacy, and reduced patient satisfaction and safety. Therefore, it is imperative that we identify measures to mitigate this crisis. One piece of this puzzle is how to implement sustainable tools and processes to improve the work environment of healthcare organizations. In this paper, we present the study protocol for the outlining and piloting of a joint training for pairs of healthcare line managers and their associated health and safety representatives in a Swedish healthcare organization. The objective of the training is to aid and advance the implementation of interventions to improve the work environment at the unit level. Following recommendations in the literature, the training is based on a stepwise approach that considers the specific context and focuses on the involvement of employees in creating interventions based on their needs. A central component of the training is the development of the pairs’ collaboration in prioritizing, developing, implementing, and evaluating the interventions. The training is based on an on-the-job train-the-trainer approach in which participants are progressively trained during four workshops in the steps of a participatory intervention process. Between these workshops, the pairs follow the same progressive steps together with their employees to develop and implement interventions at their unit. The pilot will involve four pairs (i.e., eight participants) representing different parts and functions of the organization and will be conducted over a period of three months. We will use a mixed method design to evaluate preconditions, the process, and proximal transfer and implementation outcome factors of the training. The overall aim of the pilot is to appraise its feasibility and be able to adjust the training before a potential scale-up.

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  • 43.
    Lundmark, Robert
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica
    School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Appetite for Destruction: A Psychometric Examination and Prevalence Estimation of Destructive Leadership in Sweden2021In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 12, article id 668838Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing awareness that destructive leadership has a significant negative impact on employe outcomes. However, little is known about the content and dimensionality of this multidimensional concept, and there are few reliable measures available for organizations and researchers to evaluate these behaviors. Based on a representative sample (N = 1132) of the Swedish workforce, the aim of this study is threefold: first, to examine the factor structure and validity of an easy-to-use multidimensional destructive leadership measure (Destrudo-L)in the general Swedish work context; second, to identify destructive leadership profiles using latent profile analysis (LPA), and determine in what way they are related to employe outcomes; third, to examine the prevalence of destructive leadership using population weights to estimate responses of a population total in the Swedish workforce (N = 3100282). Our analysis supported the structural validity of Destrudo-L, reflecting both a global factor and specific subdimensions. We identified seven unique destructive leadership profiles along a passive and active continuum of destructive leadership behaviors, with the active showing a less favorable relation to employe outcomes. Finally, we found that a substantial proportion of the Swedish workforce report being exposed to destructive leadership (36.4–43.5%, depending on method used). Active destructive leadership was more common in the public sector and passive destructive leadership in the private. Given the potentially severe effects and the commonness of these behaviors, we argue that organizations should work actively with strategies to identify and intervene, to prevent and to handle the manifestation of these harmful behaviors.

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  • 44.
    Madison, Guy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Aasa, Ulrika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Wallert, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Woodley, Michael A
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Vrije Univ Brussel, Ctr Leo Apostel, Brussels, Belgium.
    Feminist activist women are masculinized in terms of digit-ratio and social dominance: a possible explanation for the feminist paradox2014In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 5, p. 1011-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The feminist movement purports to improve conditions for women, and yet only a minority of women in modern societies self-identify as feminists. This is known as the feminist paradox. It has been suggested that feminists exhibit both physiological and psychological characteristics associated with heightened masculinization, which may predispose women for heightened competitiveness, sex-atypical behaviors, and belief in the interchangeability of sex roles. If feminist activists, i.e., those that manufacture the public image of feminism, are indeed masculinized relative to women in general, this might explain why the views and preferences of these two groups are at variance with each other. We measured the 2D:4D digit ratios (collected from both hands) and a personality trait known as dominance (measured with the Directiveness scale) in a sample of women attending a feminist conference. The sample exhibited significantly more masculine 2D:4D and higher dominance ratings than comparison samples representative of women in general, and these variables were furthermore positively correlated for both hands. The feminist paradox might thus to some extent be explained by biological differences between women in general and the activist women who formulate the feminist agenda.

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  • 45.
    Madison, Guy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sioros, George
    Sound and Music Computing Group, INESC TEC, Porto, Portugal.
    What musicians do to induce the sensation of groove in simple and complex melodies, and how listeners perceive it2014In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 5, p. 894-Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 46. Marsh, John E.
    et al.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Körning Ljungberg, Jessica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Division of Human Work Science, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Executive Processes Underpin the Bilingual Advantage on Phonemic Fluency: Evidence from Analyses of Switching and Clustering2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 1355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bilinguals often show a disadvantage in lexical access on verbal fluency tasks wherein the criteria require the production of words from semantic categories. However, the pattern is more heterogeneous for letter (phonemic) fluency wherein the task is to produce words beginning with a given letter. Here, bilinguals often outperform monolinguals. One explanation for this is that phonemic fluency, as compared with semantic fluency, is more greatly underpinned by executive processes and that bilinguals exhibit better performance on phonemic fluency due to better executive functions. In this study, we re-analyzed phonemic fluency data from the Betula study, scoring outputs according to two measures that purportedly reflect executive processes: clustering and switching. Consistent with the notion that bilinguals have superior executive processes and that these can be used to offset a bilingual disadvantage in verbal fluency, bilinguals (35-65 years at baseline) demonstrated greater switching and clustering throughout the 15-year study period.

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  • 47.
    Marsja, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Marsh Everett, John
    Hansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Neely, Gregory
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Examining the Role of Spatial Changes in Bimodal and Uni-Modal To-Be-Ignored Stimuli and How They Affect Short-Term Memory Processes2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, p. 1-8, article id 299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the potential vulnerability of short-term memory processes to distraction by spatial changes within to-be-ignored bimodal, vibratory, and auditory stimuli. Participants were asked to recall sequences of serially presented dots or digits while being exposed to to-be-ignored stimuli. On unexpected occasions, the bimodal (Experiment 1), vibratory (Experiment 2), or auditory (Experiment 3) stimuli changed their spatial origin from one side of the body (e.g., ear and arm, arm only, ear only) to the other. It was expected that the bimodal stimuli would make the spatial change more salient compared to that of the uni-modal stimuli and that this, in turn, would yield an increase in distraction of serial short-term memory in both the verbal and spatial domains. Performance across three experiments support this assumption as a disruptive effect of the spatial deviant was only observed when presented within the bimodal to-be-ignored sequence (Experiment 1): Uni-modal to-be-ignored sequences, whether vibratory (Experiment 2) or auditory (Experiment 3), had no impact on either verbal or spatial short-term memory. Implications for models of attention capture, short-term memory, and the potential special role attention capturing role of bimodal stimuli is discussed.

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  • 48.
    Molander, Bo
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Olsson, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Borg, Elisabet
    Psychology, Stockholms University, Sweden.
    Regulating force in putting by using the Borg CR100 scale®2013In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 4, no 82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies investigating the regulation of force of motor actions are scarce, and particularlyso in the area of sports. This is surprising, considering that in most sports precise forceis of great importance. The current study demonstrates how a psychophysical scale, theBorg CR100 scale® (Borg and Borg, 2001), can be used to assess subjective force aswell as regulate force in putting. Psychophysical functions were calculated on the relationships between judgments of force using the CR100 scale and the length of puttingshots, examined in a laboratory setting, where 44 amateur golfers played on both flatand uphill surfaces. High agreement and consistency between CR 100 ratings and distancesputted was demonstrated. No significant differences in handling the scale wereobserved between younger (mean age 37 years) and older (mean age 69 years) playersor between players of different skill level. This study provides a new innovative use of anexisting instrument, the Borg CR 100 scale®, in order to understand the regulation of forceneeded for putts of various lengths and surfaces. These results and the potential futurebenefits of the psychophysical approach in golf are discussed.

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  • 49.
    Nowakowska, Iwona
    et al.
    Institute of Psychology, Maria Grzegorzewska University, Warsaw, Poland.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Future of nature, our future. A preregistered report on future time perspective, social value orientation, and pro-environmental outcomes based on data from Poland and Sweden2023In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 14, article id 1217139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The objective of the study was to examine the role of social value orientation and future time perspective to account for individual differences in pro-environmental behaviors, intentions, and opinions about the link between pro-environmental action and pandemic threat (three separate models) in Polish and Swedish samples expected to differ in rate of pro-environmental behaviors (higher in Sweden). We hypothesized that for Poland, future time perspective would be linked to pro-environmental outcomes only when social value orientation is average or high. In contrast, for Sweden, we expected a significant link between these variables regardless of social value orientation.

    Methods: In total, 301 (150 Polish, 151 Swedish) participants completed online surveys via Prolific.co research panel. We controlled for individualizing/binding moral foundations, present time perspectives, and selected demographic variables in the analyses.

    Results: In line with expectations, the individualizing moral foundations were a significant predictor across all three models. The data did not support our focal hypothesis regarding the interaction between future time perspective and social value orientation. For pro-environmental behaviors in the past 6 months, the future time perspective was a predictor only when social value orientation was low.

    Discussion: The results suggest that when encouraging more competitive (compared to altruistic) people to behave in a green way, it might be crucial to underline the future consequences and benefits, consistent with the future time perspective. The pro-environmental campaigns could, therefore, highlight how green behavior may bring personal gains in the future, which are typically valued by individualistic people, such as savings or social status.

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  • 50.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Korhonen, Johan
    Faculty of Education and Welfare Studies, Åbo Akademi University, Vaasa, Finland.
    Mononen, Riikka
    Teachers, Teaching, and Educational Communities, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland; Department of Special Needs Education, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Editorial: Cognitive and affective factors in relations to learning2022In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 13, article id 103733Article in journal (Refereed)
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