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  • 1. Andersson, Elias
    et al.
    Keskitalo, E Carina H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Service logics and strategies of Swedish forestry in the structural shifts of forest ownership: challenging the "old" and shaping the "new"2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is one of the most forested countries in Europe, and it has one of the highest shares of productive forest. Production in forestry is largely reliant on the private non-industrial forest owners, who own half of the forest land. As in many countries, however, forest ownership is changing towards a higher extent of urban, female or non-forestry-background owners. This poses a challenge for the forestry services sector, mainly forest owners' associations and companies, but also broadly the sector at large. By exploring the sales and marketing processes, this paper analyses the service logics and strategies of Swedish forestry under changing forest ownership, drawing on an interview study covering all the large actors in the Swedish forestry sector. The study illustrates an increased focus of forestry organizations on services from a strategic and managerial perspective, in customer-oriented relationship development and in value creation and sales processes, specifically in order to manage "new" forest owners and the demand of forest industries. The results highlight the domination of service logics associated with timber production and the challenges for the service market and the provision of diversified services to forest owners.

  • 2. Andersson, Elias
    et al.
    Keskitalo, E Carina H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Bergstén, Sabina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    In the eye of the storm: adaptation logics of forest owners in management and planning in Swedish areas2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 33, no 8, p. 800-808Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With a changing climate, storm and wind throw is becoming an increasing risk to forest. However, Swedish forest management practices have so far involved relatively little consideration of adaptation to climate change. This study examined resistance and alternatives to business as usual forest management, drawing upon material obtained in interviews with individual forest owners who spontaneously identified and discussed storm and wind throw as a risk to their forest. They thereby expressed a logic differing from that of the forest industry in Sweden, which has largely normalised storm risk rather than considering it in climate change adaptation work. The present analysis illustrates the broad and largely concerned position of individual forest owners, in contrast with a more established industry position on storm as an accepted and existing risk. Overall, the study highlights the diversity, agency and power relations within Swedish forestry and the forested landscape - aspects that are vital to better understanding processes relevant to forest and climate change adaptation.

  • 3. Andersson, Jon
    et al.
    Dynesius, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Hjalten, Joakim
    Short-term response to stump harvesting by the ground flora in boreal clearcuts2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 239-245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied short-term ground vegetation responses to stump harvesting by recording the occurrence of all species of bryophytes, vascular plants and the cover of soil disturbance on 20 clearcuts in the Southern and Middle Boreal zone in northern Scandinavia. All 20 clearcuts were slash-harvested and scarified and 10 of the clearcuts were also stump-harvested. The added effect of stump harvesting was assessed by comparing stump-harvested clearcuts with non-stump-harvested clearcuts. We tested whether stump harvesting causes extra soil disturbance compared to conventional forestry and if stump harvesting is affecting the assemblage, species richness and occurrence of individual species of vascular plants and bryophytes in boreal clearcuts. Our results revealed that stump harvesting causes an increase in the area of disturbed soil surface compared to conventional harvesting. Four of the most commonly occurring plant species in this area were significantly affected by stump harvesting, and Vaccinium vitis-idaea had a median occurrence of only 20% of that in non-stump-harvested clearcuts. The large impact on some plant species from a relatively modest increase of soil disturbance caused by stump harvesting suggest that stumps, with their slightly elevated bases, contributes to the survival of certain species on clearcuts.

  • 4.
    Backman, Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Mårald, Erland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Is there a Nordic Model for the treatment of introduced tree species?: A comparison of the use, policy, and debate concerning introduced tree species in the Nordic countries2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 222-232Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article compares the use, policy, and debate concerning introduced tree species in the five Nordic countries (Finland, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, and Iceland). These countries have a long common history and are culturally similar. They are often framed under the benchmark of the Nordic Model or even the Nordic Forestry Model. Therefore, we hypothesize that the Nordic countries' treatment of introduced tree species share common aspects, and that global environmental agreements and international currents in science and policy have reinforced these similarities. The comparison shows that globalization is strong and it seems, at least at a first glimpse, that the Nordic countries follow a kind of Nordic Model in their approach to introduced tree species. However, the history and importance of forestry, ecological conditions, afforestation campaigns, traditions of using introduced trees, understandings, and stakeholder positions have shaped different national and even regional path dependencies and circumstances. This, in turn, has transmuted international policy-making, regulations, and discussions into different specific ways to interpret, control, and implement the use of introduced trees in practice. This article concludes that global environmental agreements and international currents in science and policy adapt to diverse national contexts.

  • 5.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Sjögren, Jörgen
    Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Umeå, Sweden.
    Sonesson, Johan
    Department of Forestry Management, Forestry Research Institute of Sweden (Skogsforsk), Uppsala.
    Nordin, Annika
    Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Umeå, Sweden.
    A struggling collaborative process: revisiting the woodland key habitat concept in Swedish forests2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The term woodland key habitat (WKH) was launched in Sweden in 1990. Definitions for the concept have changed over the years, and today the WKH concept and its application are issues of debate in Sweden. Consequently, the Swedish Forestry Agency (SFA) initiated a collaborative process including forest stakeholders with the purpose to clarify the application and develop the inventory methodology of WKH. We have studied, by means of interviews and observations, participant perceptions of how endogenous and exogenous factors affect the collaborative process. During our research, we identified three game changers: the pause in WKH registration in northwestern Sweden that caused several participants to drop out of the process; budget allocations for new nationwide WKH inventories that put the process on hold; and formal instructions from the government that came nine months later and essentially re-initiated the collaborative process. Altogether, this not only affected the participants’ abilities, understanding and willingness to participate, but also the overall legitimacy of the process – indicating the difficulty of conducting policy development in collaborative form, especially when it is highly politicized since it impact on the participants’ anticipation of the process and its end results.

  • 6.
    Bostedt, Göran
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. European Forest Institute, North European Regional Office, SLU, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Forest Economics, SLU, Umeå, Sweden.
    Mustonen, Mika
    LUKE, Finland.
    Gong, Peichen
    SLU.
    Increasing Forest Biomass Supply in Northern Europe – Countrywide Estimates and Economic Perspectives2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 314-322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Woody biomass is the largest source of renewable energy in Europe, and the expected increase in demand for wood for energy purposes was the stimulus for writing this paper. Opportunities to increase the supply of forest biomass in the short and long term are discussed, as well as environmental side effects of intensive forest management. Focusing on northern Europe, national estimates of potential annual fellings and the corresponding potential amounts, simulated by the European Forest Information Scenario model, are then presented, as well as reported fellings. For the region as a whole, there seems to be substantial unused biophysical potential, although recent data from some countries indicate underestimated annual felling rates. We argue that an economic perspective is lacking in the debate about wood production for energy purposes in Europe and harvest potentials, and we discuss the effects of biophysical capacity limits in forest yield from a partial equilibrium perspective. Using a larger proportion of the biophysical potential in northern Europe than at present will entail trade-offs with environmental and social values, which means that strategies are needed to protect and account for the benefits and costs of all forms of ecosystem services.

  • 7. Carina, E.
    et al.
    Keskitalo, Carina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Liljenfeldt, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Implementation of forest certification in Sweden: an issue of organisation and communication2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 29, no 5, p. 473-484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of nature conservation is often implemented on productive forest land largely by means of forest certification a market-driven, voluntary system of third-party verification of the fulfilment of specific goals. This study assesses how certification requirements are being implemented in various organisations in the forest sector at various levels, and the problems and opportunities identified at each level in order to implement the requirements of the standard. Based on interviews with 34 stakeholders in Sweden, the study demonstrates that forest certification is a communication issue: it places great demands on communication or "information logistics" between different parts of the felling and forest management chain, from the top management to the contractor in the field. Integration with environmental performance systems, clarity in the division of responsibility, formalisation of requirements for forest planning and further integration of a culture of continuous improvement and internal reporting could support implementation of the certification system.

  • 8.
    Egertsdotter, Ulrika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Plant physiological and genetical aspects of the somatic embryogenesis process in conifers2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 360-369Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The processes for producing conifer planting stock by somatic embryogenesis (SE) in conifers are described. Implementation of SE presents opportunities and limitations at various stages of the in vitro process. The topic of genetic stability, or somaclonal variation, is a particular concern and reviewed. Following the in vitro processes, several factors affect the successful acclimation, early growth and field performance of SE planting stock. Experiences with other conifer species in the context of commercial production are reviewed. While SE production has historically been a very labor-intensive process, recent advances have been made to automate the various steps. Developments to enable SE for Norway spruce in Sweden are described.

  • 9.
    Eriksson, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Explaining gender differences in private forest risk management2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 33, no 7, p. 716-723Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many countries, lower levels of forest management activities have been observed among female forest owners compared to male owners. The present study examined potential explanations for gender differences in private forest risk management among forest owners in Sweden (n=1482) using a questionnaire. Results from this study confirmed a slightly lower level of forest risk management among female owners in proactively combating damage caused by climate change and animal browsing when compared to their male counterparts. Further gender differences were revealed on a structural level. For example, female owners displayed higher levels of education and were more often non-resident owners and urban owners, as compared to their male counterparts. In addition, female and male owners differed regarding social-psychological variables (e.g. forest values and threat and coping appraisals). However the greatest gender difference was found in involvement in forest planning and forestry work. Even though gender differences were evident on multiple levels, involvement in forest issues and forest planning were found to be most important for explaining gender differences in forest risk management. By disentangling predictors of gender differences in private forest risk management, this study may contribute to a more strategic gender approach to forest risk governance.

  • 10.
    Ezebilo, Eugene E
    et al.
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Browsing damage by moose in Swedish forests: assessments by hunters and foresters2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 27, no 7, p. 659-668Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, there is a longstanding conflict between the use of forests for timber production and game for hunting due to browsing damages on young forests. This study examines the assessments of two stakeholder groups regarding browsing damage by moose. The data originated from a mail survey that involved hunters and forest owners in Sweden. The samples were randomly selected from two national registers of hunters and forest owners, respectively. An ordered logit model was used to account for the assessments of severity of moose browsing damage. The results showed that on average, non-forest owning hunters rated the browsing damage on their main hunting ground lower than non-hunting forest owners rated the browsing damage on their forest estate. The respondents who both hunt and own forest had a rating that was intermediate between the former two groups. The ratings were mainly influenced by level of activity in improving game habitat, quantity of moose meat obtained, level of moose on forest estate and the importance of bagging game as well as forest estate size, hunting ground size, and the stakeholder group that the respondents belong. The findings can help in designing strategies for conflict resolution between forestry and hunting for moose.

  • 11.
    Fransson, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Nilsson, Urban
    Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Lindroos, Ola
    Department of Forest Biomaterials and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Franklin, Oskar
    Ecosystems Services and Management Program, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria.
    Brännström, Åke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics. Evolution and Ecology Program, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria.
    Model-based investigation on the effects of spatial evenness, and size selection in thinning of Picea abies stands2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 189-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Size and spatial distribution of trees are important for forest stand growth, but the extent to which itmatters in thinning operations, in terms of wood production and stand economy, has rarely beendocumented. Here we investigate how the choice of spatial evenness and tree-size distribution ofresidual trees impacts wood production and stand economy. A spatially explicit individual-basedgrowth model was used, in conjunction with empirical cost functions for harvesting andforwarding, to calculate net production and net present value for different thinning operations inNorway spruce stands in Northern Sweden. The in silico thinning operations were defined by threevariables: (1) spatial evenness after thinning, (2) tree size preference for harvesting, and (3) basalarea reduction. We found that thinning that increases spatial evenness increases net productionand net present value by around 2.0%, compared to the worst case. When changing the spatialevenness in conjunction with size preference we could observe an improvement of the netproduction and net present value up to 8.0%. The magnitude of impact differed greatly betweenthe stands (from 1.7% to 8.0%) and was highest in the stand with the lowest stem density.

  • 12.
    Funda, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Wennstrom, Ulfstand
    Almqvist, Curt
    Torimaru, Takeshi
    Gull, Bengt Andersson
    Wang, Xiao-Ru
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Low rates of pollen contamination in a Scots pine seed orchard in Sweden: the exception or the norm?2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 30, no 7, p. 573-586Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated mating structure and gene flow in a clonal seed orchard of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) over three consecutive pollination seasons (2010-2012) with nine nuclear microsatellite markers. The paternity of 1991 offspring from four maternal parents was assigned to 28 candidate fathers using an exclusion procedure and a likelihood-based method implemented in the program CERVUS. Relative reproductive success was highly variable among pollen parents but consistent across years and ranged from 0.1% to 18.3%. Consequently, the seed crops' effective number of fathers was reduced to 52.9%, 48.8%, and 45.7% of the census in the three seasons, respectively. Self-fertilization fluctuated around the orchard's expected value of 5.1%, reaching 4.05%, 7.71%, and 6.61%, respectively. Pollen contamination was estimated to be 5.64%, 7.29%, and 4.89%, respectively, after correction for cryptic gene flow. CERVUS provided similar results as the exclusion method, but estimates greatly varied depending on the input parameters, mainly the proportion of fathers sampled. These results indicate the studied seed orchard is a well-functioning production population with only minor negative effects of self-fertilization and pollen contamination on the quality of seed crops. Genotyping issues associated with microsatellites as a potential source of false paternity assignment and exclusion are discussed.

  • 13.
    Hof, Anouschka R.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), SE 901 83 Umea, Sweden.
    Svahlin, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Not erroneous but cautious conclusions about the potential effect of climate change on the geographical distribution of insect pest species in the Swedish boreal forest. Response to Bjorklund et al. (2015)2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 128-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We argue that the conclusions drawn from the paper The potential effect of climate change on the geographical distribution of insect pest species in the Swedish boreal forest, published in the Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research were not erroneous as stated by a letter published in the same journal by Bjorklund et al. (2015. Erroneous conclusions about current geographical distribution and future expansion of forest insects in Northern Sweden: Comments on Hof and Svahlin (2015). Scand. J. Forest Res), but cautious. We regret possible underestimations caused by lack of occurrence records for some species for some areas. However, basing predictions of the impact of future climate change on the distribution of species on current range maps likely leads to grave overestimations of future range predictions since current range maps assume species are homogenously distributed throughout the landscape, which is often not the case. We argue that underestimating the distribution range of pest species rather than overestimating their distribution pinpoints areas that may need extra attention in future better, and therefore chose to be cautious rather than bold. We further like to stress that one should always be aware of possible insect outbreaks throughout the region, not only because predictions may underestimate the future distribution of species but also since the location and likelihood of insect pest outbreaks is not only determined by climatic factors.

  • 14.
    Hof, Anouschka R.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Umea SE 901 83, Sweden.
    Svahlin, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    The potential effect of climate change on the geographical distribution of insect pest species in the Swedish boreal forest2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 29-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the expected rising temperatures, outbreaks of insect pests may be more frequent, which can have large consequences on forest ecosystems and may therefore negatively affect the forestry sector. In order to be better able to predict where, but not if, outbreaks may occur in future we investigated the potential future (2070) geographical distribution of 30 prospective insect pest species (Coleoptera and Lepidoptera) by applying species distribution modelling. We also assessed the geographical extent to which the boreal forest in Sweden may be affected. We found that numerous species may experience large increases in their potential distribution in future, which may result in outbreaks in new areas. It is therefore likely that more trees will be infested by pests in future, which may have large implications for the Swedish forestry sector.

  • 15.
    Ingvarsson, Pär K.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Department of Plant Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala BioCentre, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Dahlberg, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    The effects of clonal forestry on genetic diversity in wild and domesticated stands of forest trees2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 370-379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The level of genetic diversity maintained in a population is determined by the combined action of mutation, gene flow, genetic drift and selection. Forest tree breeding is a relatively recent phenomenon compared to most crop species and the material that is being deployed is, genetically, often very similar to wild-growing populations. The introduction of vegetative propagation has been hailed as a more efficient and flexible method than seed orchards to rapidly realize breeding progress and to adapt material to future climate change. What remains unclear is how a large deployment of vegetatively propagated material may affect the patterns of genetic diversity within and among forest stands. Here we review what is currently known about genetic diversity in managed and natural forest stands and specifically address the impacts of clonal forestry. To assess this we develop a quantitative model to describe the consequences of clone deployment on genetic and genotypic diversity in Swedish forests. We conclude with some remarks specific to Swedish conditions, likely scenarios for clonal deployment and finally some suggestions for future research priorities.

  • 16.
    Jonsson, Mattias
    et al.
    Department of Ecology, PO Box 7044, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-750 07, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ranius, Thomas
    Department of Ecology, PO Box 7044, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-750 07, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ekvall, Hans
    Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-9101 83, Umeå, Sweden.
    Bostedt, Göran
    Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-9101 83, Umeå, Sweden.
    Cost-effectiveness of silvicultural measures to increase substrate availability for wood-dwelling species: A comparison between boreal tree species2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 46-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analysed the cost-effectiveness of silvicultural measures that increase substrate availability for saproxylic (wood-dwelling) species. Mixed stands of Norway spruce (Picea abies L.), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh and Betula pendula Roth) or aspen (Populus tremula L.) in three regions of Sweden were modelled. Inverted cost-effectiveness was calculated by dividing the economic cost associated with a silvicultural measure by the increase in coarse woody debris (CWD) and an index reflecting substrate availability for red-listed saproxylic beetles and cryptogams, compared with a reference scenario maximizing economic profit. Tree species had a large impact on the cost-effectiveness of green tree retention: Scots pine was the most costly tree species to retain and aspen and birch the most cost-effective. Tree species also had an impact, albeit smaller, on the cost-effectiveness of the creation of high stumps. It was most cost-effective to create high stumps from birch and aspen in southern Sweden, whereas in northern Sweden it was more cost-effective to create high stumps from pine and spruce. Therefore, when increasing the amount of coarse woody debris (CWD), deciduous trees should be targeted in southern Sweden more than in the north. However, it is important that CWD is created from all tree species, because different tree species support different assemblages of saproxylic species. As regards measures that are not associated with particular tree species, retention of snags at final harvest is a cost-effective measure in all regions, whereas increasing the rotation period is costly.

  • 17. Keskitalo, E. C. H.
    et al.
    Liljenfeldt, J
    Implementation of forest certification in Sweden: an issue of organisation and communication2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 29, no 5, p. 473-484Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Kobayashi, Makoto
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Kamata, N
    Kamibayashi, N
    Koike, T
    Tani, H
    Bark-beetle-attacked trees produced more charcoal than unattacked trees during a forest fire on the Kenai Peninsula, Southern Alaska2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 30-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alaskan boreal forests frequently suffer from outbreaks of bark beetles and fires, factors that appear to combine to alter charcoal production. Charcoal (black carbon) production in forest ecosystems is an important pathway to clarify for a more complete understanding of the effects of fire on carbon cycling in boreal forests. In this study, we aimed to clarify the effects of prevalent outbreaks of the spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby), on charcoal production during forest fires in boreal forests. Snags with prefire damage by the spruce beetle (infested snags) have significantly more charcoal than those undamaged before fire (noninfested snags). This increased amount of charcoal in spruce beetle-damaged trees was probably the result of dried biomass in the canopies of these trees. The results of this study suggest that with changing environmental conditions, the proliferation of insect damage in the boreal forest can modify the effects of fire on carbon sink via a change in the amount of charcoal production.

  • 19.
    Laszlo Ambjörnsson, Emmeline
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Karlsson, Svante
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Forest discourses and the role of planning-related perspectives: the case of Sweden2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 111-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest use in Sweden may be seen as constituting an essentially conflicted area, in which a number of actors positionthemselves. Based on a review of policy documents, this study reviews discourses on forest amongst majororganisational actors between 2001 and 2011, with the aim of discussing the ways in which discourse may havechanged following increasing criticism of the previously dominating production paradigm during the period. Thestudy also discusses the ways in which forest discourses at present may also exclude areas that are relevant to forestplanning. Results illustrates the continuous role of, on the one hand, production and private ownership discoursesamong the forest industry, and, on the other, conservation and public access discourses, among environmental andother NGOs. Large differences thus continue to exist despite the double aim towards production and protection inSwedish forest law. Areas that are not directly related to this nexus although related to land use at large, such asmunicipal planning, on the other hand, are largely absent from discourse even if, for instance, shore planning andwind power issues that are related to municipal planning are taken up.

  • 20.
    Lidestav, Gun
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    Ekström, Magnus
    Department of Forest Resource Management and Geomatics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    Introducing gender in studies on management behaviour among non-industrial private forest owners2000In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 378-386Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The genderization of non-industrial private forest (NIPF) ownership creates different conditions for male and female forest owners. To compare male and female forest management behaviour and to examine whether observed differences should be understood in terms of gender, data from the Swedish National Board of Forestry's interview inquiry were used. Differences in frequency of harvesting and silvicultural operations were examined by binary logistic regression and differences in harvesting volume were tested by a multiple regression analysis. In all analyses sex of the owner was introduced as one of the explanatory variables. The sex of the owner was found to have a significant effect on the frequency of harvesting, cleaning and supplementary planting, but not on planting and mechanized scarification. In the cases when the sex of the owner was a significant factor, the degree of activity among the female owners was found to be lower. Results regarding harvested volumes did not expose ally significant differences in harvesting management strategies between male and female owners.

  • 21.
    Lie, Marit H.
    et al.
    Norwegian Univ Life Sci, Dept Ecol & Nat Resource Management, As, Norway.
    Josefsson, Torbjorn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Storaunet, Ken Olaf
    Norwegian Forest & Landscape Inst, As, Norway.
    Ohlson, Mikael
    Norwegian Univ Life Sci, Dept Ecol & Nat Resource Management, As, Norway.
    A refined view on the "Green lie'': Forest structure and composition succeeding early twentieth century selective logging in SE Norway2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 270-284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Logging exceeded growth and timber trees were sparse in Norwegian forests in the early 1900s. Still, the forest canopy was lush green and characterised by large tree-crowns. This situation was referred to as the "Green lie'' and was advocated by foresters throughout Scandinavia as an argument in favour of forestry practices based on clear-felling. Here we examine effects of past selective loggings on forest structure and composition in a spruce forest landscape using dendroecology and historical records. Our results show that forests that were selectively logged up to the early 1900s could be structurally heterogeneous with multi-layered canopies, varying degree of openness and continuous presence of old trees across different spatial scales. Because the past forests were not clear-felled, a diverse forest structure in terms of tree species composition and age and diameter distribution was maintained over time, which could enable forest-dwelling species to persist during the early phase following the loggings in the past. This is in sharp contrast to the situation in most modern managed forest landscapes in Scandinavia. A better understanding of the link between loggings in the past- and present-day forest structure and diversity will contribute to rewarding discussions on forestry methods for the future.

  • 22.
    Lindkvist, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Mineur, Eva
    The Swedish Research Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nordlund, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nordlund, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Olsson, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Keskitalo, Carina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Attitudes on intensive forestry: an investigation into perceptions of increased production requirements in Swedish forestry2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 438-448Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2008, the Swedish government launched an inquiry into the possibilities, benefits and requirements for conducting intensive forestry in part of the Swedish countryside, including fertilization, genetically improved plant material and fastgrowing species beyond what is currently allowed in Swedish legislation. Drawing upon part of that governmental investigation, this paper analyzes attitudes toward intensive forestry over time. The study draws upon studies of points of conflict written in the 1970s and 1980s, attitudes among different stakeholder groups, and interviews with forest owners and stakeholder groups potentially affected by intensive forestry. The study concludes that the diverging opinions as to what constitutes acceptable forest use have remained largely the same over the years. Radical landscape change is generally not seen as desirable, but views diverge over the use of novel tree species and the use of fertilization.

  • 23.
    Magnusson, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Department of Wildlife, Fish, and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden.
    Olsson, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Department of Wildlife, Fish, and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden.
    Hedenås, Henrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden.
    Red-listed wood-inhabiting fungi in natural and managed forest landscapes adjacent to the timberline in central Sweden2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 29, no 5, p. 455-465Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many wood-inhabiting fungi are today threatened as modern forestry practices drastically reduce the amount of dead wood available in various forest ecosystems. We investigated whether the occurrence of red-listed wood-inhabiting fungi differed between natural and managed forest landscapes adjacent to the timberline in the middle part of Sweden. We assessed whether environmental variables such as the degree of human impact, length of forest roads, dead wood volume and quality affected species richness and abundance. The effects of forestry on wood-inhabiting fungi have been assessed in several studies in lowland Swedish forests. Few studies have, however, been conducted in forest landscapes adjacent to the timberline in Sweden. This is potentially important since forests close to the Swedish mountains have been pointed out as one of few intact forest landscapes in Fennoscandia and they are subjected to increasing logging pressure. Similar to other studies, species numbers and abundances were positively correlated with larger volumes of logs in various decay stages. However, never shown previously, the length of forest roads was negatively correlated with species abundance and occurrence of red-listed species. We suggest that a low amount of forest roads can be used as a conservation indicator to localize still-intact forest landscapes.

  • 24.
    Makoto, Kobayashi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Tani, Hiroshi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Kamata, Naoto
    High-resolution multispectral satellite image and a postfire ground survey reveal prefire beetle damage on snags in Southern Alaska2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 28, no 6, p. 581-585Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alaskan spruce forests are exposed to both fire and spruce beetles [Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby)]. To understand the influence of spruce beetles on the process through which fire affects ecosystem function, we developed a reconstruction technique to measure prefire damage to trees caused by the spruce beetle. We validated our evaluation of prefire tree conditions using a high-resolution multispectral satellite image by comparing our results with a postfire ground survey. The prefire tree conditions determined by the two methods coincided well with each other. This result suggests that combining high-resolution multispectral imaging and postfire ground surveys of spruce beetles on snags is a powerful tool to determine the prefire condition of a forest in a changing boreal forest ecosystem.

  • 25.
    Mårald, Erland
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Rist, Lucy
    Rosvall, Ola
    Samuelsson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Idenfors, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Exploring the use of a dialogue process to tackle a complex and controversial issue in forest management2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 30, no 8, p. 749-756Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the use of a dialogue process to approach complex issues related to forest management. Aninterdisciplinary research team set up an experimental dialogue process concerning the use of introduced tree speciesin Southern Sweden for the purposes of climate change adaptation. The process involved stakeholders at a regionallevel, including those with divergent opinions regarding introduced tree species and their use in forestry. Through aprocess of repeated meetings and exchanges with researchers, the participant’s knowledge was deepened and grouprelationships developed such that the group was able to jointly formulate a set of policy recommendations. Theinvestigation revealed that dialogue processes may improve decision-making by identifying priorities for action orfurther research. However, when a collaborative process targets complex environmental issues on larger geographicaland temporal scales, as matters about forests typically do, a collaborative process must be integrated with externalactors and institutions in order to attain tangible outcomes. Consequently, to fully access the benefits of usingcollaborative processes to handle complex challenges in forest policy and management, the connections betweenpolitical sphere, the private sector, authorities and research institutions must be concretely established.

  • 26. Nittérus , Karolina
    et al.
    Åström, Marcus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Gunnarsson, Bengt
    Commercial harvest of logging residue in clear-cuts affects the diversity and community composition of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae)2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 231-240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]
    Structural complexity of the habitat is known to influence the diversity and abundance of arthropod populations. Earlier studies have shown that presence of logging residue (slash) on the ground contributes to microhabitat complexity and removal of slash for biofuel in clear-cuts can have short-term (∼1 year) effects on ground-active beetle populations. This study examines the consequences of slash removal on carabids (Coleoptera: Carabidae) 5-7 years after harvest. Sampling of beetles was done by pitfall trapping in three matched clear-cut pairs, in spruce forest in central Sweden. The number and diversity (Berger-Parker dominance index) of carabid species were significantly higher in clear-cuts with slash harvest than in sites where slash was left on the ground. No difference in the overall rank-abundance pattern was found between clear-cuts with different slash treatments, but for species with certain habitat preferences the community was significantly altered. In all clear-cuts, slash removal caused a shift in dominance with an increase in generalist species and a decline in forest species. The results show that removal of slash may have long-lasting effects on the carabid community composition and structure. Hence, in forest landscapes with large-scale biofuel harvest, generalist carabid species may increase their abundance. Following the precautionary principle, it is suggested that every fifth clear-cut should be free of slash harvest.
  • 27. Nummelin, Tuomas
    et al.
    Widmark, Camilla
    Riala, Maria
    Sténs, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Nordström, Eva-Maria
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Nordin, Annika
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Forest futures by Swedish students: developing a mind mapping method for data collection2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 32, no 8, p. 807-817Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forests are an important natural resource in Sweden. They are used for multiple purposes, for example, providing economic returns from timber harvest, conservation of biodiversity, provision of wild berries and mushrooms and recreational benefits. People's perceptions of forests and forest use are currently under transformation due to drivers like globalization and urbanization. The aim of this study was to analyse in particular Swedish university student's visions of future forests using a newly developed survey method based on mind mapping. An online survey with mind map technique was used to collect data from university students in Umeå, northern Sweden. The study focused on features of forests, products derived from forests and activities in forests. The results indicate that students regard ecological, social and economic aspects of forests as important for future forests and the use of them. In particular, the role of non-wood forest products, like berries and mushrooms, as well as recreational features of forests were central to many of the students. The multitude of different visions suggests that forest management decisions of today, directing the future of forests, need to consider the multiple use of forests to be able to satisfy forest preferences also of younger generations.

  • 28.
    Olsson, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Changed availability of urban fringe forests in Sweden in 2000-20102013In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 386-394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although recreational pressure correlates to population size which in turn influences city growth, there is little evidence of how such processes of urban growth have affected the availability of urban fringe forests (forests with good recreational qualities located completely outside and up to 3 km from the city borders). Hence, the aim of this study was to examine consequences of urban growth on urban fringe forest availability in Sweden for the period 20002010. An overlay analysis was conducted in a GIS to identify urban fringe forests with good recreational qualities. A selection of Swedish cities with >2000 inhabitants (n = 428) was used along with a regional division to identify trends of cities in forest regions and in other regions. Results showed that the median availability of urban fringe forests had increased in all regions, both in absolute amounts and per 1000 inhabitants. A majority of the cities individually showed increased levels of urban fringe forests, despite contemporary urban growth. Availability had also decreased in about a third of the cities, most notably among those with greater population growth. Increasing populations and a future demand for recreation in proximate forests make further studies relevant, as other processes than urban growth have affected the availability of urban fringe forests.

  • 29.
    Ringdahl, Ola
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Lindroos, Ola
    Dept. of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Hellström, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Bergström, Dan
    Athanassiadis, Dimitris
    Dept. of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Nordfjell, Tomas
    Dept. of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Path tracking in forest terrain by an autonomous forwarder2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 350-359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomous navigation in forest terrain, where operation paths are rarely straight or flat and obstacles are common, is challenging. This paper evaluates a system designed to autonomously follow previously demonstrated paths in a forest environment without loading/unloading timber, a pre-step in the development of fully autonomous forwarders. The system consisted of a forwarder equipped with a high-precision global positioning system to measure the vehicle’s heading and position. A gyro was used to compensate for the influence of the vehicle’s roll and pitch. On an ordinary clear-cut forest area with numerous stumps, the vehicle was able to follow two different tracks, three times each at a speed of 1 m s-1, with a mean path tracking error of 6 and 7 cm, respectively. The error never exceeded 35 cm, and in 90% of the observations it was less than 14 and 15 cm, respectively. This accuracy is well within the necessary tolerance for forestry operations. In fact, a human operator would probably have a hard time following the track more accurately. Hence, the developed systems function satisfactorily when using previously demonstrated paths. However, further research on planning new paths in unknown unstructured terrain and on loading/unloading is required before timber transports can be fully automated.

  • 30. Rosvall, Ola
    et al.
    Bradshaw, Richard H. W.
    Egertsdotter, Ulrika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish Agricultural University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Ingvarsson, Par K.
    Wu, Harry
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Using Norway spruce clones in Swedish forestry: introduction2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 333-335Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this introductory paper, we briefly review the history of using clones in Swedish forestry. The different approaches of using clones are defined as: (1) "clonal forestry", the deployment of tested selected clones, and (2) "family forestry" with vegetative multiplication of crosses between elite parents. Clones of Norway spruce may be deployed as rooted cuttings or as propagules produced via somatic embryogenesis (SE). The speed and flexibility of using clones is compared with the traditional deployment of reforestation stock raised from seed orchard seed. The key questions addressed in this special issue are presented: (1) what are the benefits and risks of using clones in forestry, (2) what physiological and genetic effects are introduced by the SE propagation technology, (3) what are the long-term genetic consequences of changing genetic diversity by using clones, (4) what are the environmental consequences of using clones, and (5) what are the management implications from vegetatively propagated nursery stock?

  • 31. Rosvall, Ola
    et al.
    Bradshaw, Richard H. W.
    Egertsdotter, Ulrika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish Agricultural University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Ingvarsson, Pär K.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Mullin, Tim J.
    Wu, Harry
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Using Norway spruce clones in Swedish forestry: implications of clones for management2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 390-404Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This final paper of the series discusses implications of various aspects of using clones in forestry. Benefits from using clones are considerable. A large benefit arises from the ability to deploy genetic gain much sooner than is possible through conventional seed orchards. This benefit applies even to the use of clones to implement family forestry, even though the clones themselves are not tested. The requirement for genetic diversity at both the stand and landscape levels requires active management to ensure that diversity is conserved. This is achieved partly through the management of breeding populations, as well as by managing the genetic diversity and number of genotypes deployed in clone mixtures. A numerical example is given comparing diversity of clone and seed orchard deployment over time. Many aspects of managing concerns about using clones are about communication to clarify public perceptions and establishing a code of practice.

  • 32.
    Sonntag-Öström, Elisabet
    et al.
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Nordin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Dolling, Ann
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Lundell, Ylva
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Nilsson, Leif
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Slunga Järvholm, Lisbeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Can rehabilitation in boreal forests help recovery from exhaustion disorder?: the randomised clinical trial ForRest2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 30, no 8, p. 732-748Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern society is faced with increasing incidence of mental and behavioural disorders. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether visits to boreal forests can be utilised for rehabilitation from exhaustion disorder (ED). This randomised controlled trial comprised of a forest rehabilitation group (n = 35) and a waiting list group (control group) (n = 43) with subsequent cognitive behavioural rehabilitation (CBR) for all participants in both groups. The recovery from ED was compared between the forest rehabilitation and the control group at baseline, after the forest rehabilitation (3 months), and at the end of the CBR (1 year). Both groups had enhanced recovery from ED after the 3-month intervention period and at the end of the CBR (1 year), and there were no significant differences between the groups in terms of psychological health measures. Mental state, attention capacity and preferences for different forest environments were studied during the forest visits. Mental state was improved, but it showed some seasonal differences. A significant effect on attention capacity was found for single forest visits, but there was no effect found for the rehabilitation period as a whole. The most popular forest environments contained easily accessible, open and bright settings with visible water and/or shelter. Forest rehabilitation did not enhance the recovery from ED compared to the control group, but the participants’ well-being was improved after single forest visits.

  • 33.
    Sonntag-Öström, Elisabet
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Nordin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Slunga Järvholm, Lisbeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Lundell, Ylva
    Brännström, Rigmor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Dolling, Ann
    Can the boreal forest be used for rehabilitation and recovery from stress-related exhaustion? A pilot study.2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 245-256Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been suggested that humans suffering from mental exhaustion recover better in environments that do not demand directed attention. Hence, we hypothesized that forests have restorative effects and examined whether the boreal forest in northern Sweden can be used for rehabilitation from stress-related exhaustion in a pilot study. Six participants suffering from stress-related exhaustion were offered visits twice a week, for 11 weeks, in six different forest settings: pine forest, mixed forest, spruce forest, forest by the lake, the forest with a small stream and rock outcrops. The participants chose one forest setting prior to each visit, and the mental state of each participant was evaluated before and after each visit. Interviews focusing on the experience of the forest were conducted after the 22 visits. Solitude and forest settings with light were identified as positive factors for recovery. Despite the limited amount of data, the results showed that the forest visits had significant positive effects on the participants' mental state. The interviews also indicated that the concept is suitable for use in larger randomized studies and that it is important to provide various forest settings to meet individual preferences of the participants and to offer the possibility of solitude.

  • 34.
    Torimaru, Takeshi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Hirosaki University, Hirosaki, Japan.
    Wennstrom, Ulfstand
    Andersson, Bengt
    Almqvist, Curt
    Wang, Xiao-Ru
    Reduction of pollen contamination in Scots pine seed orchard crop by tent isolation2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 28, no 8, p. 715-723Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the differences in mating system between indoor versus outdoor Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seed orchard using DNA markers. By analyzing the paternities in seed crops from isolation tents, we found a significant reduction in contamination rate, from 23% in the outdoor open blocks to 0% inside the tents. Increase in selfing rate and a decrease in genetic diversity in the crops were also observed inside the tents. These undesirable effects can be mitigated to some extent by the supplementation of extra pollen genotypes, e.g. selfing rate decreased from 14.4% to 6.6% and the effective number of fathers increased from 6 to 11.4 in the tents without and with supplemental mass pollination, respectively. Our study showed that tent isolation may become an effective rescuer for seed orchards where pollen contamination is severe.

  • 35.
    Widman, Ulrika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Protecting forests’ social values through partnerships2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 32, no 7, p. 633-644Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the potential of public–private partnerships to contribute to the resolution of decision-making dilemmas concerning private goods that also provide public services. We focus on forests that deliver many ecosystem services and are important for biodiversity, which pose problems regarding the values that should be considered in their protection and exploitation. Conflicts between the interests and values concerned (or at least prioritization difficulties) will arise and their satisfactory resolution will require some kind of collaboration between governmental authorities and private forest owners. Thus, the Swedish Forest Agency has initiated a pilot project on a new form of such partnerships, Nature Conservation Agreements for social values, which are considered as a case study here. We use an adapted version of the Ladder of Partnership Activity, which includes theoretical constructs such as context, perceptions and motives, creation of collaborative advantages and the constitution of rules, to see if and how these partnerships can enhance an embedded governance system, by enabling the actors to address collective problems in a mutually satisfactory manner. Our results contribute knowledge on how the governance of forests can be designed, and the kinds of values that could be included to spur the implementation of partnerships.

  • 36.
    Wu, Harry X.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Department Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Benefits and risks of using clones in forestry - a review2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 352-359Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of vegetative propagation in forestry has a long history. In this chapter of special issue, the genetic gain from clonal forestry relative to family forestry is reviewed. Both theoretical studies and experimental data from progeny and clonal trials indicate that extra genetic gain (5-25%) is possible in conifer from clone testing and deployment relative to deployment of family forestry, effectively doubling that achievable from family forestry within the same generation. There are three perceived risks from using clones in forestry: (1) risk of plantation failure, (2) risk of diversity loss at the forest and landscape levels, and (3) risk associated with success rate of vegetative (or SE) propagation. Three theoretical models are reviewed and described to assess risk and to determine the number of clones required to mitigate these risks. All studies support that a "safe" number of clones is between 5 and 30. Genetic gains and experiences are reported for individual species, particularly in conifers, as well as in Eucalypts. The combination of genomic selection with somatic embryogenesis has the potential to accelerate the development of clonal forestry by shortening clonal testing or omitting long-term clonal testing completely.

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