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  • 1.
    Landström, Marene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    The TAK1-TRAF6 signalling pathway2010In: International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, ISSN 1357-2725, E-ISSN 1878-5875, Vol. 42, no 5, p. 585-589Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellular responses to pathogens, growth factors, cytokines, extra- or intra-cellular stress, is a prerequisite for the cell to adapt to novel and potentially dangerous situations. If the changes in the extra- or intra-cellular milieu causes DNA-damage or revoke a signalling pathway utilized during morphogenesis, the epithelial cells might be forced to undergo programmed cell death (apoptosis) in the benefit for the whole organism or transform to a mesenchymal cell type (epithelial to mesenchymal transition; EMT), in respond to a specific stimuli. An overview is presented over the current knowledge for the key components in signal transduction in homeostasis, inflammation and cancer. A handful of transcription factors are crucial for the determination of the specific cellular responses, where the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is an important factor as discussed in this review.

  • 2. Martins, Rodrigo Prado
    et al.
    Fåhraeus, Robin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology. Équipe Labellisée Ligue Contre le Cancer, Université Paris 7, INSERM UMR 1162, 27 rue Juliette Dodu, 75010 Paris, France; RECAMO, Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute, Brno, Czech Republic.
    A matter of maturity: the impact of pre-mRNA processing in gene expression and antigen presentation2017In: International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, ISSN 1357-2725, E-ISSN 1878-5875, Vol. 91, p. 203-211Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    RNA processing plays a pivotal role in the diversification of high eukaryotes transcriptome and proteome. The expression of gene products controlling a variety of cellular and physiological processes depends largely on a complex maturation process undergone by pre-mRNAs to become translation-competent mRNAs. Here we review the different mechanisms involved in the pre-mRNA processing and disclose their impact in the gene regulation process in eukaryotic cells. We describe some viral strategies targeting pre-mRNA processing to control gene expression and host immune response and discuss their relevance as tools for a better understanding of cell biology. Finally, we highlight accumulating evidences toward the occurrence of a translation event coupled to mRNA biogenesis in the nuclear compartment and argue how this is relevant for the production of antigenic peptide substrates for the major histocompatibility complex class I pathway.

  • 3.
    Qu, Chengjuan
    et al.
    Institute of Biomedicine, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland;Biocenter Kuopio, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    Puttonen, Katja
    Department of Neurobiology, A.I. Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Finland; Biocenter Kuopio, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    Lindeberg, Heli
    Institute of Biomedicine, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    Ruponen, Marika
    Department of Neurobiology, A.I. Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Finland; Biocenter Kuopio, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    Hovatta, Outi
    Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Koistinaho, Jari
    Department of Neurobiology, A.I. Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Finland; Department of Oncology, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland; Biocenter Kuopio, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    Lammi, Mikko
    Institute of Biomedicine, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland; Biocenter Kuopio, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    Chondrogenic differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells in chondrocyte co-culture2013In: International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, ISSN 1357-2725, E-ISSN 1878-5875, Vol. 45, no 8, p. 1802-1812Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chondrogenic differentiation of human embryonic (hESCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) has been achieved in embryoid bodies (EBs) by adding selected growth factors to the medium. Also chondrocyte-secreted factors have been considered to promote the chondrogenic differentiation. Hence, we studied whether co-culture with primary chondrocytes can induce hESCs or hiPSCs to differentiate into chondrocyte lineage. Co-culture of hESCs or hiPSCs was established in a transwell insert system in feeder-free culture conditions, while hESCs or hiPSCs grown alone in the wells were used as controls. After 3-week co-culture with weekly replenished chondrocytes, the chondrogenically committed cells (hCCCs) were evaluated by morphology, immunocytochemistry, quantitative real-time RT-PCR, and analysis of chondrogenic, osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation markers. The expressions of chondrocyte- and pluripotency-associated genes were frequently measured during the monolayer expansion of hCCCs from passage 1 to 10. Human CCCs displayed morphology similar to chondrocytes, and expressed chondrocyte-associated genes, which were declined following passaging, similarly to passaged chondrocytes. They also formed a chondrogenic cell pellet, and differentiated into chondrocytic cells, which secreted abundant extracellular matrix. Human CCCs also proliferated rapidly. However, they did not show osteogenic or adipogenic differentiation capacity. Our results show that co-culture of hESCs or hiPSCs with primary chondrocytes could induce specific chondrogenic differentiation.

  • 4.
    Qu, Chengjuan
    et al.
    Institute of Biomedicine, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland; Biocenter Kuopio, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    Rilla, Kirsi
    Institute of Biomedicine, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    Tammi, Raija
    Institute of Biomedicine, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    Tammi, Markku
    Institute of Biomedicine, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    Kröger, Heikki
    Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland; Bone and Cartilage Research Unit, Surgery, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    Lammi, Mikko
    Institute of Biomedicine, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland; Biocenter Kuopio, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    Extensive CD44-dependent hyaluronan coats on human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells produced by hyaluronan synthases HAS1, HAS2 and HAS32014In: International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, ISSN 1357-2725, E-ISSN 1878-5875, Vol. 48, no 3, p. 45-54, article id 24406795Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hyaluronan (HA), a natural extracellular matrix component, has been considered as an important constituent of the stem cell niche, and successfully used as 3D scaffolds for the chondrogenic differentiation of stem cells. However, the expression levels of HA synthases (HAS1, 2 and 3) and the synthesis of HA by stem cells have remained unknown, and were studied here in the human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Nine hMSCs from different donors were cultured as monolayers with MSC culture medium supplemented with FGF-2. The amount of HA secreted into medium was studied by an ELISA-type assay, and HA bound to cell surface by live cell microscopy. The expression of HASs was analyzed by real time RT-PCR and immunostainings. The HA receptor CD44 was studied by immunocytochemistry. An intense HA coat surrounded the plasma membrane and its protrusions in all nine hMSCs. Displacement assay with HA oligosaccharides indicated that HA coat was at least partly dependent on CD44, which showed similar, relatively high expression in all hMSCs. All HAS isoenzymes were detected, HAS1 showing the largest and HAS3 the smallest range of expression levels between the hMSCs. The secretion of HA ranged between 22.5 and 397.4 ng/10,000 cells/24h, and could not be clearly assigned to the mRNA level of a certain HAS, or a combination of the isoenzymes. This suggests that post-transcriptional and post-translational factors were involved in the adjustment of the HA secretion. In conclusion, all hMSCs expressed high levels of HAS1-3, secrete large amounts of HA, and surround themselves with a thick HA coat bound to CD44. The results suggest that hMSC has the potential for autocrine maintenance of the HA niche, important for their stemness.

  • 5.
    Ruge, Toralph
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Physiological chemistry.
    Wu, Gengshu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Physiological chemistry.
    Olivecrona, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Physiological chemistry.
    Olivecrona, Gunilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Physiological chemistry.
    Nutritional regulation of lipoprotein lipase in mice2004In: International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, ISSN 1357-2725, E-ISSN 1878-5875, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 320-329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tissue-specific regulation of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) has been extensively studied in rats. The mouse is now the most used animal in lipoprotein research, and we have therefore explored the regulation of LPL in this species. In C57 black mice, fed ad libitum adipose tissue LPL activity changed about three-fold with the time of day, indicating a circadian rhythm. The highest activity was at midnight and the lowest activity was at noon. Withdrawal of food did not markedly accelerate the drop of activity that occurred from midnight until noon, but prevented the return of activity that occurred during the evening and early night. When food was returned to mice that had been fasted for 24h, adipose tissue LPL activity rose rapidly and returned to the fed level in 2h. LPL mass in adipose tissue changed less than LPL activity, indicating that regulation is mainly post-translational as previously demonstrated for rats. When transcription was blocked in fasted mice, adipose tissue LPL activity increased, as previously observed in rats. LPL activity in heart was highest early in the light period at 9:00h and lowest at 21:00h. The change was, however, only about 30%. Heparin-releasable LPL activity in heart was 1.8-fold higher in mice fasted for 6h compared to fed controls. We conclude that LPL activity responds to the nutritional state in the same direction and by the same mechanisms in mice as in rats, but the magnitude of the changes are less in mice.

  • 6.
    Sironen, Reijo
    et al.
    Department of Anatomy, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland.
    Karjalainen, Hannu
    Department of Anatomy, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland.
    Törrönen, Kari
    Department of Anatomy, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland.
    Elo, Mika
    Department of Anatomy, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland.
    Hyttinen, Mika
    Department of Anatomy, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland.
    Helminen, Heikki
    Department of Anatomy, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland.
    Lammi, Mikko
    Department of Anatomy, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland.
    Reticulon 4 in chondrocytic cells: barosensitivity and intracellular localization2004In: International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, ISSN 1357-2725, E-ISSN 1878-5875, Vol. 36, no 8, p. 1521-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Members of the reticulon gene family are endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-related proteins expressed in various human tissues, but their molecular functions are not understood. The reticulon 4 subfamily consists of three members, reticulon 4/Nogo-A, -B and -C. Reticulon 4-A is under intense investigation because of its inhibitory effect on neurite outgrowth, and reticulon 4-B has been suggested to induce apoptosis. Reticulon 4-C, the shortest member of this subfamily, is the least characterized. Reticulons are presumably guided to endoplasmic reticulum by a putative N-terminal retention motif. In this study the expressions of reticulon 4 subtypes in human chondrosarcoma cell line and in primary bovine chondrocytes were analyzed on mRNA level. These cell types, exposed to strong mechanical forces in vivo, were subjected to high hydrostatic pressure and mechanical stretch to study the possible mechanosensitivity of reticulon 4 genes. In addition, a green fluorescent protein-tagged reticulon 4-C and a fusion protein with mutated endoplasmic reticulum retention signal were used to study the significance of the C-terminal translocation signal (the di-lysine motif). As the result, both cell types expressed the three main isoforms of reticulon 4 family. The steady-state level of reticulon 4-B mRNA was shown to be up-regulated by pressure, but not by mechanical stretch indicating transcriptional barosensitivity. The reticular distribution pattern of reticulon 4-C was observed indicating a close association with endoplasmic reticulum. Interestingly, this pattern was maintained despite of the disruption of the putative localization signal. This suggests the presence of another, yet unidentified endoplasmic reticulum retention mechanism.

1 - 6 of 6
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