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  • 1.
    Abdelrahman, Kholoud N.
    et al.
    Faculty of Development and Technology, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.
    Abdel Ghany, Abdel Ghany A.
    Faculty of Development and Technology, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.
    Saber, Refaat A.
    Faculty of Development and Technology, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.
    Osman, Ali
    Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.
    Sitohy, Basel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Immunology.
    Sitohy, Mahmoud
    Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.
    Anthocyanins from pomegranate peel (Punica granatum), chili pepper fruit (Capsicum annuum), and bougainvillea flowers (Bougainvillea spectabilis) with multiple biofunctions: antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticancer2024In: Heliyon, E-ISSN 2405-8440, Vol. 10, no 11, article id e32222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Natural colorants, including natural pigments, e.g., anthocyanins, carotenoids, and chlorophylls, in novel and attractive food matrixes have become a popular trend. They impart favorite colors to food products and provide significant therapeutic effects. This study is aimed at extracting and identifying some natural pigments from different plant sources and evaluating their ability as antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities.

    Methods: The anthocyanin-rich extract (ARE) is derived from three natural plant sources: pomegranate peel (Punica granatum), chili pepper fruit (Capsicum annuum), and Bougainvillea flowers. Bougainvillea spectabilis are analyzed for biochemical composition, as well as antioxidant, antibacterial, and anticancer activity, HPLC, DPPH, FRAP, disc diffusion assay, MIC, MTT, VEGFR‐2, and caspase-9 assays.

    Results: All three extracts had varying total phenolic contents, ranging from 14 to 466 mg GAE/g extract, where Punica granatum was the highest (466 mg GAE/g extract), followed by Bougainvillea spectabilis (180 mg GAE/g extract), and then Capsicum annuum (14 mg GAE/g extract). The antioxidant activity rose steadily with raising concentration. The ARE of pomegranate peels recorded highest value, followed by Bougainvillea flowers and chili pepper fruit. The MTT assay revealed an inhibitory action of the tested extracts on the proliferation of HCT-116, MCF-7, and HepG2 in a concentration-based manner. Gene expression of caspase-9 transcripts was considerably multiplied by the application of ARE of pomegranate peels. All the tested extracts inhibited VEGFR-2, and the inhibition (%) expanded gradually with increasing concentrations, achieving the highest value (80 %) at 10 μg/mL. The ARE of pomegranate peels scored highest antibacterial activity, followed by ARE of chili pepper fruit and Bougainvillea flowers. The inhibition zone diameter escalated gradually with rising concentrations of the tested samples.

    Conclusion: The AREs of the three studied plant sources can be used as multifunctional products with antioxidant, anticancer, and antibacterial activities that are natural, safe, and cheap.

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  • 2.
    Bratthäll, Tove
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Figueira, Joao
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Nording, Malin L.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Influence of divalent cations on the extraction of organic acids in coffee determined by GC-MS and NMR2024In: Heliyon, E-ISSN 2405-8440, Vol. 10, no 5, article id e26625Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The perceived flavor of coffee varies depending on the composition of the brewing water, and the influencing mechanisms are poorly understood. To investigate the effect of dissolved divalent cations on the extraction of organic acids in coffee, magnesium and calcium chloride salts were added pre- and post-brew. Citric, malic, lactic and quinic acid were analyzed using gas chromatography – mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. At concentrations typically found in drinking water, the salts resulted in limited variation of the acid content, while ten-fold higher salt concentrations produced more pronounced variations. Comparisons between pre- and post-brew additions showed similar acid content in most cases, suggesting that extraction of acids proceeds independent of the water composition. Interactions taking place post-brew may, however, influence the perceived flavor. A scientific basis for water quality recommendations in the coffee industry is long overdue and this work provides experimental and analytical contributions to continued research.

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  • 3.
    Brundin, Peik M.A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology. Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden; S:t Görans Hospital, Dept of Medicine, Unit of Infectious Diseases, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Landgren, Britt-Marie
    Fjällström, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Johansson, Anders F.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Nalvarte, Ivan
    Blood hormones and torque teno virus in peripheral blood mononuclear cells2020In: Heliyon, E-ISSN 2405-8440, Vol. 6, no 11, article id e05535Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Men and women respond differently to infectious diseases. Women show less morbidity and mortality, partially due to the differences in sex hormone levels which can influence the immune response. Torque teno virus (TTV) is non-pathogenic and ubiquitously present in serum from a large proportion (up to 90%) of adult humans with virus levels correlating with the status of the host immune response. The source of TTV replication is unknown, but T-lymphocytes have been proposed. In this study we investigated the presence and levels of TTV in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in premenopausal (pre-MP) women, post-menopausal (post-MP) women, and men, and determined their serum sex hormone levels. Of the examined subjects (n = 27), we found presence of TTV in PMBC from 17.6% pre-MP (n = 17), 25.0% post-MP (n = 4) and 50.0% men (n = 6). The levels of TTV/μg DNA were lower among TTV-positive men and post-MP women compared to pre-MP women. All the positive pre-MP women were either anovulatory, hypothyroid, or both. In addition, the TTV-positive pre-MP women had significantly lower progesterone levels compared to TTV-negative pre-MP women. Although our study was performed on a limited number of subjects, the data suggests that TTV in PBMC is associated with an anovulatory menstrual cycle with low progesterone levels, and possibly with male sex.

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  • 4.
    Canabarro, Ana Paula Finatto
    et al.
    Department of Global Public Health, Karolinska Institutet, Tomtebodavägen 18a, Widerströmska Huset, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Nielsen, Anna
    Department of Global Public Health, Karolinska Institutet, Tomtebodavägen 18a, Widerströmska Huset, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zeebari, Zangin
    Department of Global Public Health, Karolinska Institutet, Tomtebodavägen 18a, Widerströmska Huset, Stockholm, Sweden; Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping University, Gjuterigatan 5, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Salazar, Mariano
    Department of Global Public Health, Karolinska Institutet, Tomtebodavägen 18a, Widerströmska Huset, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Cognitive social capital as a health-enabling factor for STI testing among young men in Stockholm, Sweden: A cross-sectional population-based study2023In: Heliyon, E-ISSN 2405-8440, Vol. 9, no 10, article id e20812Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To assess whether different forms of cognitive social capital increased the relative probability of testing for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among young men living in Stockholm, Sweden.

    Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 2017 with men aged 20–29 years living in Stockholm County, Sweden (n = 523). The main outcome was STI testing patterns (never tested, tested only within a 12-month period, tested only beyond a 12-month period, repeatedly tested). The main exposure were two forms of cognitive social capital: social support (having received help, having someone to share inner feelings with) and institutionalized trust (in school, healthcare, media). Data were analyzed using weighted multivariable multinomial logistic regression to obtain adjusted weighted relative probability ratio (aRPR).

    Results: After adjusting for confounding factors, receiving help (aRPR: 5.2, 95% CI: 1.7–16.2) and having someone to share inner feelings with (aRPR: 3.1, 95% CI: 1.2–7.7) increased the relative probabilities of young men testing for STIs, but only for those testing beyond a 12-month period. Trust in media increased the relative probability of STI testing for those testing only within a 12-month period (aRPR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.1–6.1) and for those testing repeatedly (aRPR: 3.6, 95% CI: 1.5–8.8).

    Conclusion: Young men in Stockholm County exhibit distinct STI testing patterns. Social support and trust in media were factors that increased the probability of being tested for STIs, with this effect varying according to the young men's STI testing pattern. Further studies are required to explore how trust in media might promote STI testing in this population.

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  • 5.
    Dömötör, Zsuzsanna
    et al.
    Institute of Health Promotion and Sport Sciences, ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary.
    Ruzsa, Gábor
    Doctoral School of Psychology, ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary; Department of Statistics, Corvinus University of Budapest, Budapest, Hungary.
    Thuróczy, György
    National Public Health Center, National Research Institute for Radiobiology and Radiohygiene, Budapest, Hungary.
    Necz, Péter P.
    National Public Health Center, National Research Institute for Radiobiology and Radiohygiene, Budapest, Hungary.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Köteles, Ferenc
    Institute of Health Promotion and Sport Sciences, ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary.
    Szemerszky, Renáta
    Institute of Health Promotion and Sport Sciences, ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary.
    An idiographic approach to Idiopathic Environmental Intolerance attributed to Electromagnetic Fields (IEI-EMF) Part II. Ecological momentary assessment of three individuals with severe IEI-EMF2022In: Heliyon, E-ISSN 2405-8440, Vol. 8, no 5, article id e09421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    IEI-EMF refers to a self-reported sensitivity characterized by attribution of non-specific physical symptoms to exposure to weak EMFs. The majority of empirical results do not support the existence of a causal relationship between EMF and IEI-EMF. However, this conclusion was drawn from environmental and experimental studies that are not without methodological limitations. In the current study, as part of a complex biopsychosocial approach, an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) protocol was applied for the investigation of the temporal relationship between actual radio frequency (RF) EMF exposure and IEI-EMF, at the individual level. Continuous measurement of autonomic variables by holter electrocardiogram (ECG) monitors and the ambient RF EMF by personal dosimeters, as well as repeated (8/day) paper-and-pencil assessments of momentary internal states (symptoms, mood, perceived EMF intensity) and situational factors was conducted for 21 days with the participation of three individuals with severe IEI-EMF. Temporal relationships were examined by time series analyses. For two participants, the results did not support the association between the suspected EMF frequency range(s) and symptom reports. Nevertheless, the results revealed a reverse association with respect to another frequency range (GSM900 downlink), which contradicts the IEI-EMF condition. Autonomic activation related findings were inconsistent. For the third participant, the claimed association was partly supported, both for symptom reports and autonomic reactions (UMTS downlink, total RF; RMS values). The findings of this study suggest that IEI-EMF does not have a unitary aetiology. For certain individuals, a biophysical background cannot be excluded, whereas no such underlying factor appears to be at work for others. EMA is a useful method for the investigation of the aetiology of IEI-EMF.

  • 6.
    Hussain, Nadia
    et al.
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Al Ain University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates.
    Ikram, Nadia
    Faculty of Pharmacy, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, Pakistan.
    Khan, Kashif ur Rehman
    Faculty of Pharmacy, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, Pakistan.
    Hussain, Liaqat
    Department of Pharmacology, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan.
    Alqahtani, Ali M.
    Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia.
    Alqahtani, Taha
    Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia.
    Hussain, Musaddique
    Faculty of Pharmacy, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, Pakistan.
    Suliman, Muath
    Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 61413, Abha, Saudi Arabia.
    Alshahrani, Mohammad Y.
    Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 61413, Abha, Saudi Arabia.
    Sitohy, Basel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Immunology.
    Cichorium intybus L. significantly alleviates cigarette smoke-induced acute lung injury by lowering NF-κB pathway activation and inflammatory mediators2023In: Heliyon, E-ISSN 2405-8440, Vol. 9, no 11, article id e22055Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Cigarette smoke (CS) is one of the primary causes of acute lung injury (ALI) via provoking pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress. Despite substantial studies, no effective treatment for ALI is presently available.

    Purpose: New prospective treatment options for ALI are required. Thus, this project was designed to investigate the in vivo and in vitro protective effects of 70 % methanolic-aqueous crude extract of whole plant of Cichorium intybus (Ci.Mce) against CS-induced ALI.

    Study design: /methods: Initially, male Swiss albino mice were subjected to whole-body CS exposure for 10 continuous days to prepare CS-induced ALI models. Normal saline (10 mL/kg), Ci.Mce (100, 200, 300 mg/kg), and Dexamethasone (1 mg/kg) were orally administered to respective animal groups 1 h prior to CS-exposure. 24 hrs after the last CS-exposure, BALF and lungs were harvested to study the key characteristics of ALI. Next, HPLC analysis was done to explore the phytoconstituents.

    Results: Ci.Mce exhibited significant reductions in lung macrophage and neutrophil infiltration, lung weight coefficient, and albumin exudation. Additionally, it effectively ameliorated lung histopathological alterations and hypoxemia. Notably, Ci.Mce exerted inhibitory effects on the excessive generation of IL-6, IL-1β, and KC in both CS-induced ALI murine models and CSE-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Noteworthy benefits included the attenuation of oxidative stress induced by CS, evidenced by decreased levels of MDA, TOS, and MPO, alongside enhanced TAC production. Furthermore, Ci.Mce demonstrated a marked reduction in CS-induced NF-κB expression, both in vivo and in vitro.

    Conclusion: Consequently, Cichorium intybus could be a therapeutic option for CS-induced ALI due to its ability to suppress inflammatory reactions, mitigate oxidative stress, and quell NF-κB p65 activation.

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  • 7. Johannsen, A.
    et al.
    Emilson, C. -G
    Johannsen, G.
    Konradsson, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Lingström, P.
    Ramberg, P.
    Effects of stabilized stannous fluoride dentifrice on dental calculus, dental plaque, gingivitis, halitosis and stain: A systematic review2019In: Heliyon, E-ISSN 2405-8440, Vol. 5, no 12, article id e02850Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aim of the present systematic review was to examine the scientific evidence for the efficacy of stabilized stannous fluoride (SnF2) dentifrice in relation to dental calculus, dental plaque, gingivitis, halitosis and staining.

    Data and sources: Medline OVID, Embase.com, and the Cochrane Library were searched from database inception until June 2017. Six researchers independently selected studies, extracted data, and assessed methodological quality. A meta-analysis of the 6-month gingivitis studies was done. Risk of bias was estimated using a checklist from the Swedish Agency for Health Technology Assessment (SBU, 2018).

    Study selection: Two studies on dental calculus, 21 on dental plaque and gingivitis, 4 on halitosis, and 5 on stain met the inclusion criteria. Risk of bias was high for the studies on dental calculus, halitosis, and stain, and varied for the dental plaque and gingivitis studies. Significant reductions in dental calculus and in halitosis were reported for the SnF2 dentifrice; no differences in stain reduction were noted. A meta-analysis on gingivitis found better results for the SnF2 dentifrice compared to other dentifrices, though the results of the individual trials in the meta-analyses showed a substantial heterogeneity.

    Conclusions: The present review found that stabilized SnF2 toothpaste had a positive effect on the reduction of dental calculus build-up, dental plaque, gingivitis, stain and halitosis. A tendency towards a more pronounced effect than using toothpastes not containing SnF2 was found. However, a new generation of well conducted randomized trials are needed to further support these findings.

    Clinical relevance: Adding a SnF2 toothpaste to the daily oral care routine is an easy strategy that may have multiple oral health benefits.

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  • 8. Kobrai-Abkenar, Faeze
    et al.
    Pourghane, Parand
    Jafarzadeh-Kenarsari, Fatemeh
    Roushan, Zahra Atrkar
    Edvardsson, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. chool of Nursing and Midwifery, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Psychometric properties of the Persian language person-centered climate questionnaire - Patient version (PCQ-P)2020In: Heliyon, E-ISSN 2405-8440, Vol. 6, no 10, article id e05154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Person-centered care is a valuable approach to improve the quality of care of the elderly and is a starting point for maintaining the dignity of people needing care.

    Objectives: This study aimed at translation, cultural adaptation, and validation of the Persian version of the Person centered Climate Questionnaire-Patient questionnaire in elderly patients admitted to the Eastern Guilan hospitals from 2017-2018.

    Design: This research was a cross-sectional study. The Persian version of Person-centered Climate Questionnaire-Patient version was completed by 200 older adults admitted to different wards of the hospitals. They were selected through convenient sampling. Data were collected in 5 hospitals affiliated to Guilan University of Medical Sciences, East of Guilan located in the north of Iran, from November 2017 to February 2018.

    Methods: This study was carried out in two phases. In the first phase, the original questionnaire with 17 items was translated from English into Persian using Forward-Backward translation method. In the second phase, the psychometric properties of the questionnaire were evaluated using face, content, and construct validity, as well as reliability (internal consistency and stability). Data were analyzed via SPSS software v.16.

    Results: The results of exploratory factor analysis (EFA) led to retaining 17 items with three factors of "Safety","Hospitality", and "Everydayness" which explained 47.69% of the total variance. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was calculated for each factor (0.85, 0.70, and 0.64, respectively) as well as the whole instrument (0.85), to ensure internal consistency. Stability was confirmed by calculating the intra-class correlation coefficient as 0.99.

    Conclusions: The current study found support for assessing the person-centered climate from the perspective of the elderly patients by using the Persian version of the Person-centered Climate Questionnaire-Patient that has an appropriate cultural adaptation, validity, and reliability.

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  • 9.
    Kumari, Kanchan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). CSIR-Institute of Minerals & Materials Technology, Odisha, India.
    Chainy, Gagan B. N.
    Subudhi, Umakanta
    Prospective role of thyroid disorders in monitoring COVID-19 pandemic2020In: Heliyon, E-ISSN 2405-8440, Vol. 6, no 12, article id e05712Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    COVID-19 pandemic has affected more than 200 countries and 1.3 million individuals have deceased within eleven months. Intense research on COVID-19 occurrence and prevalence enable us to understand that comorbidities play a crucial role in spread and severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Chronic kidney disease, diabetes,respiratory diseases and hypertension are among the various morbidities that are prevalent in symptomatic COVID-19 patients. However, the effect of altered thyroid-driven disorders cannot be ignored. Since thyroid hormone critically coordinate and regulate the major metabolism and biochemical pathways, this review is on the potential role of prevailing thyroid disorders in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Direct link of thyroid hormone with several disorders such as diabetes, vitamin D deficiency, obesity, kidney and liver disorders etc. suggests that the prevailing thyroid conditions may affect SARS-CoV-2 infection. Further, we discuss the oxidative stress-induced aging is associated with the degree of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Importantly, ACE2 protein which facilitates the host-cell entry of SARS-CoV-2 using the spike protein, are highly expressed in individuals with abnormal level of thyroid hormone. Altogether, we report that the malfunction of thyroid hormone synthesis may aggravate SARS-CoV-2 infection and thus monitoring the thyroid hormone may help in understanding the pathogenesis of COVID-19.

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  • 10.
    Meijer, Laura L.
    et al.
    Department of Surgery, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Vaalavuo, Yrjö
    Department of Gastroenterology and Alimentary Tract Surgery, Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland.
    Regnér, Sara
    Department of Surgery, Institution of Clinical Sciences Malmö, Skåne University Hospital, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Sallinen, Ville
    Transplantation and Liver Surgery, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Finland; Gastroenterological Surgery, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Finland.
    Lemma, Aurora
    Gastroenterological Surgery, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Finland.
    Arnelo, Urban
    Department of Upper Gastrointestinal Diseases, Karolinska University Hospital and CLINTEC, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden and Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences/Surgery, Umeå University, Stockholm, Umeå, Sweden.
    Valente, Roberto
    Department of Upper Gastrointestinal Diseases, Karolinska University Hospital and CLINTEC, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden and Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences/Surgery, Umeå University, Stockholm, Umeå, Sweden.
    Westermark, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    An, David
    Department of Surgery, Linköping University and Department of Surgery, Vasterviks Sjukhus, Vastervik, Sweden.
    Moir, John A.G.
    Department of HPB and Transplant Surgery, Freeman Hospital, Newcastle Upon Tyne, United Kingdom.
    Irwin, Ellen A.
    Department of HPB and Transplant Surgery, Freeman Hospital, Newcastle Upon Tyne, United Kingdom.
    Biesel, Esther A.
    Center of Surgery, Department of General and Visceral Surgery, Medical Center - University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, Freiburg, Germany.
    Hopt, Ulrich T.
    Center of Surgery, Department of General and Visceral Surgery, Medical Center - University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, Freiburg, Germany.
    Fichtner-Feigl, Stefan
    Center of Surgery, Department of General and Visceral Surgery, Medical Center - University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, Freiburg, Germany.
    Wittel, Uwe A.
    Center of Surgery, Department of General and Visceral Surgery, Medical Center - University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, Freiburg, Germany.
    Weniger, Maximilian
    Department of General, Visceral and Transplantation Surgery, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany.
    Karle, Henning
    Department of General, Visceral and Transplantation Surgery, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany.
    Bloemers, Frank W.
    Department of Trauma Surgery, Amsterdam UMC, Univ(ersity) of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Sutton, Robert
    Department of Pancreatic Surgery, Liverpool University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust and Department of Clinical and Molecular Cancer Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom.
    Charnley, Richard M.
    Department of HPB and Transplant Surgery, Freeman Hospital, Newcastle Upon Tyne, United Kingdom.
    Ruess, Dietrich A.
    Center of Surgery, Department of General and Visceral Surgery, Medical Center - University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, Freiburg, Germany.
    Szatmary, Peter
    Department of Pancreatic Surgery, Liverpool University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust and Department of Clinical and Molecular Cancer Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom.
    Clinical characteristics and long-term outcomes following pancreatic injury: an international multicenter cohort study2023In: Heliyon, E-ISSN 2405-8440, Vol. 9, no 6, article id e17436Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Trauma to the pancreas is rare but associated with significant morbidity. Currently available management guidelines are based on low-quality evidence and data on long-term outcomes is lacking. This study aimed to evaluate clinical characteristics and patient-reported long-term outcomes for pancreatic injury.

    Methods: A retrospective cohort study evaluating treatment for pancreatic injury in 11 centers across 5 European nations over >10 years was performed. Data relating to pancreatic injury and treatment were collected from hospital records. Patients reported quality of life (QoL), changes to employment and new or ongoing therapy due to index injury.

    Results: In all, 165 patients were included. The majority were male (70.9%), median age was 27 years (range: 6–93) and mechanism of injury predominantly blunt (87.9%). A quarter of cases were treated conservatively; higher injury severity score (ISS) and American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) pancreatic injury scores increased the likelihood for surgical, endoscopic and/or radiologic intervention. Isolated, blunt pancreatic injury was associated with younger age and pancreatic duct involvement; this cohort appeared to benefit from non-operative management. In the long term (median follow-up 93; range 8–214 months), exocrine and endocrine pancreatic insufficiency were reported by 9.3% of respondents. Long-term analgesic use also affected 9.3% of respondents, with many reported quality of life problems (QoL) potentially attributable to side-effects of opiate therapy. Overall, impaired QoL correlated with higher ISS scores, surgical therapy and opioid analgesia on discharge.

    Conclusions: Pancreatic trauma is rare but can lead to substantial short- and long-term morbidity. Near complete recovery of QoL indicators and pancreatic function can occur despite significant injury, especially in isolated, blunt pancreatic injury managed conservatively and when early weaning off opiate analgesia is achieved.

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  • 11.
    Ndagijimana, Albert
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics. University of Rwanda, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Kigali, Rwanda.
    Nduwayezu, Gilbert
    Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Centre for Geographical Information Systems, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; University of Rwanda, College of Sciences and Technology, Centre for Geographic Information Sciences, Kigali, Rwanda.
    Kagoyire, Clarisse
    Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Centre for Geographical Information Systems, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; University of Rwanda, College of Sciences and Technology, Centre for Geographic Information Sciences, Kigali, Rwanda.
    Elfving, Kristina
    School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Gothenburg University and the Queen Silvia's Children Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Umubyeyi, Aline
    University of Rwanda, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Kigali, Rwanda.
    Mansourian, Ali
    Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Centre for Geographical Information Systems, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Lind, Torbjörn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Childhood stunting is highly clustered in northern province of Rwanda: a spatial analysis of a population-based study2024In: Heliyon, E-ISSN 2405-8440, Vol. 10, no 2, article id e24922Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In Northern Province, Rwanda, stunting is common among children aged under 5 years. However, previous studies on spatial analysis of childhood stunting in Rwanda did not assess its randomness and clustering, and none were conducted in Northern Province. We conducted a spatial-pattern analysis of childhood undernutrition to identify stunting clusters and hotspots for targeted interventions in Northern Province.

    Methods: Using a household population-based questionnaire survey of the characteristics and causes of undernutrition in households with biological mothers of children aged 1–36 months, we collected anthropometric measurements of the children and their mothers and captured the coordinates of the households. Descriptive statistics were computed for the sociodemographic characteristics and anthropometric measurements. Spatial patterns of childhood stunting were determined using global and local Moran's I and Getis-Ord Gi* statistics, and the corresponding maps were produced.

    Results: The z-scores of the three anthropometric measurements were normally distributed, but the z-scores of height-for-age were generally lower than those of weight-for-age and weight-for-height, prompting us to focus on height-for-age for the spatial analysis. The estimated incidence of stunting among 601 children aged 1–36 months was 27.1 %. The sample points were interpolated to the administrative level of the sector. The global Moran's I was positive and significant (Moran's I = 0.403, p < 0.001, z-score = 7.813), indicating clustering of childhood stunting across different sectors of Northern Province. The local Moran's I and hotspot analysis based on the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic showed statistically significant hotspots, which were strongest within Musanze district, followed by Gakenke and Gicumbi districts.

    Conclusion: Childhood stunting in Northern Province showed statistically significant hotspots in Musanze, Gakenke, and Gicumbi districts. Factors associated with such clusters and hotspots should be assessed to identify possible geographically targeted interventions.

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  • 12.
    Ryberg, Mathias
    et al.
    Institute of Sports Medicine Copenhagen (ISMC), Copenhagen University Hospital – Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Institute of Sports Medicine Copenhagen (ISMC), Copenhagen University Hospital – Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg, Copenhagen, Denmark; Danish Research Center for Magnetic Resonance, Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital – Amager and Hvidovre, Hvidovre, Denmark; Department of Neurology, Copenhagen University Hospital - Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg, Copenhagen, Denmark; Institute for Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Kjaer, Michael
    Institute of Sports Medicine Copenhagen (ISMC), Copenhagen University Hospital – Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg, Copenhagen NV, Denmark;Institute for Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; Center for Healthy Aging, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Demnitz, Naiara
    Danish Research Center for Magnetic Resonance, Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital – Amager and Hvidovre, Hvidovre, Denmark.
    Effects of acute physical activity on brain metabolites as measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in humans: a systematic review2023In: Heliyon, E-ISSN 2405-8440, Vol. 9, no 10, article id e20534Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Physical activity (PA) promotes brain health in a variety of domains including cognition, mood, and neuroplasticity. At the neurochemical level, the mechanisms underlying these effects in the brain are not fully understood. With proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1H-MRS), it is possible to non-invasively quantify metabolite concentrations, enabling studies to obtain measures of exercise-induced neurochemical changes. This systematic review aimed to examine the existing literature on acute effects of PA on brain metabolites as measured by 1H-MRS. Four databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, Embase, and PsycINFO) were searched, identifying 2965 studies, of which 9 met the inclusion criteria. Across studies, Gamma-AminoButyric Acid (GABA) and lactate tended to increase after exercise, while no significant changes in choline were reported. For glutamine/glutamate (Glx), studies were inconclusive. Conclusions were limited by the lack of consensus on 1H-MRS data processing and exercise protocols. To reduce inter-study differences, future studies are recommended to: (1) apply a standardized exercise index, (2) consider the onset time of MRS scans, and (3) follow standardized MRS quantification methods.

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  • 13.
    Schiffthaler, Bastian
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    van Zalen, Elena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Serrano, Alonso R.
    Department of Plant Physiology, Umeå Plant Science Center, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Street, Nathaniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Delhomme, Nicolas
    Department of Plant Physiology, Umeå Plant Science Center, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Seiðr: Efficient calculation of robust ensemble gene networks2023In: Heliyon, E-ISSN 2405-8440, Vol. 9, no 6, article id e16811Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gene regulatory and gene co-expression networks are powerful research tools for identifying biological signal within high-dimensional gene expression data. In recent years, research has focused on addressing shortcomings of these techniques with regard to the low signal-to-noise ratio, non-linear interactions and dataset dependent biases of published methods. Furthermore, it has been shown that aggregating networks from multiple methods provides improved results. Despite this, few useable and scalable software tools have been implemented to perform such best-practice analyses. Here, we present Seidr (stylized Seiðr), a software toolkit designed to assist scientists in gene regulatory and gene co-expression network inference. Seidr creates community networks to reduce algorithmic bias and utilizes noise corrected network backboning to prune noisy edges in the networks.

    Using benchmarks in real-world conditions across three eukaryotic model organisms, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Drosophila melanogaster, and Arabidopsis thaliana, we show that individual algorithms are biased toward functional evidence for certain gene-gene interactions. We further demonstrate that the community network is less biased, providing robust performance across different standards and comparisons for the model organisms.

    Finally, we apply Seidr to a network of drought stress in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Krast) as an example application in a non-model species. We demonstrate the use of a network inferred using Seidr for identifying key components, communities and suggesting gene function for non-annotated genes.

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  • 14.
    Sorjonen, Kimmo
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Melin, Bo
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Diminishing returns as a function of the association between within-individual average performance and variance2021In: Heliyon, E-ISSN 2405-8440, Vol. 7, no 5, article id e06989Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been demonstrated that the worst performance rule (WPR) effect can occur as a result of statistical dependencies in the data. Here, we examine whether this might also be the case for Spearman's law of diminishing returns (SLODR). Two proposed SLODR criteria are the skewness of the estimated latent ability factor and the correlation between this latent ability and within-individual residual variance. Using four publicly available datasets, covering quite different dimensions of behavior, we show that both these criteria are affected by the correlation between within-individual average performance and variance on the test scores. However, the influence of this correlation on the two criteria goes in opposite directions, which suggests that it generally might be difficult to get results that unambiguously support SLODR. These results might have far-reaching implications for the literature, to the extent that various research findings attributed to human cognitive functioning might in fact be due to trivial statistical dependencies in data. This is an important issue to address for future research.

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