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  • 1.
    Bäckstrom, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin. Department of Forensic Medicine, National Board of Forensic Medicine, PO Box 7616, SE-907 12 Umeå, Sweden..
    Hedlund, Jonatan
    Masterman, Thomas
    Sturup, Joakim
    Injury-Related Healthcare Use and Risk of Filicide Victimization: A Population-Based Case-Control Study2019Ingår i: Journal of Forensic Sciences, ISSN 0022-1198, E-ISSN 1556-4029, Vol. 64, nr 1, s. 166-170Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on child‐related risk factors for filicide is scant. We investigated whether prior healthcare use for injury (including poisoning) influences filicide risk. Victims (0–14 years; n = 71) were identified in a national autopsy database for the years 1994–2012 and compared to matched, general population controls (n = 355). Healthcare use data were retrieved from a national patient registry. Risks were estimated using odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). For females, prior inpatient care for injury conferred a statistically significant sevenfold risk (OR = 6.67 [95% CI: 1.49–29.79]), and any prior injury‐related healthcare use conferred a statistically significant fourfold risk (OR = 3.57 [95% CI: 1.13–11.25]), of filicide victimization. No statistically significant risks were found for males. Healthcare personnel should be aware that children treated for injuries, especially females, may be at an elevated risk of filicide victimization. Nevertheless, the filicide base rate remains low, and parents may be stigmatized by unfounded alerts; thus, prudent reflection should precede reports to the authorities.

  • 2.
    Bäckstrom, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin. Department of Forensic Medicine, National Board of Forensic Medicine, PO Box 7616, SE-907 12, Umeå.
    Johansson, Bengt
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Death from Nitrous Oxide2015Ingår i: Journal of Forensic Sciences, ISSN 0022-1198, E-ISSN 1556-4029, Vol. 60, nr 6, s. 1662-1665Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Nitrous oxide is an inflammable gas that gives no smell or taste. It has a history of abuse as long as its clinical use, and deaths, although rare, have been reported. We describe two cases of accidental deaths related to voluntary inhalation of nitrous oxide, both found dead with a gas mask covering the face. In an attempt to find an explanation to why the victims did not react properly to oncoming hypoxia, we performed experiments where a test person was allowed to breath in a closed system, with or without nitrous oxide added. Vital signs and gas concentrations as well as subjective symptoms were recorded. The experiments indicated that the explanation to the fact that neither of the descendents had reacted to oncoming hypoxia and hypercapnia was due to the inhalation of nitrous oxide. This study raises the question whether nitrous oxide really should be easily, commercially available.

  • 3.
    Freeman, Michael D.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Everson, Todd M.
    Kohles, Sean S.
    Forensic epidemiologic and biomechanical analysis of a pelvic cavity blowour injury associated with ejection from a personal watercraft (Jet-Ski)2013Ingår i: Journal of Forensic Sciences, ISSN 0022-1198, E-ISSN 1556-4029, Vol. 58, nr 1, s. 237-244Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Jet-propelled personal watercraft (PWC) or jet-skis have become increasingly popular. The means of propulsion of PWC, which is a jet of water forced out of small nozzle at the rear of the craft, combined with a high risk of falling off of the seat and into close proximity with the water jet stream, raise the potential for a unique type of injury mechanism. The most serious injuries associated with PWC falls are those that occur when the perineum passes in close proximity to the jet nozzle and the high-pressure water stream enters the vaginal or rectal orifice. We describe the forensic investigation into a case of an anovaginal "blowout" injury in a passenger who was ejected from the rear seat position of a PWC and subsequently suffered life-threatening injuries to the pelvic organs. The investigation included a biomechanical analysis of the injury mechanism, a summary of prior published reports of internal pelvic injuries resulting from PWC falls as well as other water sports and activities, and a comparison of the severity of the injuries resulting from differing mechanisms using the New Injury Severity Score (NISS). The mean (±standard deviation [SD]) NISS values for reported PWC injuries [not including the NISS of 38 in this case study] were 11.2 (±9.5), while the mean value for reported water-skiing falls was half that of the PWC group at 5.6 (±5.2). It was concluded that the analyzed injuries were unique to a PWC ejection versus other previously described non-PWC-associated water sport injuries. It is recommended that PWC manufacturers help consumers understand the potential risks to passengers with highly visible warnings and reduce injury risk with revised seat design, and/or passenger seat "deadman" switches.

  • 4.
    Freeman, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin. Department of Public Health & Preventive Medicine, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR; Department of Forensic Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Leith, Wendy
    Injury pattern as an indication of seat belt failure in ejected vehicle occupants2014Ingår i: Journal of Forensic Sciences, ISSN 0022-1198, E-ISSN 1556-4029, Vol. 59, nr 5, s. 1271-1274Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior authors have suggested that when occupant ejection occurs in association with a seat belt failure, entanglement of the outboard upper extremity (OUE) with the retracting shoulder belt will invariably occur, leaving injury pattern evidence of belt use. In the present investigation, the authors assessed this theory using data accessed from the NASS-CDS for ejected front seat occupants of passenger vehicles. Logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between seat belt failure status and injuries. Injury types associated with seat belt failure were significant OUE and head injuries (OR=3.87, [95% CI 1.2, 13.0] and 3.1, [95% CI 1.0, 9.7], respectively). The two injury types were found to be a predictor of seat belt use and subsequent failure only if combined with a high (0.8) precrash probability of belt use. The injury pattern associated with a seat belt failure-related ejection has limited use in the forensic investigation of crash-related ejections.

  • 5. Gudmannsson, Petur
    et al.
    Berge, Johan
    Druid, Henrik
    Ericsson, Göran
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    A Unique Fatal Moose Attack Mimicking Homicide2018Ingår i: Journal of Forensic Sciences, ISSN 0022-1198, E-ISSN 1556-4029, Vol. 63, nr 2, s. 622-625Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fatalities caused by animal attacks are rare, but have the potential to mimic homicide. We present a case in which a moose attacked and killed a woman who was walking her dog in a forest. Autopsy showed widespread blunt trauma with a large laceration on one leg in which blades of grass were embedded. Flail chest was the cause of death. The case was initially conceived as homicide by means of a riding lawn mower. A review of the case by moose experts and analyses of biological trace material that proved to originate from moose, established the true source of injury. The dog probably provoked a moose, which, in response, stomped and gored the victim to death. The injuries resembled those previously reported from attacks by cattle and water buffalo. Fatal moose attacks constitute an extremely rare threat in boreal areas, but can be considered in traumatic deaths of unknown cause.

  • 6.
    Gustafsson, Torfinn
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Fatal Eurasian brown bear attacks: two Swedish fatalities in modern times2015Ingår i: Journal of Forensic Sciences, ISSN 0022-1198, E-ISSN 1556-4029, Vol. 60, nr 6, s. 1658-1661Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fatal bear attacks on humans are uncommon with only one reported case in Sweden since 1902. The bear population is, however, growing and the frequency of confrontations is likely to increase. Case I-A 40-year-old hunter and his dog were found dead near a bear's den. Autopsy showed that a large portion of the face, facial skeleton, and anterior portion of the brain was missing. Autopsy of the bear showed two nonfatal gunshot wounds. Case II-A 61-year-old man and his dog were found dead outside a hunting lodge. Autopsy revealed numerous wounds, including partial evisceration of the intestines. The victim's blood ethanol concentration was 0.27%. These cases confirm the presence of risk factors identified by the Scandinavian Brown Bear Research Project, that is, provocation by a dog, encountering an injured bear, and appearing close to its den. An additional possible factor in case II was ethanol intoxication.

  • 7.
    Junuzovic, Mensura
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin. Center for Primary Health Care Research, Department of Clinical Sciences in Malmö, Skåne University Hospital, Lund University.
    Sjöberg, Ameli
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Unintentional non-hunting firearm deaths in Sweden, 1983-20122016Ingår i: Journal of Forensic Sciences, ISSN 0022-1198, E-ISSN 1556-4029, Vol. 61, nr 4, s. 966-971Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined the association between unintentional nonhunting firearm deaths and changes in firearm legislation in Sweden. There were 43 fatalities during the study time frame 1983-2012, representing 46% of all unintentional firearm deaths during the same period. The victims were predominantly young males (mean age 25 years). Slightly more than half of the deaths were caused by another person and were inflicted at close range. The main cause of the incidents was human error. The majority of the involved firearms were legal; however, most victims killed with illegal firearms were under the influence of alcohol and/or drugs at the time. The death rate decreased significantly following the introduction of the hunter's examination in 1985. Education and training associated with the hunter's examination was at least partially responsible for the decline in fatalities after 1985. Future prevention should target the availability of illegal firearms.

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