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  • 1. Hu, Z Y
    et al.
    Liu, Y X
    Liu, K
    Byrne, S
    Ny, Tor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Feng, Q
    Ockleford, C D
    Expression of tissue type and urokinase type plasminogen activators as well as plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 and type-2 in human and rhesus monkey placenta.1999In: Journal of Anatomy, ISSN 0021-8782, E-ISSN 1469-7580, Vol. 194 ( Pt 2), p. 183-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The distribution of mRNAs and antigens of tissue type (t) and urokinase type (u) plasminogen activators (PA) plus their corresponding inhibitors, type-1 (PAI-1) and type-2 (PAI-2) were studied in human and rhesus monkey placentae by in situ hybridisation and immunocytochemistry. Specific monkey cRNA and antibodies against human tPA, uPA, PAI-1 and PAI-2 were used as probes. The following results were obtained. (1) All the molecules tPA, uPA, PAI-1 and PAI-2 and their mRNAs were identified in the majority of the extravillous cytotrophoblast cells of the decidual layer between Rohr's and Nitabuch's striae and in cytotrophoblast cells of the chorionic plate, basal plate, intercotyledonary septae and cytotrophoblast cells of the chorionic villous tree. (2) Expression of uPA and PAI-2 was noted in villous trophoblast whereas tPA and PAI-1 were mainly concentrated where detachment from maternal tissue occurs. (3) No expression of tPA, uPA, PAI-1 and PAI-2 was observed in the basal plate endometrial stromal cells, chorionic plate connective tissue cells, septal endometrial stromal cells or villous core mesenchyme. (4) The distribution of probes observed following in situ hybridisation is generally consistent with the immunofluorescence pattern of the corresponding antigens and no significant interspecies differences were noted. It is possible that both decidual and extravillous trophoblast cells of placentae of human and rhesus monkey are capable of producing tPA, uPA, PAI-1 and PAI-2 to differing extents. Coordinated expression of these genes in the tissue may play an essential role in the maintenance of normal placentation and parturition. The differences in distribution we observed are consistent with the suggestion that coordinated expression of tPA and its inhibitor PAI-1 may play a key role in fibrinolytic activity in the early stages of placentation and separation of placenta from maternal tissue at term. On the other hand, uPA with its inhibitor PAI-2 appears mainly to play a role in degradation of trophoblast cell-associated extracellular matrix, and thus may be of greatest importance during early stages of placentation.

  • 2. Huisman, Elise S.
    et al.
    Andersson, Gustav
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Scott, Alexander
    Reno, Carol R.
    Hart, David A.
    Thornton, Gail M.
    Regional molecular and cellular differences in the female rabbit Achilles tendon complex: potential implications for understanding responses to loading2014In: Journal of Anatomy, ISSN 0021-8782, E-ISSN 1469-7580, Vol. 224, no 5, p. 538-547Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was: (i) to analyze the morphology and expression of extracellular matrix genes in six different regions of the Achilles tendon complex of intact normal rabbits; and (ii) to assess the effect of ovariohysterectomy (OVH) on the regional expression of these genes. Female New Zealand White rabbits were separated into two groups: (i) intact normal rabbits (n = 4); and (ii) OVH rabbits (n = 8). For each rabbit, the Achilles tendon complex was dissected into six regions: distal gastrocnemius (DG); distal flexor digitorum superficialis; proximal lateral gastrocnemius (PLG); proximal medial gastrocnemius; proximal flexor digitorum superficialis; and paratenon. For each of the regions, hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed for histological evaluation of intact normal rabbit tissues and mRNA levels for proteoglycans, collagens and genes associated with collagen regulation were assessed by real-time reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction for both the intact normal and OVH rabbit tissues. The distal regions displayed a more fibrocartilaginous phenotype. For intact normal rabbits, aggrecan mRNA expression was higher in the distal regions of the Achilles tendon complex compared with the proximal regions. Collagen Type I and matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression levels were increased in the PLG compared to the DG in the intact normal rabbit tissues. The tendons from OVH rabbits had lower gene expressions for the proteoglycans aggrecan, biglycan, decorin and versican compared with the intact normal rabbits, although the regional differences of increased aggrecan expression in distal regions compared with proximal regions persisted. The tensile and compressive forces experienced in the examined regions may be related to the regional differences found in gene expression. The lower mRNA expression of the genes examined in the OVH group confirms a potential effect of systemic estrogen on tendon.

  • 3.
    Mohanna, P N
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Hand Surgery. University of Manchester.
    Young, R C
    University of Manchester.
    Wiberg, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Hand Surgery.
    Terenghi, G
    University of Manchester.
    A composite poly-hydroxybutyrate-glial growth factor conduit for long nerve gap repairs2003In: Journal of Anatomy, ISSN 0021-8782, E-ISSN 1469-7580, Vol. 203, no 6, p. 553-565Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is considerable evidence that peripheral nerves have the potential to regenerate in an appropriate microenvironment. We have developed a novel artificial nerve guide composed of poly 3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) filled with glial growth factor (GGF) suspended in alginate hydrogel. Gaps of 2-4 cm in rabbit common peroneal nerve were bridged using a PHB conduit containing either GGF in alginate hydrogel (GGF) or alginate alone (Alginate), or with an empty PHB conduit (Empty). Tissues were harvested 21, 42 and 63 days post-operatively. Schwann cell and axonal regeneration were assessed using quantitative immunohistochemistry. At 21 days, addition of GGF increased significantly the distance of axonal and Schwann cells regeneration in comparison with that observed in Alginate and Empty conduits for both gap lengths. The axons bridged the 2-cm GGF conduits gap by 63 days, with a comparable rate of regeneration seen in 4-cm conduits. Schwann cells and axonal regeneration quantity was similar for both gap lengths in each group. However, at all time points the quantity of axonal and Schwann cells regeneration in GGF grafts was significantly greater than in both Alginate and Empty conduits, the latter showing better regeneration than Alginate conduits. The results indicate an inhibitory effect of alginate on regeneration, which is partially reversed by the addition of GGF to the conduits. In conclusion, GGF stimulates a progressive and sustainable regeneration increase in long nerve gap conduits.

  • 4.
    Radovanovic, Dina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Peikert, Kevin
    Lindström, Mona
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Pedrosa Domellöf, Fatima
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Ophthalmology.
    Sympathetic innervation of human muscle spindles2015In: Journal of Anatomy, ISSN 0021-8782, E-ISSN 1469-7580, Vol. 226, no 6, p. 542-548Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of sympathetic innervation in human muscle spindles, using antibodies against neuropeptide Y (NPY), NPY receptors and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). A total of 232 muscle spindles were immunohistochemically examined. NPY and NPY receptors were found on the intrafusal fibers, on the blood vessels supplying muscle spindles and on free nerve endings in the periaxial space. TH-immunoreactivity was present mainly in the spindle nerve and vessel. This is, to our knowledge, the first morphological study concerning the sympathetic innervation of the human muscle spindles. The results provide anatomical evidence for direct sympathetic innervation of the intrafusal fibers and show that sympathetic innervation is not restricted to the blood vessels supplying spindles. Knowledge about direct sympathetic innervation of the muscle spindle might expand our understanding of motor and proprioceptive dysfunction under stress conditions, for example, chronic muscle pain syndromes.

  • 5.
    Shah, Farhan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Berggren, Diana
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Otorhinolaryngology.
    Holmlund, Thorbjörn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Otorhinolaryngology.
    Levring Jäghagen, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Stål, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Unique expression of cytoskeletal proteins in human soft palate muscles2016In: Journal of Anatomy, ISSN 0021-8782, E-ISSN 1469-7580, Vol. 228, no 3, p. 487-494Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The human oropharyngeal muscles have a unique anatomy with diverse and intricate functions. To investigate if this specialization is also reflected in the cytoarchitecture of muscle fibers, intermediate filament proteins and the dystrophin-associated protein complex have been analyzed in two human palate muscles, musculus uvula (UV) and musculus palatopharyngeus (PP), with immunohistochenmical and morphological techniques. Human limb muscles were used as reference. The findings show that the soft palate muscle fibers have a cytoskeletal architecture that differs from the limb muscles. While all limb muscles showed immunoreaction for a panel of antibodies directed against different domains of cytoskeletal proteins desmin and dystrophin, a subpopulation of palate muscle fibers lacked or had a faint immunoreaction for desmin (UV 11.7% and PP 9.8%) and the C-terminal of the dystrophin molecule (UV 4.2% and PP 6.4%). The vast majority of these fibers expressed slow contractile protein myosin heavy chain I. Furthermore, an unusual staining pattern was also observed in these fibers for β-dystroglycan, caveolin-3 and neuronal nitric oxide synthase nNOS, which are all membrane-linking proteins associated with the dystrophin C-terminus. While the immunoreaction for nNOS was generally weak or absent, β-dystroglycan and caveolin-3 showed a stronger immunostaining. The absence or a low expression of cytoskeletal proteins otherwise considered ubiquitous and important for integration and contraction of muscle cells indicate a unique cytoarchitecture designed to meet the intricate demands of the upper airway muscles. It can be concluded that a subgroup of muscle fibers in the human soft palate appears to have special biomechanical properties, and their unique cytoarchitecture must be taken into account while assessing function and pathology in oropharyngeal muscles.

  • 6.
    Stål, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Lindman, R
    Clinic of Orthodontics and Postgraduate Education and Department of Orthodontics, Malmö University, Malmö.
    Characterisation of human soft palate muscles with respect to fibre types, myosins and capillary supply.2000In: Journal of Anatomy, ISSN 0021-8782, E-ISSN 1469-7580, Vol. 197 ( Pt 2), p. 275-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Four human soft palate muscles, and palatopharyngeus, the uvula, the levator and tensor veli palatini were examined using enzyme-histochemical, immunohistochemical and biochemical methods and compared with human limb and facial muscles. Our results showed that each palate muscle had a distinct morphological identity and that they generally shared more similarities with facial than limb muscles. The palatopharyngeus and uvula muscles contained 2 of the highest proportions of type II fibres ever reported for human muscles. In contrast, the levator and tensor veli palatini muscles contained predominantly type I fibres. A fetal myosin heavy chain isoform (MyHC), not usually found in normal adult limb muscles, was present in a small number of fibres in all palate muscles. The mean muscle fibre diameter was smaller than in limb muscles and the individual and intramuscular variability in diameter and shape was considerable. All palate muscles had a high capillary density and an unusually high mitochondrial enzyme activity in the type II fibres, in comparison with limb muscles. No ordinary muscle spindles were observed. The fibre type and MyHC composition indicate that the palatopharyngeus and uvula muscles are functionally involved in quick movements whereas the levator and tensor veli palatini muscles perform slower and more continuous contractions. The high aerobic capacity and the rich capillarisation suggest that the palate muscles are relatively fatigue resistant. Absence of ordinary muscle spindles indicates a special proprioceptive control system. The special morphology of the palate muscles may be partly related to the unique anatomy with only one skeletal insertion, a feature consistent with muscle work at low load and tension and which may influence the cytoarchitecture of these muscles. Other important factors determining the special morphological characteristics might be specific functional requirements, distinct embryological origin and phylogenetic factors.

  • 7.
    Thornell, Lars-Eric
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Carlsson, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Eriksson, Per-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology.
    Liu, Jing-Xia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Österlund, Catharina
    Stål, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Pedrosa-Domellöf, Fatima
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Fibre typing of intrafusal fibres2015In: Journal of Anatomy, ISSN 0021-8782, E-ISSN 1469-7580, Vol. 227, no 2, p. 136-156Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The first descriptions of muscle spindles with intrafusal fibres containing striated myofibrils and nervous elements were given approximately 150years ago. It took, however, another 100years to establish the presence of two types of intrafusal muscle fibres: nuclear bag and nuclear chain fibres. The present paper highlights primarily the contribution of Robert Banks in fibre typing of intrafusal fibres: the confirmation of the principle of two types of nuclear bag fibres in mammalian spindles and the variation in occurrence of a dense M-band along the fibres. Furthermore, this paper summarizes how studies from the Umea University group (Laboratory of Muscle Biology in the Department of Integrative Medical Biology) on fibre typing and the structure and composition of M-bands have contributed to the current understanding of muscle spindle complexity in adult humans as well as to muscle spindle development and effects of ageing. The variable molecular composition of the intrafusal sarcomeres with respect to myosin heavy chains and M-band proteins gives new perspectives on the role of the intrafusal myofibrils as stretch-activated sensors influencing tension/stiffness and signalling to nuclei.

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