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  • 1.
    Holmgren, Marie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Sellstedt, Anita
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Identification of white-rot and soft-rot fungi increasing ethanol production from spent sulfite liquor in co-culture with Saccharomyces cerevisiae2008In: Journal of Applied Microbiology, ISSN 1364-5072, E-ISSN 1365-2672, Vol. 105, no 1, p. 134-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To identify fungi that are capable of increasing ethanol production from lignocellulose in spent sulfite liquor.

    Methods and Results: In a batch fermentation study, the fungal mix could produce 24·61 g l−1 ethanol using spent sulfite liquor as substrate. The fungal mix grew well on glucose, xylose, hemicellulose and cellulose. In addition, we were able to identify the fungal mix by use of PCR-amplification of DNA and sequencing, and they were identified as Chalara parvispora and Trametes hirsuta/T. versicolor. In a reconstitution study, the identified fungi were shown to produce equal amount of ethanol as the fungal mix. We were also able to show that C. parvispora could produce ethanol from xylose.

    Conclusion: The present study has shown that ethanol production from biomass can be increased by use of C. parvispora and T. versicolor when compared with fermentation using only S. cerevisiae.

    Significance and Impact of the Study: The study shows that refining biomass by ethanol production from spent sulfite liquor, a lignocellulose material, can be increased by adding C. parvispora and T. versicolor, and it is thus of great potential economical impact.

  • 2. Rivera, L.
    et al.
    Lopez-Patino, M. A.
    Milton, Debra L.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Nieto, T. P.
    Farto, R.
    Effective qPCR methodology to quantify the expression of virulence genes in Aeromonas salmonicida subsp salmonicida2015In: Journal of Applied Microbiology, ISSN 1364-5072, E-ISSN 1365-2672, Vol. 118, no 4, p. 792-802Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims This study aimed to select and validate different methodological strategies to quantify the expression of the virulence genes ascC and ascV by qPCR in Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida (Aer. salmonicida). Methods and Results Using the geNorm, Normfinder and BestKeeper algorithms, reference genes for the qPCR were selected based on their in vitro expression stabilities in three Aer. salmonicida strains. Gene amplification efficiency was calculated by Real-time PCR Miner and LinReg PCR programmes, which have not been used previously in the analysis of bacterial gene expression. The expression of the ascC and ascV virulence genes in a virulent Aer. salmonicida strain was evaluated by three quantification models, including single (least or most stable) or three most stable reference genes, combined with constant or specific gene amplification efficiency. The most stable reference genes were gyrB, proC and rpoC, while rpoD and fabD were the least stable. Quantification models showed different expression patterns. Conclusions The optimal strategy to quantify mRNA expression was to use a combination of the three algorithms and the quantification model including the three most stable reference genes. Real-time PCR Miner or LinReg PCR were valuable tools to estimate amplification efficiency. Significance and Impact of the Study The methods used in this study gave more reliable expression data using qPCR than previously published methods. The quantification and expression dynamics of virulence genes will contribute to a better understanding of how Aer. salmonicida interacts with its host and the environment, and therefore to the prevention of epizootics due to this pathogen.

  • 3.
    Valeriano, Valerie Diane
    et al.
    Dankook University, Republic of Korea.
    Parungao-Balolong, Marilen
    Dankook University, Republic of Korea; University of the Philippines-Manila, Philippines.
    Kang, Dae-Kyung
    Dankook University, Republic of Korea.
    Probiotic Roles of Lactobacillus spp. in Swine: Insights from Gut Microbiota2017In: Journal of Applied Microbiology, ISSN 1364-5072, E-ISSN 1365-2672, Vol. 122, no 3, p. 554-567Article, review/survey (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of lactobacilli as probiotics in swine has been gaining attention due to their ability to improve growth performance and carcass quality, prevent gastrointestinal infection and most importantly, their 'generally recognized as safe' status. Previous studies support the potential of lactobacilli to regulate host immune systems, enhance gut metabolic capacities and maintain balance in the gut microbiota. Research on swine gut microbiota has revealed complex gut microbial community structure and showed the importance of Lactobacillus to the host's health. However, the species- and strain-specific characteristics of lactobacilli that confer probiotic benefits are still not well understood. The diversity of probiotic traits in a complex gut ecosystem makes it challenging to infer the relationships between specific functions of Lactobacillus sp. and host health. In this review, we provide an overview of how lactobacilli play a pivotal role in the swine gut ecosystem and identify key characteristics that influence gut microbial community structure and the health of pigs. In addition, based on recent and ongoing meta-omics and omics research on the gut microbiota of pigs, we suggest a workflow combining culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches for more effective selection of probiotic lactobacilli.

  • 4.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    et al.
    Högskolan i Kalmar.
    On, S L W
    Ottvall, R
    Hasselquist, D
    Olsen, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Clinical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases.
    Species diversity of campylobacteria in a wild bird community in Sweden.2007In: Journal of Applied Microbiology, ISSN 1364-5072, E-ISSN 1365-2672, Vol. 102, no 2, p. 424-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: To analyse the occurrence and host species distribution of campylobacteria species in shorebirds, geese and cattle on grazed coastal meadows in Sweden. METHODS AND RESULTS: Species identification was performed through a polyphasic approach, incorporating Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) profiling, 16S RNA gene sequence analysis together with extensive phenotypic characterization. From 247 sampled birds and 71 cattle, we retrieved 113 urease positive thermophilic Campylobacter (UPTC) and 16 Campylobacter jejuni ssp. jejuni isolates. Furthermore, 18 isolates of Helicobacter canadensis, and five isolates that potentially represent a new genus of micro-aerophilic, spiral and Gram-negative bacteria were isolated. The distribution of bacterial species on hosts was uneven: all H. canadensis isolates were retrieved from geese, while all but one of the Campylobacter lari UPTC isolates were found in shorebirds. AFLP type distribution of Camp. lari UPTC isolates among individual, resampled and breeding-paired Redshank birds generally indicated a constant shift in strain populations over time and absence of geographical clustering. CONCLUSIONS: The large number of isolated campylobacteria, including species that are zoonotic enteropathogens, indicates that these wild birds potentially may serve as reservoirs of human infections. However, despite a common environment, the different host species largely carried their own campylobacteria populations, indicating that cross-species transmission is rare. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Our study is one of few that provide data on the occurrence of campylobacteria in wild animals, adding information on the ecology and epidemiology of micro-organisms that are of public health concern.

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