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  • 1.
    Bunse, Carina
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Lundin, Daniel
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Karlsson, Christofer M. G.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Akram, Neelam
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Vila-Costa, Maria
    Centre d’Estudis Avançats de Blanes-CSIC, Spain.
    Palovaara, Joakim
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Svensson, Lovisa
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Holmfeldt, Karin
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    González, José M.
    University of La Laguna, Spain.
    Calvo, Eva
    Institut de Ciències del Mar—CSIC, Spain.
    Pelejero, Carles
    Institut de Ciències del Mar—CSIC, Spain.
    Marrasé, Cèlia
    Institut de Ciències del Mar—CSIC, Spain.
    Dopson, Mark
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Gasol, Josep M.
    Institut de Ciències del Mar—CSIC, Spain.
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Response of marine bacterioplankton pH homeostasis gene expression to elevated CO22016In: Nature Climate Change, ISSN 1758-678X, E-ISSN 1758-6798, Vol. 6, no 5, p. 483-487Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human-induced ocean acidification impacts marine life. Marine bacteria are major drivers of biogeochemical nutrient cycles and energy fluxes1; hence, understanding their performance under projected climate change scenarios is crucial for assessing ecosystem functioning. Whereas genetic and physiological responses of phytoplankton to ocean acidification are being disentangled2, 3, 4, corresponding functional responses of bacterioplankton to pH reduction from elevated CO2 are essentially unknown. Here we show, from metatranscriptome analyses of a phytoplankton bloom mesocosm experiment, that marine bacteria responded to lowered pH by enhancing the expression of genes encoding proton pumps, such as respiration complexes, proteorhodopsin and membrane transporters. Moreover, taxonomic transcript analysis showed that distinct bacterial groups expressed different pH homeostasis genes in response to elevated CO2. These responses were substantial for numerous pH homeostasis genes under low-chlorophyll conditions (chlorophyll a <2.5 μg l−1); however, the changes in gene expression under high-chlorophyll conditions (chlorophyll a >20 μg l−1) were low. Given that proton expulsion through pH homeostasis mechanisms is energetically costly, these findings suggest that bacterioplankton adaptation to ocean acidification could have long-term effects on the economy of ocean ecosystems.

  • 2. Elmendorf, Sarah C.
    et al.
    Henry, Gregory H. R.
    Hollister, Robert D.
    Bjork, Robert G.
    Boulanger-Lapointe, Noemie
    Cooper, Elisabeth J.
    Cornelissen, Johannes H. C.
    Day, Thomas A.
    Dorrepaal, Ellen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Elumeeva, Tatiana G.
    Gill, Mike
    Gould, William A.
    Harte, John
    Hik, David S.
    Hofgaard, Annika
    Johnson, David R.
    Johnstone, Jill F.
    Jonsdottir, Ingibjorg Svala
    Jorgenson, Janet C.
    Klanderud, Kari
    Klein, Julia A.
    Koh, Saewan
    Kudo, Gaku
    Lara, Mark
    Levesque, Esther
    Magnusson, Borgthor
    May, Jeremy L.
    Mercado-Diaz, Joel A.
    Michelsen, Anders
    Molau, Ulf
    Myers-Smith, Isla H.
    Oberbauer, Steven F.
    Onipchenko, Vladimir G.
    Rixen, Christian
    Schmidt, Niels Martin
    Shaver, Gaius R.
    Spasojevic, Marko J.
    Porhallsdottir, Pora Ellen
    Tolvanen, Anne
    Troxler, Tiffany
    Tweedie, Craig E.
    Villareal, Sandra
    Wahren, Carl-Henrik
    Walker, Xanthe
    Webber, Patrick J.
    Welker, Jeffrey M.
    Wipf, Sonja
    Plot-scale evidence of tundra vegetation change and links to recent summer warming2012In: Nature Climate Change, ISSN 1758-678X, E-ISSN 1758-6798, Vol. 2, no 6, p. 453-457Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Temperature is increasing at unprecedented rates across most of the tundra biome(1). Remote-sensing data indicate that contemporary climate warming has already resulted in increased productivity over much of the Arctic(2,3), but plot-based evidence for vegetation transformation is not widespread. We analysed change in tundra vegetation surveyed between 1980 and 2010 in 158 plant communities spread across 46 locations. We found biome-wide trends of increased height of the plant canopy and maximum observed plant height for most vascular growth forms; increased abundance of litter; increased abundance of evergreen, low-growing and tall shrubs; and decreased abundance of bare ground. Intersite comparisons indicated an association between the degree of summer warming and change in vascular plant abundance, with shrubs, forbs and rushes increasing with warming. However, the association was dependent on the climate zone, the moisture regime and the presence of permafrost. Our data provide plot-scale evidence linking changes in vascular plant abundance to local summer warming in widely dispersed tundra locations across the globe.

  • 3. Marotta, H
    et al.
    Pinho, L
    Gudasz, C
    Bastviken, D
    Tranvik, L J
    Enrich-Prast, A
    Greenhouse gas production in low-latitude lake sediments responds strongly to warming2014In: Nature Climate Change, ISSN 1758-678X, E-ISSN 1758-6798, Nature Climate Change, Vol. 4, no 6, p. 467-470Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Olofsson, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Ericson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Torp, Mikaela
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7044, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Stark, Sari
    Finnish Forest Research Institute, Rovaniemi Research Station, FIN-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland.
    Baxter, Robert
    School of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Centre for Ecosystem Science, University of Durham, Durham DH1 3LE, UK.
    Carbon balance of Arctic tundra under increased snow cover mediated by a plant pathogen2011In: Nature Climate Change, ISSN 1758-678X, E-ISSN 1758-6798, Vol. 1, p. 220-223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is affecting plant community composition1 and ecosystem structure, with consequences for ecosystem processes such as carbon storage2, 3, 4. Climate can affect plants directly by altering growth rates1, and indirectly by affecting predators and herbivores, which in turn influence plants5, 6, 7, 8, 9. Diseases are also known to be important for the structure and function of food webs10, 11, 12, 13, 14. However, the role of plant diseases in modulating ecosystem responses to a changing climate is poorly understood15, 16. This is partly because disease outbreaks are relatively rare and spatially variable, such that that their effects can only be captured in long-term experiments. Here we show that, although plant growth was favoured by the insulating effects of increased snow cover in experimental plots in Sweden, plant biomass decreased over the seven-year study. The decline in biomass was caused by an outbreak of a host-specific parasitic fungus, Arwidssonia empetri, which killed the majority of the shoots of the dominant plant species, Empetrum hermaphroditum, after six years of increased snow cover. After the outbreak of the disease, instantaneous measurements of gross photosynthesis and net ecosystem carbon exchange were significantly reduced at midday during the growing season. Our results show that plant diseases can alter and even reverse the effects of a changing climate on tundra carbon balance by altering plant composition.

  • 5.
    Olofsson, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Tommervik, Hans
    Callaghan, Terry V.
    Vole and lemming activity observed from space2012In: Nature Climate Change, ISSN 1758-678X, E-ISSN 1758-6798, Vol. 2, no 12, p. 880-883Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Predicting the impacts of present global warming requires an understanding of the factors controlling plant biomass and production. The extent to which they are controlled by bottom-up drivers such as climate, nutrient and water availability, and by top-down drivers such as herbivory and diseases in terrestrial systems is still under debate(1). By annually recording plant biomass and community composition in grazed control plots and in herbivore-free exclosures, at 12 sites in a subArctic ecosystem, we were able to show that the regular interannual density fluctuations of voles and lemmings drive synchronous interannual fluctuations in the biomass of field-layer vegetation. Plant biomass in the field layer was between 12 and 24% lower the year after a vole peak than the year before, and the combined vole and lemming peaks are visible as a reduced normalized difference vegetation index in satellite images over a 770 km(2) area in the following year, despite the wide range of abiotic, biotic and anthropogenic forces that influence the vegetation(2-5). This strongly suggests that the cascading effect of rodents for the function and diversity of tundra plant communities needs to be included in our scenarios of how these ecosystems will respond to environmental changes.

  • 6.
    Oudin Åström, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Ebi, Kristie L.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Rocklöv, Joacim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Attributing mortality from extreme temperatures to climate change in Stockholm, Sweden2013In: Nature Climate Change, ISSN 1758-678X, E-ISSN 1758-6798, Vol. 3, no 12, p. 1050-1054Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A changing climate is increasing the frequency, intensity, duration and spatial extent of heat waves. These changes are associated with increased human mortality during heat extremes. At the other end of the temperature scale, it has been widely speculated that cold-related mortality could decrease in a warmer world. We aim to answer a key question; the extent to which mortality due to temperature extremes in Stockholm, Sweden during 1980–2009 can be attributed to climate change that has occurred since our reference period (1900–1929). Mortality from heat extremes in 1980–2009 was double what would have occurred without climate change. Although temperature shifted towards warmer temperatures in the winter season, cold extremes occurred more frequently, contributing to a small increase of mortality during the winter months. No evidence was found for adaptation over 1980–2009.

  • 7.
    Oudin Åström, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Ebi, Kristie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Rocklöv, Joacim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Reply to 'Adaptation to extreme heat in Stockholm County, Sweden'2014In: Nature Climate Change, ISSN 1758-678X, E-ISSN 1758-6798, Vol. 4, no 5, p. 303-303Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8. Vaisanen, Maria
    et al.
    Ylanne, Henni
    Kaarlejärvi, Elina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Sjoegersten, Sofie
    Olofsson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Crout, Neil
    Stark, Sari
    Consequences of warming on tundra carbon balance determined by reindeer grazing history2014In: Nature Climate Change, ISSN 1758-678X, E-ISSN 1758-6798, Vol. 4, no 5, p. 384-388Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Arctic tundra currently stores half of the global soil carbon (C) stock(1). Climate warming in the Arctic may lead to accelerated CO2 release through enhanced decomposition and turn Arctic ecosystems from a net C sink into a net C source, if warming enhances decomposition more than plant photosynthesis(2). A large portion of the circumpolar Arctic is grazed by reindeer/caribou, and grazing causes important vegetation shifts in the long-term. Using a unique experimental set-up, where areas experiencing more than 50 years of either light (LG) or heavy (HG) grazing were warmed and/or fertilized, we show that under ambient conditions areas under LG were a 70% stronger C sink than HG areas. Although warming decreased the C sink by 38% under LG, it had no effect under HG. Grazing history will thus be an important determinant in the response of ecosystem C balance to climate warming, which at present is not taken into account in climate change models.

1 - 8 of 8
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