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  • 1.
    Boman, Niklas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Burén, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Antti, Henrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Svensson, Michael B.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Gene expression and fiber type variations in repeated vastus lateralis biopsies2015In: Muscle and Nerve, ISSN 0148-639X, E-ISSN 1097-4598, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 812-817Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Muscle sample collection can introduce variation in any measured variable due to inter- and intramuscle variation. We investigated the variation in gene expression and fiber type composition after repeated biopsy sampling from the vastus lateralis muscle. Methods: Six subjects donated 3 tissue samples each. One hour after baseline sampling from 1 vastus lateralis muscle, samples from both vastus lateralis muscles were obtained. Results: The fiber type composition differed between biopsies taken from the same leg. There were no within-subject differences in gene expression between the 3 biopsies. Multivariate analysis supports a model in which gene expression differs significantly between individuals but is not affected by repeated muscle biopsy sampling from the same subject. Conclusion: One vastus lateralis muscle sample per subject is sufficient to establish a reliable baseline for comparing gene expression representing selected pathways over time within the same individual.

  • 2.
    Edmundsson, David S.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Toolanen, Goran L.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Stål, Per S.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Muscle changes in patients with diabetes and chronic exertional compartment syndrome before and after treatment with fasciotomy2018In: Muscle and Nerve, ISSN 0148-639X, E-ISSN 1097-4598, Vol. 57, no 2, p. 229-239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Muscle changes in patients with diabetes and lower leg pain due to chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) were investigated before and after fasciotomy. Methods: The tibialis anterior muscle was analyzed with histochemical and morphological techniques in 7 patients with diabetes and CECS before fasciotomy and in 5 of them 1 year after fasciotomy. Nondiabetic patients with CECS and healthy participants served as references. Results: Before treatment, walking distance until occurrence of pain was limited (<0.2 km). Intramuscular pressure was significantly higher than in reference participants. Muscle analysis showed changes pathognomonic for neuropathy and myopathy and a restricted capillary network, with significantly more severe changes in the muscles of patients with diabetes than in the muscles of nondiabetic patients. Treatment with fasciotomy improved clinical signs, increased walking ability, and reduced muscle abnormalities, but muscle capillarization remained low. Discussion: Patients with diabetes and CECS have distinct pathological changes in affected muscles. Pressure-relieving fasciotomy triggers a regenerative response in the muscle tissue but not in the capillary bed.

  • 3.
    Edmundsson, David
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Toolanen, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Muscle changes in patients with diabetes and chronic exertional compartment syndrome before and after treatment with fasciotomy2017In: Muscle and Nerve, ISSN 0148-639X, E-ISSN 1097-4598Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    El-Habta, Roine
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Kingham, Paul J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Backman, Ludvig J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Adipose stem cells enhance myoblast proliferation via acetylcholine and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signaling2018In: Muscle and Nerve, ISSN 0148-639X, E-ISSN 1097-4598, Vol. 57, no 2, p. 305-311Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: In this study we investigated the interaction between adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) and myoblasts in co-culture experiments. Methods: Specific inductive media were used to differentiate ASCs in vitro into a Schwann cell-like phenotype (differentiated adipose tissuederived stem cells, or dASCs) and, subsequently, the expression of acetylcholine (ACh)-related machinery was determined. In addition, the expression of muscarinic ACh receptors was examined in denervated rat gastrocnemius muscles. Results: In contrast to undifferentiated ASCs, dASCs expressed more choline acetyltransferase and vesicular acetylcholine transporter. When co-cultured with myoblasts, dASCs enhanced the proliferation rate, as did ACh administration alone. Western blotting and pharmacological inhibitor studies showed that phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signaling mediated these effects. In addition, denervated muscle showed higher expression of muscarinic ACh receptors than control muscle. Discussion: Our findings suggest that dASCs promote proliferation of myoblasts through paracrine secretion of ACh, which could explain some of their regenerative capacity in vivo.

  • 5.
    Heldestad, Victoria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neurophysiology.
    Nordh, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neurophysiology.
    Quantified sensory abnormalities in early genetically verified transthyretin amyloid polyneuropathy2007In: Muscle and Nerve, ISSN 0148-639X, E-ISSN 1097-4598, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 189-195Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Jergović, D
    et al.
    University of Linköping.
    Stål, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Lidman, D
    University of Linköping.
    Lindvall, B
    University of Linköping.
    Hildebrand, C
    University of Linköping.
    Changes in a rat facial muscle after facial nerve injury and repair2001In: Muscle and Nerve, ISSN 0148-639X, E-ISSN 1097-4598, Vol. 24, no 9, p. 1202-1212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study describes changes in a rat facial muscle innervated by the mandibular and buccal facial nerve branches 4 months after nerve injury and repair. The following groups were studied: (A) normal controls; (B) spontaneous reinnervation by collateral or terminal sprouting; (C) reinnervation after surgical repair of the mandibular branch; and (D) chronic denervation. The normal muscle contained 1200 exclusively fast fibers, mainly myosin heavy chain (MyHC) IIB fibers. In group B, fiber number and fiber type proportions were normal. In group C, fiber number was subnormal. Diameters and proportions of MyHC IIA and hybrid fibers were above normal. The proportion of MyHC IIB fibers was subnormal. Immediate and delayed repair gave similar results with respect to the parameters examined. Group D rats underwent severe atrophic and degenerative changes. Hybrid fibers prevailed. These data suggest that spontaneous regeneration of the rat facial nerve is superior to regeneration after surgical repair and that immediacy does not give better results than moderate delay with respect to surgical repair. Long delays are shown to be detrimental.

  • 7.
    Minde, Jan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Toolanen, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Andersson, Thomas
    Nennesmo, Inger
    Remahl, Ingela Nilsson
    Svensson, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Solders, Göran
    Familial insensitivity to pain (HSAN V) and a mutation in the NGFB gene. A neurophysiological and pathological study.2004In: Muscle and Nerve, ISSN 0148-639X, E-ISSN 1097-4598, Vol. 30, no 6, p. 752-760Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Schaakxs, Dominique
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy. University Hospital of Lausanne.
    Kalbermatten, Daniel F
    University Hospital of Basel.
    Raffoul, Wassim
    University Hospital of Lausanne.
    Wiberg, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Hand Surgery.
    Kingham, Paul J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Regenerative cell injection in denervated muscle reduces atrophy and enhances recovery following nerve repair2013In: Muscle and Nerve, ISSN 0148-639X, E-ISSN 1097-4598, Vol. 47, no 5, p. 691-701Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Functional muscle recovery after peripheral nerve injury is far from optimal, partly due to atrophy of the muscle arising from prolonged denervation. We hypothesized that injecting regenerative cells into denervated muscle would reduce this atrophy. Methods: A rat sciatic nerve lesion was performed, and Schwann cells or adipose-derived stem cells, untreated or induced to a Schwann-celllike phenotype (dASC), were injected into the gastrocnemius muscle. Nerves were either repaired immediately or capped to prevent muscle reinnervation. One month later, functionality was measured using a walking track test, and muscle atrophy was assessed by examining muscle weight and histology. Results: Schwann cells and dASC groups showed significantly better scores on functional tests when compared with injections of growth medium alone. Muscle weight and histology were also significantly improved in these groups. Conclusion: Cell injections may reduce muscle atrophy and could benefit nerve injury patients.

  • 9.
    Stewart, H G
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Medical Biosciences, Clinical chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience.
    Mackenzie, I R
    Eisen, A
    Brännström, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Marklund, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Medical Biosciences, Clinical chemistry.
    Andersen, P M
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience.
    Clinicopathological phenotype of ALS with a novel G72C SOD1 gene mutation mimicking a myopathy.2006In: Muscle and Nerve, ISSN 0148-639X, E-ISSN 1097-4598, Vol. 33, no 5, p. 701-706Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A 71-year-old woman with a family history of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) was investigated for symmetrical, proximal limb and abdominal muscle weakness. Initial examination showed mild proximal muscle weakness in the arms and legs, slightly elevated serum creatine kinase (CK) level, and normal electromyographic (EMG) findings. A myopathy was the presumed diagnosis. Over the next year, weakness became severe and tendon reflexes became unelicitable; no upper motor signs were present. EMG then showed acute and chronic denervation and a muscle biopsy showed target fibers and grouped atrophy. DNA analysis revealed a G72C CuZn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) mutation. Fasciculations were absent throughout the disease. The patient died 53 months after symptom onset and autopsy revealed loss of lower motor neurons (LMN) and SOD1-positive inclusions. This case expands the phenotypic spectrum of ALS associated with SOD1 mutations to include presenting features that mimic a myopathy.

  • 10.
    Strigård, Karin
    et al.
    Division of Surgery, CLINTEC, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Surgical Gastroenterology, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Brismar, Tom
    Olsson, Tomas
    Kristensson, Krister
    Klareskog, Lars
    T-lymphocyte subsets, functional deficits, and morphology in sciatic nerves during experimental allergic neuritis1987In: Muscle and Nerve, ISSN 0148-639X, E-ISSN 1097-4598, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 329-337Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conduction velocities, demyelination, "macrophage/dendritic" cells, different sets of T-lymphocytes, and immunoglobulins were estimated in sciatic nerves during various phases of experimental allergic neuritis in Lewis rats. Demyelination was minimal day 15 postimmunization (p.i.) when conduction velocity already was reduced, somewhat more pronounced day 17 p.i. when nerve conduction was blocked, and most pronounced day 23 p.i. when nerve conduction partially had recovered. This suggests a dissociation between the degree of demyelination and the functional deficits. Decrease of sciatic nerve conduction velocities coincided with endoneurial appearance of T-lymphocytes and "macrophage/dendritic" cells, as well as endoneurial immunoglobulins, day 15 p.i. Later partial functional recovery occurred in parallel with the disappearance of T-cells. The degree of functional deficits thus correlated with the number of endoneurial T-lymphocytes. T-cells may, directly or indirectly, initiate several of the disease components in experimental allergic neuritis, including the nerve conduction deficit.

  • 11.
    Thomas, Christine K
    et al.
    University of Miami School of Medicine.
    Johansson, Roland S
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Bigland-Ritchie, Brenda
    Yale University Medical School, New Haven, Connecticut.
    Incidence of F waves in single human thenar motor units.2002In: Muscle and Nerve, ISSN 0148-639X, E-ISSN 1097-4598, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 77-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    F-wave generation, axon conduction velocities, and contractile properties were compared in 44 healthy individual human thenar motor units. Force and muscle action potentials were recorded when single motor axons were stimulated intraneurally about 10 cm proximal to the elbow. Each stimulus usually evoked only one electromyographic (EMG) potential. However, in seven units (16%), a single stimulus elicited an F wave in response to 1.7 +/- 1.6% (mean +/- SD) of the stimuli applied. Axon conduction velocity proximal to the site of stimulation was faster than distal conduction velocity (72.7 +/- 8.0 m/s versus 64.2 +/- 10.5 m/s). Distal conduction velocities, twitch forces, and contraction times were similar for units that did and did not generate F waves. Thus, no obvious subset of thenar motor units generated F waves. These results provide valuable baseline information on F waves that can be used to assess changes in axon conduction, motor unit contractile properties, and motoneuron excitability in disease.

  • 12. Von Walden, Ferdinand
    et al.
    Gantelius, Stefan
    Liu, Chang
    Borgström, Hanna
    Björk, Lars
    Gremark, Ola
    Stål, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Nader, Gustavo A.
    Ponten, Eva
    Muscle contractures in patients with cerebral palsy and acquired brain injury are associated with extracellular matrix expansion, pro-inflammatory gene expression, and reduced rRNA synthesis2018In: Muscle and Nerve, ISSN 0148-639X, E-ISSN 1097-4598, Vol. 58, no 2, p. 277-285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Children with cerebral palsy (CP) and acquired brain injury (ABI) commonly develop muscle contractures with advancing age. An underlying growth defect contributing to skeletal muscle contracture formation in CP/ABI has been suggested.

    Methods: The biceps muscles of children and adolescents with CP/ABI (n=20) and typically developing controls (n=10) were investigated. We used immunohistochemistry, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and Western blotting to assess gene expression relevant to growth and size homeostasis.

    Results: Classical pro-inflammatory cytokines and genes involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) production were elevated in skeletal muscle of children with CP/ABI. Intramuscular collagen content was increased and satellite cell number decreased and this was associated with reduced levels of RNA polymerase I transcription factors, 45s pre-rRNA and 28S rRNA.

    Discussion: The present study provides novel data suggesting a role for pro-inflammatory cytokines and reduced ribosomal production in the development/maintenance of muscle contractures, possibly underlying stunted growth and perimysial ECM expansion.

  • 13. Weber, M.
    et al.
    Eisen, A.
    Stewart, H.G.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience.
    Andersen, PM
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience.
    Hirota, N.
    The physiological basis of conduction slowing in ALS patients homozygous for the autosomal recessive D90A CuZn-SOD mutation2001In: Muscle and Nerve, ISSN 0148-639X, E-ISSN 1097-4598, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 89-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) with the autosomal-recessively inherited D90A CuZn-superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) mutation is characterized by a stereotypic slowly progressive, distinctive phenotype and very slow central motor conduction. To determine the basis of this slowing, we assessed corticomotoneuronal function using peristimulus time histograms (PSTHs) in 8 ALS patients homozygous for the D90A CuZn-SOD mutation. The results were compared with findings in 10 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), in which slowing of central motor conduction is common, and 11 healthy subjects. PSTHs were constructed from 3-7 different, voluntarily recruited motor units recorded in each patient from the extensor digitorum communis muscle (EDC). In D90A and MS patients, the stimulus threshold, onset latency, number of excess bins, duration, amplitude, and synchrony of the primary peak differed significantly from controls (P < 0.0004). The mean onset latency of the primary peak in D90A patients was 35.3 ms, compared to 23.6 ms for MS patients and 19.3 ms for normal subjects (P < 0.0001). In the D90A patients, the onset latencies of the primary peak had a bimodal distribution, whereas in MS the distribution showed a continuum. Loss of synchrony was similar in D90A and MS patients, but the threshold, number of excess bins, and duration differed significantly (P < 0.0057), which suggests that either axonal loss or demyelination can result in delayed and desynchronized primary peaks. We propose that conduction slowing in the D90A homozygotes results from selective loss of fast-conducting large pyramidal cells with preservation of slow-conducting mono- or polysynaptic corticomotoneuronal connections. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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