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  • 1.
    Bindler, Richard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Karlsson, Jon
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Rydberg, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Karlsson, Björn
    Berg Nilsson, Lena
    Biester, Harald
    Segerström, Ulf
    Copper-ore mining in Sweden since the pre-Roman Iron Age: lake-sediment evidence of human activities at the Garpenberg ore field since 375 BCE2017In: Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports, ISSN 2352-409X, E-ISSN 2001-1199, Vol. 12, p. 99-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Historical documents, archaeological evidence and lake-sediment records indicate thus far that significant mining of iron and copper ores in the Berglsagen mining region in central Sweden did not begin until the late 12th century -first with iron in Norberg - and thereafter spreading rapidly throughout the region during the 13th century when also copper was included (e.g. Falun). Prior to this, iron was produced domestically from secondary sources such as bog iron, while geochemical analyses of bronze artefacts indicate copper was imported. The parish of Garpenberg was at the intersection between historical iron-and copper-mining districts, and consequently we expected our sediment record from the lake Gruvsjon ('mine lake') to follow the established 13th century development. However, a 2-3-fold enrichment in copper and lead occurred already during 375-175 BCE (pre-Roman Iron Age), together with small increases in zinc, magnesium and charcoal particles, and changes in pollen. Together these indicate a clear pattern of human disturbance connected with the ore body bordering the lake. A second distinct phase occurred 115-275 CE, but with an 8-9-fold increase in copper and lead along with other indicators. From 400 CE a permanent increase in copper and lead occurred, which then accelerated from the 13th century as seen elsewhere in the region. Our results push back the evidence for early ore mining in Sweden from the Middle Ages to the pre-Roman Iron Age. 

  • 2.
    Jerand, Philip
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Linderholm, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Hedman, Sven-Donald
    Department of Archaeological and Social Anthropology, UiT, The Artic University of Norway, NO-9037 Tromsø, Norway.
    Olsen, Bjørnar
    Department of Archaeological and Social Anthropology, UiT, The Artic University of Norway, NO-9037 Tromsø, Norway.
    Spatial Perspectives on Hearth Row Site Organisation in Northern Fennoscandia Through the Analysis of Soil Phosphate Content2016In: Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports, ISSN 2352-409X, E-ISSN 2001-1199, Vol. 5, p. 361-373Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this paper is to present new perspectives on the social and cultural aspects on spatial organisation of so called 'hearth rows' in Northern Fennoscandia. Previous studies have shown, based on geographical distribution and finds, that these sites are associated with native Sámi settlements and consist of linearly organised hearths dated to 800 - 1300 AD. In order to provide a deeper understanding of spatial behaviour and waste dispersal in hearth row settlements, information and data from three excavated sites is compiled, together with 14C analysis (bone and charcoal), detailed sampling and mapping of citric soluble soil phosphate, to enable a spatial analytical approach. On the basis of repeated spatial patterns observed in excavated and analysed data the authors provide new insights on the spatial organisation of these Sámi dwellings. Also, a generally accepted ethnographic model on how these dwellings and hearth areas were spatially organised is challenged.

  • 3.
    Myrstener, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Lidberg, William
    Segerstrom, Ulf
    Biester, Harald
    Damell, David
    Bindler, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Was Moshyttan the earliest iron blast furnace in Sweden?: The sediment record as an archeological toolbox2016In: Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports, ISSN 2352-409X, E-ISSN 2001-1199, Vol. 5, p. 35-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, archeological study of the establishment and spread of iron blast furnace technology in Sweden has suggested a phase of rapid expansion from AD 1150 to 1350, mainly in the historically important "Bergslagen" region in central Sweden. But the geographical extent and earliest development remains debated. One archeological investigation of Moshyttan, in the less studied western part of Bergslagen, suggested that it may have been established before 1150. To independently study the timing of blast furnace establishment at Moshyttan, and also the vegetation history of the area, we performed a multiproxy analysis of the sediment record from Fickeln, a small lake immediately downstream of the smelter site. We present radiocarbon dating (macrofossils and bulk sediment), pollen, charcoal particles and geochemistry. To establish a reliable age depth model, ages of the bulk samples were corrected for old carbon and the model was validated by comparison to chronological markers (immigration of Picea abies and airborne lead-pollution) in other lakes with varved or otherwise robust chronologies. Based on markedly increasing lead concentrations, decreases in the Pb-206/Pb-207 ratio towards values resembling Bergslagen ores, increasing charcoal particle counts and increases in iron and zinc concentrations, the establishment of the blast furnace is estimated to AD 1250-1300 with an age-depth model probability of 91%. This places the establishment of the blast furnace at Moshyttan within the known period of early expansion of iron blast furnaces in Sweden, rather than earlier as suggested by the earliest dates from the archeological study. The first signs of a human presence in the area can be seen in pollen associated with forest grazing from ca. 170 BC, and the first signs of cultivation appear ca. AD 1020, preceding the blast furnace by 200 years.

  • 4.
    Sciuto, Claudia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Allios, Dominique
    LAHM University of Rennes 2, France.
    Bendoula, Ryad
    ITAP, Irstea, Montepllier Sup Agro, Université de Montpellier, IRSTEA, France.
    Cocoual, Antoine
    W3DS, Rennes, France.
    Gardel, Marie-Elise
    Amicale Laïque de Carcassonne, France.
    Geladi, Paul
    SLU, Swedish university of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Gobrecht, Alexia
    ITAP, Irstea, Montepllier Sup Agro, Université de Montpellier, IRSTEA, France.
    Gorretta, Natalie
    ITAP, Irstea, Montepllier Sup Agro, Université de Montpellier, IRSTEA, France.
    Guermeur, Nominoe
    LAHM University of Rennes 2, France.
    Jay, Sylvain
    ITAP, Irstea, Montepllier Sup Agro, Université de Montpellier, IRSTEA, France.
    Linderholm, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Thyrel, Mikael
    SLU, Swedish university of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Characterization of building materials by means of spectral remote sensing: the example of Carcassonne's defensive wall (Aude, France)2019In: Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports, ISSN 2352-409X, E-ISSN 2352-4103, p. 396-405Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Geological and archaeological analysis of stone masonries in standing structures helps reveal information aboutuse of natural resources. At the same time, the study of historical materials is useful for conservators and culturalheritage management. Geochemical and petrographic analysis of building material types is usually done throughdestructive analysis on a few selected samples and can be problematic due to the costs of operations and the sizeof buildings themselves. This paper demonstrates that the combination of hyperspectral imaging portable NearInfrared (NIR) spectroscopy and Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF) spectroscopy can be useful foranalysing types of raw materials used in distinct construction phases of the inner defensive wall in the citadel ofCarcassonne (Aude, France). Stratigraphic analysis of the architecture, short-range spectral remote sensing andportable ED-XRF measurements were combined in an interdisciplinary approach to classify sandstone elements.The experimental protocol for in situ non-destructive analysis and classification of the masonry types allows theinvestigation of the monument in a diachronic perspective, collecting information to delineate raw materialsvarieties and their use or re-use through time.

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