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  • 1. Ando, Y
    et al.
    Anan, Intissar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Suhr, Ole B
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Holmgren, G
    Costa, P M
    Detection of a variant protein in hair: new diagnostic method in Portuguese type familial amyloid polyneuropathy.1998In: BMJ (Clinical Research Edition), ISSN 0959-8138, Vol. 316, no 7143, p. 1500-1Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Naumburg, Estelle
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics. Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Section for Paediatrics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bellocco, Rino
    Cnattingius, Sven
    Hall, Per
    Ekbom, Anders
    Prenatal ultrasound examinations and risk of childhood leukaemia: case-control study2000In: BMJ (Clinical Research Edition), ISSN 0959-8138, Vol. 320, no 7230, p. 282-283Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Robinson, David
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology. Department of Urology, Ryhov County Hospital, 551 85 Jönköping, Sweden.
    Garmo, Hans
    Bill-Axelson, Anna
    Mucci, Lorelei
    Holmberg, Lars
    Stattin, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology. Department of Surgery, Urology Service, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.
    Use of 5α-reductase inhibitors for lower urinary tract symptoms and risk of prostate cancer in Swedish men: nationwide, population based case-control study2013In: BMJ (Clinical Research Edition), ISSN 0959-8138, Vol. 346, article id f3406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between 5α-reductase inhibitor (5-ARI) use in men with lower urinary tract symptoms and prostate cancer risk.

    DESIGN: Nationwide, population based case-control study for men diagnosed with prostate cancer in 2007-09 within the Prostate Cancer data Base Sweden 2.0.

    SETTING: The National Prostate Cancer Register, National Patient Register, census, and Prescribed Drug Register in Sweden, from which we obtained data on 5-ARI use before date of prostate cancer diagnosis.

    PARTICIPANTS: 26,735 cases and 133,671 matched controls; five controls per case were randomly selected from matched men in the background population. 7815 men (1499 cases and 6316 controls) had been exposed to 5-ARI. 412 men had been exposed to 5-ARI before the diagnosis of a cancer with Gleason score 8-10.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Risk of prostate cancer calculated as odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals by conditional logistic regression analyses.

    RESULTS: Risk of prostate cancer overall decreased with an increasing duration of exposure; men on 5-ARI treatment for more than three years had an odds ratio of 0.72 (95% confidence interval 0.59 to 0.89; P<0.001 for trend). The same pattern was seen for cancers with Gleason scores 2-6 and score 7 (both P<0.001 for trend). By contrast, the risk of tumours with Gleason scores 8-10 did not decrease with increasing exposure time to 5-ARI (for 0-1 year of exposure, odds ratio 0.96 (95% confidence interval 0.83 to 1.11); for 1-2 years, 1.07 (0.88 to 1.31); for 2-3 years, 0.96 (0.72 to 1.27); for >3 years, 1.23 (0.90 to 1.68); P=0.46 for trend).

    CONCLUSIONS: Men treated with 5-ARI for lower urinary tract symptoms had a decreased risk of cancer with Gleason scores 2-7, and showed no evidence of an increased risk of cancer with Gleason scores 8-10 after up to four years' treatment.

  • 4. Virtanen, Marianna
    et al.
    Jokela, Markus
    Nyberg, Solja T.
    Madsen, Ida E. H.
    Lallukka, Tea
    Ahola, Kirsi
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Batty, G. David
    Bjorner, Jakob B.
    Borritz, Marianne
    Burr, Hermann
    Casini, Annalisa
    Clays, Els
    De Bacquer, Dirk
    Dragano, Nico
    Erbel, Raimund
    Ferrie, Jane E.
    Fransson, Eleonor I.
    Hamer, Mark
    Heikkil, Katriina
    Joeckel, Karl-Heinz
    Kittel, France
    Knutsson, Anders
    Koskenvuo, Markku
    Ladwig, Karl-Heinz
    Lunau, Thorsten
    Nielsen, Martin L.
    Nordin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Oksanen, Tuula
    Pejtersen, Jan H.
    Pentti, Jaana
    Rugulies, Reiner
    Salo, Paula
    Schupp, JRgen
    Siegrist, Johannes
    Singh-Manoux, Archana
    Steptoe, Andrew
    Suominen, Sakari B.
    Theorell, Tores
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Wagner, Gert G.
    Westerholm, Peter J. M.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Kivimaki, Mika
    Long working hours and alcohol use: systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data2015In: BMJ (Clinical Research Edition), ISSN 0959-8138, Vol. 350, p. g7772-Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective To quantify the association between long working hours and alcohol use. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data. Data sources A systematic search of PubMed and Embase databases in April 2014 for published studies, supplemented with manual searches. Unpublished individual participant data were obtained from 27 additional studies. Review methods The search strategy was designed to retrieve cross sectional and prospective studies of the association between long working hours and alcohol use. Summary estimates were obtained with random effects meta-analysis. Sources of heterogeneity were examined with meta-regression. Results Cross sectional analysis was based on 61 studies representing 333 693 participants from 14 countries. Prospective analysis was based on 20 studies representing 100 602 participants from nine countries. The pooled maximum adjusted odds ratio for the association between long working hours and alcohol use was 1.11 (95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.18) in the cross sectional analysis of published and unpublished data. Odds ratio of new onset risky alcohol use was 1.12 (1.04 to 1.20) in the analysis of prospective published and unpublished data. In the 18 studies with individual participant data it was possible to assess the European Union Working Time Directive, which recommends an upper limit of 48 hours a week. Odds ratios of new onset risky alcohol use for those working 49-54 hours and >= 55 hours a week were 1.13 (1.02 to 1.26; adjusted difference in incidence 0.8 percentage points) and 1.12 (1.01 to 1.25; adjusted difference in incidence 0.7 percentage points), respectively, compared with working standard 35-40 hours (incidence of new onset risky alcohol use 6.2%). There was no difference in these associations between men and women or by age or socioeconomic groups, geographical regions, sample type (population based v occupational cohort), prevalence of risky alcohol use in the cohort, or sample attrition rate. Conclusions Individuals whose working hours exceed standard recommendations are more likely to increase their alcohol use to levels that pose a health risk.

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