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  • 1.
    Kotyrlo, Elena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Stationarity Conditions for the Spatial First-order and Serial Second-order Model2013In: Letters in spatial and resource sciences, ISSN 1864-4031, E-ISSN 1864-404X, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 19-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The stationarity conditions for a spatial first-order and serial second-order model in the presence of time-lagged spatial interactions are discussed. The stationarity conditions for serial autoregressive parameters were found on the basis of the structural vector autoregression form of the model. The temporal stationarity was a function of the spatial autoregressive parameters. The value of the time-lagged spatial autoregressive parameter defined the shift of the interval for the first-order serial parameter. However, the sizes of intervals for the values of both serial parameters depended only on the value of the simultaneous autoregressive parameter.

  • 2. Li, Chuan-Zhong
    et al.
    Löfgren, Karl-Gustaf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Genuine saving under stochastic growth2012In: Letters in spatial and resource sciences, ISSN 1864-4031, E-ISSN 1864-404X, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 167-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of genuine saving has in recent years become widely accepted as a dynamic welfare indicator, which first appeared in Weitzman (Q. J. Econ. 99:1–13, 1976) and then formalized by Pearce and Atkinson (Ecol. Econ. 8:103–108, 1993). This paper attempts to generalize this concept in a stochastic setting using an extended version of the standard Ramsey growth model (Merton in Rev. Econ. Stud. 42:375–379, 1975). We find that the genuine saving formula in a stochastic setting also involves a variance component reflecting the welfare loss from risk aversion.

  • 3.
    Lundberg, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    On cartel detection and Moran’s I2017In: Letters in spatial and resource sciences, ISSN 1864-4031, E-ISSN 1864-404X, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 129-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the potential of using the Moran’s I statistic to detect complementary bidding on public contracts. The test is applied to data concerning the so-called Swedish asphalt cartel, which was discovered in 2001. Using information on submitted bids and procurement characteristics for both the cartel period (1995–2001) and the post-cartel period (2003–2009), the Moran’s I correctly predicts complementary bidding behavior for linear and quadratic specifications when such behavior is likely to exist, and rejects such behavior when it’s unlikely to be present. Remarkably, the Moran’s I also correctly indicates and rejects complementary bidding on the basis of information on the separate bids alone.

  • 4.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Lundberg, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Retailer choice and loyalty schemes: evidence from Sweden2010In: Letters in spatial and resource sciences, ISSN 1864-4031, E-ISSN 1864-404X, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 137-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From economic theory, it is well known that consumer loyalty schemes can have lock-in effects resulting in entry barriers and higher prices. This paper concerns consumer loyalty schemes where the main issue is to test the hypothesis that loyalty scheme membership affects the choice of food retailer. This choice is modeled as a random utility maximization problem estimated with maximum likelihood. Based on a data set covering 1,551 Swedish households, we find evidence supporting this hypothesis. Further, according to the results, store characteristics and geographical distance matter for the choice of retailer while household characteristics are not found to have a significant effect.

  • 5.
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Incentives underlying tax policies in a decentralized federation with horizontal leadership and transboundary environmental damage2015In: Letters in spatial and resource sciences, ISSN 1864-4031, E-ISSN 1864-404X, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 77-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper concerns income- and production taxation in a decentralized fiscal federalism model where the ability to commit differs among member countries. It is assumed that the federal government dictates environmental targets to be implemented at the national level, where the horizontal leader has commitment power vis-à-vis the other country (the follower). The results show how incentives underlying the horizontal leader’s tax policies are influenced by the decision structure.

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