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  • 1.
    Brodin, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Drotz, Marcus K.
    Lake Vänern Museum Nat & Cultural Hist, S-53154 Linköping, Sweden.
    Individual variation in dispersal associated behavioral traits of the invasive Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis, H. Milne Edwards, 1854) during initial invasion of Lake Vänern, Sweden2014In: Current Zoology, ISSN 1674-5507, Vol. 60, no 3, p. 410-416Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding and predicting species range-expansions and biological invasions is an important challenge in modern ecology because of rapidly changing environments. Recent studies have revealed that consistent within-species variation in behavior (i.e. animal personality) can be imperative for dispersal success, a key stage in the invasion process. Here we investigate the composition and correlation of two important personality traits associated with invasion success, activity and boldness, and how they are connected to sex and individual size in a newly colonised population of the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis in Lake Vanern, Sweden. We found no effect of sex or size on behavioral expressions of E. sinensis but a clear positive correlation between boldness and activity. In addition, this study generates important baseline data for monitoring behavioral development, and thereby changing ecological impact, of an invading population over time. This has implications for predicting ecological effects of invasive species as well as for managing ecological invasions.

  • 2.
    Hellström, Gustav
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Magnhagen, Carin
    Balancing past and present: how experience influences boldness over time in Eurasian perch2017In: Current Zoology, ISSN 1674-5507, Vol. 63, no 2, p. 159-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adapting to fluctuating predation conditions is a challenge for prey. By learning through experience, animals may adjust their anti-predator behavior to better reflect current predation risk. Although many studies show experience of predation to alter prey behavior, little is known about how prey rely on such experience over time. By comparing boldness over different temporal scales between individuals of Eurasian perch, either experienced or naive of predators, we examine how risk is traded based on past and present experience. Differences in predator exposure during the first year of life were found to lead to differences in risk-taking behavior, even after the perch been kept in a predator-free environment for 9 months. However, the response to a potential predator was quickly readjusted after increased experience of current conditions. The results highlight how prey have to balance past experiences of predators against current threat levels.

  • 3.
    Heynen, Martina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Bunnefeld, Nils
    Borcherding, Jost
    Facing different predators: adaptiveness of behavioral and morphological traits under predation2017In: Current Zoology, ISSN 1674-5507, Vol. 63, no 3, p. 249-257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Predation is thought to be one of the main structuring forces in animal communities. However, selective predation is often measured on isolated traits in response to a single predatory species, but only rarely are selective forces on several traits quantified or even compared between different predators naturally occurring in the same system. In the present study, we therefore measured behavioral and morphological traits in young-of-the-year Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis and compared their selective values in response to the 2 most common predators, adult perch and pike Esox lucius. Using mixed effects models and model averaging to analyze our data, we quantified and compared the selectivity of the 2 predators on the different morphological and behavioral traits. We found that selection on the behavioral traits was higher than on morphological traits and perch predators preyed overall more selectively than pike predators. Pike tended to positively select shallow bodied and nonvigilant individuals (i.e. individuals not performing predator inspection). In contrast, perch predators selected mainly for bolder juvenile perch (i.e. individuals spending more time in the open, more active), which was most important. Our results are to the best of our knowledge the first that analyzed behavioral and morphological adaptations of juvenile perch facing 2 different predation strategies. We found that relative specific predation intensity for the divergent traits differed between the predators, providing some additional ideas why juvenile perch display such a high degree of phenotypic plasticity.

  • 4.
    Thorlacius, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Hellström, Gustav
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Behavioral dependent dispersal in the invasive round goby Neogobius melanostomus depends on population age2015In: Current Zoology, ISSN 1674-5507, Vol. 61, no 3, p. 529-542Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biological invasions cause major ecological and economic costs in invaded habitats. The round goby Neogobius melanostomus is a successful invasive species and a major threat to the biodiversity and ecological function of the Baltic Sea. It is native to the Ponto-Caspian region and has, via ballast water transport of ships, invaded the Gulf of Gdansk in Poland. Since 1990, it has spread as far north as Raahe in Northern Finland (64 degrees 41'04"N, 24 degrees 28'44"E). Over the past decade, consistent individual differences of behavioral expressions have been shown to explain various ecological processes such as dispersal, survival or reproduction. We have previously shown that new and old populations differ in personality trait expression. Individuals in new populations are bolder, less sociable and more active than in old populations. Here we investigate if the behavioral differentiation can be explained by phenotype-dependent dispersal. This was investigated by measuring activity, boldness and sociability of individually marked gobies, and subsequently allowing them to disperse in a system composed of five consecutive tanks connected by tubes. Individual dispersal tendency and distance was measured. Our results revealed that in newly established populations, more active individuals disperse sooner and that latency of a group to disperse depends on the mean sociability of the group. This indicates the presence of personality dependent dispersal in this species and that it is maintained at the invasion front but lost as the populations get older.

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