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  • 1. Alberto Diaz-Sanchez, Adrian
    et al.
    Corona-Gonzalez, Belkis
    Meli, Marina L.
    Obregon Alvarez, Dasiel
    Vega Canizares, Ernesto
    Fonseca Rodriguez, Osvaldo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Centro Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria (CENSA), San José de las Lajas, Mayabeque, Cuba.
    Lobo Rivero, Evelyn
    Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina
    First molecular evidence of bovine hemoplasma species (Mycoplasma spp.) in water buffalo and dairy cattle herds in Cuba2019In: Parasites & Vectors, ISSN 1756-3305, E-ISSN 1756-3305, Vol. 12, article id 78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Hemotropic mycoplasmas (aka hemoplasmas) are small bacteria which cause infectious anemia in several mammalian species including humans. Information on hemoplasma infections in Cuban bovines remains scarce and no studies applying molecular methods have been performed so far. The aim of the present study was to utilize real-time PCR and sequence analysis to investigate dairy cattle and buffalo from Cuba for the presence of bovine hemoplasma species.

    Results: A total of 80 blood samples from 39 buffalo and 41 dairy cattle were investigated for the presence of Mycoplasma wenyonii and Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos using two species-specific real-time TaqMan PCR assays. PCR results revealed overall 53 (66.2%; 95% CI: 55.3-75.7%) positive animals for M. wenyonii and 33 (41.2%; 95% CI: 31.1-52.2%) for Ca. M. haemobos; the latter were all co-infections with M. wenyonii. The sample prevalences were similar in cattle and buffalo. Based on the sequence analysis of the nearly full-length 16S rRNA gene from two cattle and two buffalo, the presence of M. wenyonii and Ca. M. haemobos was confirmed. Statistical analysis revealed that buffalo and cattle one year of age or older were more frequently infected with M. wenyonii or Ca. M. haemobos than younger animals. PCR-positivity was not associated with anemia; however, the infection stage was unknown (acute infection versus chronic carriers).

    Conclusions: The high occurrence of bovine hemoplasma infections in buffalo and dairy cattle may have a significant impact on Cuban livestock production. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first molecular evidence of bovine hemoplasma species infection in dairy cattle and buffalo from Cuba and the Caribbean.

  • 2. Eeva, Tapio
    et al.
    Andersson, Tommi
    Berglund, Åsa M M
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Brommer, Jon E
    Hyvönen, Raimo
    Klemola, Tero
    Laaksonen, Toni
    Loukola, Olli
    Morosinotto, Chiara
    Rainio, Kalle
    Sirkiä, Päivi M
    Vesterinen, Eero J
    Species and abundance of ectoparasitic flies (Diptera) in pied flycatcher nests in Fennoscandia2015In: Parasites & Vectors, ISSN 1756-3305, E-ISSN 1756-3305, Vol. 8, article id 648Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Birds host several ectoparasitic fly species with negative effects on nestling health and reproductive output, and with the capability of transmitting avian blood parasites. Information on the abundance and distribution of the ectoparasitic fly genera Ornithomya (Hippoboscidae) and Protocalliphora (Calliphoridae) in northern Europe is still generally poor, and we thus explored their geographic range and occurrence of these flies in the nests of a common avian model species, the pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca. Methods: Nests of F. hypoleuca were collected from 21 locations across Fennoscandia in summer 2013, across a latitudinal gradient (between 56 degrees N - 70 degrees N) and examined for the presence of fly puparia. Adult specimens of Ornithomya spp. were also collected for species identification. Fly species were identified morphologically and identifications confirmed with DNA barcoding. Results: We found three species: two louse-flies - Ornithomya chloropus and O. avicularia - and one blow-fly, Protocalliphora azurea. The prevalence of O. avicularia was higher in southern latitudes and this species was not encountered beyond 62 degrees N whereas O. chloropus and P. azurea occurred across the whole range of latitudes. The prevalence of O. chloropus further increased with increasing distance from the coast - a pattern not documented before. The three fly species showed no interspecific associations in their prevalence. Conclusions: Our study revealed relatively high prevalence for all the species (O. chloropus 59 %, O. avicularia 20 %, P. azurea 32 %), and an interesting spatial pattern in the prevalence of the two louse fly species. Our sample did not indicate any major range shifts towards the north for the southern species as compared to the information from the past. Morphological identification of O. chloropus did not match with the corresponding sequences published in the GenBank and taxonomy of this group calls for further studies.

  • 3.
    Forsell, Joakim
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Bacteriology.
    Granlund, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Bacteriology.
    Samuelsson, Linn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Bacteriology.
    Koskiniemi, Satu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Bacteriology.
    Edebro, Helen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Bacteriology.
    Evengård, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases.
    High occurrence of Blastocystis sp subtypes 1-3 and Giardia intestinalis assemblage B among patients in Zanzibar, Tanzania2016In: Parasites & Vectors, ISSN 1756-3305, E-ISSN 1756-3305, Vol. 9, article id 370Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Blastocystis is a common intestinal parasite with worldwide distribution but the distribution of Blastocystis and its subtypes in East Africa is largely unknown. In this study, we investigate the distribution of Blastocystis subtypes in Zanzibar, Tanzania and report the prevalence of intestinal parasites using both molecular methods and microscopy.

    Methods: Stool samples were collected from both diarrhoeic and non-diarrhoeic outpatients in Zanzibar. In addition to microscopy, real-time PCR for Blastocystis, Entamoeba histolytica and E. dispar, Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium spp., and Dientamoeba fragilis was used. Blastocystis subtypes were determined by a conventional PCR followed by partial sequencing of the SSU-rRNA gene. Genetic assemblages of Giardia were determined by PCR with assemblage specific primers.

    Results: Intestinal parasites were detected in 85 % of the 174 participants, with two or more parasites present in 56 %. Blastocystis sp. and Giardia intestinalis were the most common parasites, identified by PCR in 61 and 53 % of the stool samples respectively, but no correlation between carriage of Blastocystis and Giardia was found. The Blastocystis subtype distribution was ST1 34.0 %, ST2 26.4 %, ST3 25.5 %, ST7 0.9 %, and 13.2 % were positive only by qPCR (non-typable). The Giardia genetic assemblages identified were A 6.5 %, B 85 %, A + B 4.3 %, and non-typable 4.3 %. The detection rate with microscopy was substantially lower than with PCR, 20 % for Blastocystis and 13.8 % for Giardia. The prevalence of Blastocystis increased significantly with age while Giardia was most prevalent in children two to five years old. No correlation between diarrhoea and the identification of Giardia, Blastocystis, or their respective genetic subtypes could be shown and, as a possible indication of parasite load, the mean cycle threshold values in the qPCR for Giardia were equal in diarrhoeic and non-diarrhoeic patients.

    Conclusions: Carriage of intestinal parasites was very common in the studied population in Zanzibar. The most commonly detected parasites, Blastocystis and Giardia, had different age distributions, possibly indicating differences in transmission routes, immunity, and/or other host factors for these two species. In the Blastocystis subtype analysis ST1-3 were common, but ST4, a subtype quite common in Europe, was completely absent, corroborating the geographical differences in subtype distributions previously reported.

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