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  • 1.
    Diehl, Monika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Olovsson, Tord Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Competence and/or Performance: Assessment and Entrepreneurial Teaching and Learning in Two Swedish Lower Secondary Schools2017In: International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, ISSN 1694-2493, E-ISSN 1694-2116, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 135-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurial teaching and learning, thus entrepreneurial education corresponds well with formative assessment/assessment for learning. Both are characterised by an approach to education, teaching, and learning, which puts pupils in the centre of their own learning. Learning aims to "go deep" and generate "real learning" where competencies rather than measurable results are the focus. Both entrepreneurial education, and assessment for learning are promoted by the Swedish National Agency for Education. Entrepreneurial education has been inscribed in the national curriculum for Swedish compulsory schools since 2011. The same curriculum and syllabuses also focus on several knowledge requirements, which form the basis for assessing pupils' performances. Thus, the Swedish national curriculum can be said to send two rather disparate messages. This research focuses on lower secondary school and the broad approach of entrepreneurial education and uses Basil Bernstein’s theory of performance and competence models to elaborate on entrepreneurial teaching and learning in relation to assessment. Observations along with interviews with teachers and pupils in two Swedish lower secondary schools provide the empirical basis for the research. The results reveal some differences between the schools but indicate that both teachers and pupils are relating to the prevailing dominance of performance models and thus encounter difficulties when trying to adopt entrepreneurial education and assessment for learning.

  • 2.
    Ottander, Christina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Wilhelmsson, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Lidestav, Gun
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Umeå.
    Teachers' intentions for outdoor learning: a characterisation of teachers' objectives and actions2015In: International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, ISSN 1694-2493, E-ISSN 1694-2116, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 208-230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to examine nine Swedish teachers´intentions and educational objectives for outdoor learning, and how these educational objectives are implemented in outdoor activities. Further, the alignment between teachers´predifined objectives and the kinds of knowledge and cognitive processes reflected in the outdoor activities are investigated. The data sources consists of semi-structured interviews and observations. The intervirw transcripts were analysed using Haldéns theory of  intentional analysis to identify teachers' intentions when locating learning outdoors. Teachers´ objectives in the cognitive domain were further analysed by Bloom´s revised taxonomy. The teachers use a diverse set of outdoor activities. Our findings include a typology of four orientations: one that values affective and social objectives and promote activities to understand factual knowledge, another orientation focuses on activities intended to gain procedural knowledge and emphasizes application of practical tasks. The other two teaching orientations primarily focuses on cognitive objectives, partly to reinforce conceptual knowledge, partly to deepen understandings or improve strategies to enhance meta-cognitive knowledge. The degree of alignment between intended objectives and performed activity is higher among teachers promoting affective and social goals as well as meta-cognitive and analytical understanding, than teachers who use outdoor activities to mainly reinforce conceptual knowledge. The study shows that there is a range of possible learning goals in outdoor education and teachers are guieded by what they value and how they percive learning.

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