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  • 1. Almon, Ricardo
    et al.
    Nilsson, Torbjörn K
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Chemistry, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Sjöström, Michael
    Engfeldt, Peter
    Lactase persistence and milk consumption are associated with body height in Swedish preadolescents and adolescents2011In: Food & Nutrition Research, ISSN 1654-6628, E-ISSN 1654-661X, Vol. 55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Body height is a classic polygenic trait. About 80%-90% of height is inherited and 10%-20% owed to environmental factors, of which the most important ones are nutrition and diseases in preadolescents and adolescents.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore potential relations between the LCT (lactase) C>T-13910 polymorphism, milk consumption, and body height in a sample of Swedish preadolescents and adolescents.

    DESIGN: In a cross-sectional study, using a random sample of preadolescents and adolescents (n = 597), dietary intakes were determined. Anthropometric measurements including sexual maturity (Tanner stage) and birth weight were assessed. Parental body height and socio-economic status (SES) were obtained by questionnaires. Genotyping for the LCT C>T-13910 polymorphism that renders individuals lactase persistent (LP) or lactase non-persistent (LNP) was performed by DNA sequencing. Stepwise backward multivariate linear regression was used.

    RESULTS: Milk consumption was significantly and positively associated with body height (β = 0.45; 95% CI: 0.040, 0.87, p = 0.032). Adjustments were performed for sex, parental height, birth weight, body mass index (BMI), SES, and Tanner stage. This model explains 90% of the observed variance of body height (adjusted R(2) = 0.89). The presence of the -13910 T allele was positively associated with body height (β = 2.05; 95% CI: 0.18, 3.92, p = 0.032).

    CONCLUSIONS: Milk consumption is positively associated with body height in preadolescents and adolescents. We show for the first time that a nutrigenetic variant might be able to explain in part phenotypic variation of body height in preadolescents and adolescents. Due to the small sample size further studies are needed.

  • 2. Almon, Ricardo
    et al.
    Patterson, Emma
    Nilsson, Torbjörn K
    Department of Clinical Chemistry, Örebro University Hospital.
    Engfeldt, Peter
    Sjöström, Michael
    Body fat and dairy product intake in lactase persistent and non-persistent children and adolescents2010In: Food & Nutrition Research, ISSN 1654-6628, E-ISSN 1654-661X, Vol. 54, no 5141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Lactase non-persistent (LNP) individuals may be lactose intolerant and therefore on a more restricted diet concerning milk and milk products compared to lactase persistent (LP) individuals. This may have an impact on body fat mass.

    OBJECTIVE: This study examines if LP and LNP children and adolescents, defined by genotyping for the LCT-13910 C > T polymorphism, differ from each other with regard to milk and milk product intake, and measures of body fat mass.

    DESIGN: Children (n=298, mean age 9.6 years) and adolescents (n=386, mean age 15.6 years), belonging to the Swedish part of the European Youth Heart Study, were genotyped for the LCT-13910 C > T polymorphism. Dietary intakes of reduced and full-fat dairy varieties were determined.

    RESULTS: LNP (CC genotype) subjects consumed less milk, soured milk and yoghurt compared to LP (CT/TT genotype) subjects (p<0.001). Subsequent partitioning for age group attenuated this observation (p=0.002 for children and p=0.023 in adolescents). Six subjects were reported by parents to be 'lactose intolerant', none of whom were LNP. LNP children and adolescents consumed significantly less reduced fat milk and milk products than LP children and adolescents (p=0.009 for children and p=0.001 for adolescents).

    CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that LP is linked to an overall higher milk and dairy intake, but is not linked to higher body fat mass in children and adolescents.

  • 3.
    Domellöf, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Thorsdottir, Inga
    Thorstensen, Ketil
    Health effects of different dietary iron intakes: a systematic literature review for the 5th Nordic Nutrition Recommendations2013In: Food & Nutrition Research, ISSN 1654-6628, E-ISSN 1654-661X, Vol. 57, no 21667Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The present literature review is part of the NNR5 project with the aim of reviewing and updating the scientific basis of the 4th edition of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR) issued in 2004. Objective: The objective of this systematic literature review was to assess the health effects of different intakes of iron, at different life stages (infants, children, adolescents, adults, elderly, and during pregnancy and lactation), in order to estimate the requirement for adequate growth, development, and maintenance of health.

    Methods: The initial literature search resulted in 1,076 abstracts. Out of those, 276 papers were identified as potentially relevant. Of those, 49 were considered relevant and were quality assessed (A, B, or C). An additional search on iron and diabetes yielded six articles that were quality assessed. Thus, a total of 55 articles were evaluated. The grade of evidence was classified as convincing (grade 1), probable (grade 2), suggestive (grade 3), and inconclusive (grade 4).

    Results: There is suggestive evidence that prevention or treatment of iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) improves cognitive, motoric, and behavioral development in young children, and that treatment of IDA improves attention and concentration in school children and adult women. There is insufficient evidence to show negative health effects of iron intakes in doses suggested by the NNR 4. There is insufficient evidence to suggest that normal birth weight, healthy, exclusively breast-fed infants need additional dietary iron before 6 months of life in the Nordic countries. An iron concentration of 4-8 mg/L in infant formulas seems to be safe and effective for normal birth weight infants. There is probable evidence that iron supplements (1-2 mg/kg/day) given up to 6 months of age to infants with low birth weight (<2,500 g) prevents IDA and possibly reduce the risk of behavioral problems later on. There is probable evidence that ID and IDA in pregnant women can be effectively prevented by iron supplementation at a dose of 40 mg/day from week 18-20 of gestation. There is probable evidence that a high intake of heme iron, but not total dietary, non-heme or supplemental iron, is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and gestational diabetes.

    Conclusions: Overall, the evidence does not support a change of the iron intakes recommended in the NNR 4. However, one could consider adding recommendations for infants below 6 months of age, low birth weight infants and pregnant women.

  • 4.
    Hörnell, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Lagstrom, Hanna
    Lande, Britt
    Thorsdottir, Inga
    Protein intake from 0 to 18 years of age and its relation to health: a systematic literature review for the 5th Nordic Nutrition Recommendations2013In: Food & Nutrition Research, ISSN 1654-6628, E-ISSN 1654-661X, Vol. 57, p. 21083-Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present systematic literature review is a part of the 5th revision of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations. The aim was to assess the health effects of different levels of protein intake in infancy and childhood in a Nordic setting. The initial literature search resulted in 435 abstracts, and 219 papers were identified as potentially relevant. Full paper selection resulted in 37 quality-assessed papers (4A, 30B, and 3C). A complementary search found four additional papers (all graded B). The evidence was classified as convincing, probable, limited-suggestive, and limited-inconclusive. Higher protein intake in infancy and early childhood is convincingly associated with increased growth and higher body mass index in childhood. The first 2 years of life is likely most sensitive to high protein intake. Protein intake between 15 E% and 20 E% in early childhood has been associated with an increased risk of being overweight later in life, but the exact level of protein intake above which there is an increased risk for being overweight later in life is yet to be established. Increased intake of animal protein in childhood is probably related to earlier puberty. There was limited-suggestive evidence that intake of animal protein, especially from dairy, has a stronger association with growth than vegetable protein. The evidence was limited-suggestive for a positive association between total protein intake and bone mineral content and/ or other bone variables in childhood and adolescence. Regarding other outcomes, there were too few published studies to enable any conclusions. In conclusion, the intake of protein among children in the Nordic countries is high and may contribute to increased risk of later obesity. The upper level of a healthy intake is yet to be firmly established. In the meantime, we suggest a mean intake of 15 E% as an upper limit of recommended intake at 12 months, as a higher intake may contribute to increased risk for later obesity.

  • 5.
    Hörnell, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Lagström, Hanna
    Lande, Britt
    Thorsdottir, Inga
    Breastfeeding, introduction of other foods and effects on health: a systematic literature review for the 5th Nordic Nutrition Recommendations2013In: Food & Nutrition Research, ISSN 1654-6628, E-ISSN 1654-661X, Vol. 57Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present systematic literature review is part of the 5th revision of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations. The overall aim was to review recent scientific data valid in a Nordic setting on the short-and long-term health effects of breastfeeding (duration of both any and exclusive breastfeeding) and introduction of foods other than breast milk. The initial literature search resulted in 2,011 abstracts; 416 identified as potentially relevant. Full paper review resulted in 60 quality assessed papers (6A, 48B, and 6C). A complementary search found some additional papers. The grade of evidence was classified as convincing, probable, limited-suggestive, and limited-no conclusion. The evidence was convincing of a protective dose/duration effect of breastfeeding against overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence, overall infections, acute otitis media, and gastrointestinal and respiratory tract infections. The evidence was probable that exclusive breastfeeding for longer than 4 months is associated with slower weight gain during the second half of the first year which could be part of the reason behind the reduced risk of later overweight or obesity. There was also probable evidence that breastfeeding is a protective factor against inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and diabetes (type 1 and 2), provides beneficial effects on IQ and developmental scores of children as well as a small reductive effect on blood pressure and blood cholesterol levels in adulthood. Other associations explored were limited-suggestive or inconclusive. In conclusion, convincing and probable evidence was found for benefits of breastfeeding on several outcomes. The recommendation in NNR2004 about exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months and continued partial breastfeeding thereafter can stand unchanged. The relatively low proportion of infants in the Nordic countries following this recommendation indicates that strategies that protect, support and promote breastfeeding should be enhanced, and should also recognize the benefits for long-term health.

  • 6.
    Hörnell, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Waling, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Olafsdottir, Anna Sigridur
    School of Education, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Lagström, Hanna
    Turku Institute of Child and Youth Research, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Wergedahl, Hege
    Faculty of Education, Bergen University College, Bergen, Norway,.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Olsson, Cecilia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Fossgard, Eldbjörg
    Faculty of Education, Bergen University College, Bergen, Norway.
    Holthe, Asle
    Faculty of Education, Bergen University College, Bergen, Norway.
    Talvia, Sanna
    Turku Institute of Child and Youth Research, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjörg
    Unit for Nutrition Research, Landspitali, The National University Hospital of Iceland, and Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition, School of Health Sciences, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    School meals and health: the PROMEAL-study2016In: Food & Nutrition Research, ISSN 1654-6628, E-ISSN 1654-661X, Vol. 60, no 1, article id 31961Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7. Isaksson, Hanna
    et al.
    Landberg, Rikard
    Sundberg, Birgitta
    Lundin, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biobank Research.
    Zhang, Jie-Xian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Tidehag, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach
    Moazzami, Ali A.
    Åman, Per
    High-fiber rye diet increases ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients compared with low-fiber wheat diet independent of meal frequency in ileostomy subjects2013In: Food & Nutrition Research, ISSN 1654-6628, E-ISSN 1654-661X, Vol. 57, p. 18519-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Whole-grain foods and cereal dietary fiber intake is associated with lower body weight. This may partly result from lower energy utilization of high-fiber diets. Objective: In the present study, the impact on ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients in response to a rye bread high-fiber diet compared to a refined wheat low-fiber diet was investigated. Furthermore, the effect of meal frequency on apparent absorption of nutrients was studied for the first time. Design: Ten participants that had undergone ileostomy consumed standardized iso-caloric diets, including low-fiber wheat bread (20 g dietary fiber per day) for 2 weeks followed by high-fiber rye bread (52 g dietary fiber per day) for 2 weeks. The diets were consumed in an ordinary (three meals per day) and a nibbling (seven meals per day) meal frequency in a cross-over design. Ileal effluents were collected during 24 h at the third day of each of the four dietary periods and analyzed for gross energy and nutrient contents. Results: The results showed that intake of rye bread high-fiber diet compared to the refined wheat low-fiber diet caused an increase in ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients. The effect was independent of meal frequency. This suggests that a high intake of rye may result in lower availability of macronutrients for small intestinal digestion and absorption. A regular intake of rye may therefore have implications for weight management.

  • 8.
    Videhult, Frida K.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Öhlund, Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Hernell, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    West, Christina E.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Body mass but not vitamin D status is associated with bone mineral content and density in young school children in northern Sweden2016In: Food & Nutrition Research, ISSN 1654-6628, E-ISSN 1654-661X, Vol. 60, article id 30045Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: High latitude of residence where sun exposure is limited affects vitamin D status. Although vitamin D levels have been associated with poor bone health, cut-off values for optimising bone health are yet to be decided. Objective: To assess vitamin D intake and status among young school children living at latitude 63-64 degrees N, in northern Sweden and to examine the association between vitamin D status and bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD). Design: In a cross-sectional study, diet was assessed by a 4-day food diary and a food frequency questionnaire in 8- to 9-year-old children (n = 120). Energy, vitamin D, and calcium intakes were calculated. Physical activity was assessed using a pedometer for 7 days. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25[OH]D) levels were analysed by high-pressure liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation-mass spectrometry (n = 113). BMC and BMD were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scan. Height and weight were measured by standard procedures and BMI z-score was calculated using WHO AnthroPlus programme. Results: The majority of children, 91%, did not reach the recommended vitaminDintake of 7.5 mu g/day and 50% had insufficient S-25[OH]D levels defined as <50 nmol/l. The highest concentrations of S-25[OH]D were observed during the summer months (p = 0.01). Body mass (p < 0.01) but not S-25[OH]D was associated with measures of BMC and BMD. Furthermore, boys had higher total BMC (p = 0.01), total body less head BMC (p = 0.02), fat free mass (p < 0.01), and a higher degree of physical activity (p = 0.01) compared to girls. Conclusions: Body mass was related to BMC and BMD measures in a population of prepubertal school children living at high latitudes in Sweden. Despite insufficient S-25[OH]D levels and low vitamin D intake, this did not appear to affect bone parameters. Prospective studies with repeated assessment of vitamin D status are needed to examine cut-off values for optimising bone health.

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