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  • 1.
    Metcalfe, Daniel B.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Cherif, Mehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jepsen, Jane U.
    Vindstad, Ole Petter L.
    Kristensen, Jeppe A.
    Belsing, Ulrika
    Ecological stoichiometry and nutrient partitioning in two insect herbivores responsible for large-scale forest disturbance in the Fennoscandian subarctic2019In: Ecological Entomology, ISSN 0307-6946, E-ISSN 1365-2311, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 118-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Outbreaks of herbivorous insects can have large impacts on regional soil carbon (C) storage and nutrient cycling. In northernmost Europe, population outbreaks of several geometrid moth species regularly cause large‐scale defoliation in subarctic birch forests. An improved understanding is required of how leaf C and nutrients are processed after ingestion by herbivores and what this means for the quantity and quality of different materials produced (frass, bodies).

    2. In this study, larvae of two geometrid species responsible for major outbreaks (Epirrita autumnata and Operophtera brumata) were raised on exclusive diets of Betula pubescens var. czerepanovii (N. I. Orlova) Hämet Ahti and two other abundant understorey species (Betula nanaVaccinium myrtillus). The quantities of C, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) ingested and allocated to frass, bodies and (in the case of C) respired were recorded.

    3. Overall, 23%, 70% and 48% of ingested C, N and P were allocated to bodies, respectively, rather than frass and (in the case of C) respiration. Operophtera brumata consistently maintained more constant body stoichiometric ratios of C, N and P than did E. autumnata, across the wide variation in physico‐chemical properties of plant diet supplied.

    4. These observed differences and similarities on C and nutrient processing may improve researchers' ability to predict the amount and stoichiometry of frass and bodies generated after geometrid outbreaks.

  • 2. Sniegula, Szymon
    et al.
    Johansson, Frank
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Photoperiod affects compensating developmental rate across latitudes in the damselfly Lestes sponsa2010In: Ecological Entomology, ISSN 0307-6946, E-ISSN 1365-2311, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 149-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Although there is a great deal of theoretical and empirical data about the life history responses of time constraints in organisms, little is known about the latitude-compensating mechanism that enables northern populations' developmental rates to compensate for latitude. To investigate the importance of photoperiod on development, offspring of the obligatory univoltine damselfly Lestes sponsa from two populations at different latitudes (53°N and 63°N) were raised in a common laboratory environment at both northern and southern photoperiods that corresponded to the sites of collection.

    2. Egg development time was shorter under northern photoperiod regimes for both populations. However, the northern latitude population showed a higher phenotypic plasticity response to photoperiod compared with the southern latitude population, suggesting a genetic difference in egg development time in response to photoperiod.

    3. Larvae from both latitudes expressed shorter larval development time and faster growth rates under northern photoperiod regimes. There was no difference in phenotypic plastic response between northern and southern latitude populations with regard to development time.

    4. Data on field collected adults showed that adult sizes decreased with an increase in latitude. This adult size difference was a genetically fixed trait, as the same size difference between populations was also found when larvae were reared in the laboratory.

    5. The results suggest phenotypic plasticity responses in life history traits to photoperiod, but also genetic differences between north and south latitude populations in response to photoperiod, which indicates the presence of a latitudinal compensating mechanism that is triggered by a photoperiod.

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