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  • 1.
    De Beer, L. T.
    et al.
    WorkWell Research Unit, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, South Africa.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    WorkWell Research Unit, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, South Africa.
    Rothmann, Jr., S.
    WorkWell Research Unit, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, South Africa.
    Investigating the reversed causality of engagement and burnout in job demands-resources theory2013In: South African Journal of Industrial Psychology, ISSN 0258-5200, E-ISSN 2071-0763, Vol. 39, no 1, article id a1055Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Orientation: Reversed causality is an area that has not commanded major attention within the South African context, specifically pertaining to engagement, burnout and job demands resources. Therefore, this necessitated an investigation to elucidate the potential effects.

    Research purpose: To investigate the reversed causal hypotheses of burnout and engagement in job demands-resources theory over time.

    Motivation for the study: Organisations and researchers should be made aware of the effects that burnout and engagement could have over time on resources and demands.

    Research design, approach and method: A longitudinal design was employed. The availability sample (n = 593) included participants from different demographic backgrounds. A survey was used to measure all constructs at both points in time. Structural equation modelling techniques were implemented with a categorical estimator to investigate the proposed hypotheses.

    Main findings: Burnout was found to have a significant negative longitudinal relationship with colleague support and supervisor support, whilst the negative relationship with supervisor support over time was more prominent. Engagement showed only one significant but small, negative relationship with supervisor support over time. All other relationships were statistically non-significant.

    Practical/managerial implications: This study makes organisations aware of the relationship between burnout and relationships at work over time. Proactive measures to promote relationships at work, specifically supervisor support, should be considered in addition to combatting burnout itself and promoting engagement.

    Contribution/value-add: This study provides insights and information on reversed causality, namely, the effects that engagement and burnout can have over time.

  • 2.
    De Waal,, J.J.
    et al.
    WorkWell Research Unit, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, South Africa.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    WorkWell Research Unit, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, South Africa.
    Towards understanding causality between work engagement and psychological capital2013In: South African Journal of Industrial Psychology, ISSN 0258-5200, E-ISSN 2071-0763, Vol. 39, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Orientation: It is of theoretical and practical interest to establish the sequential relationship between work engagement and positive organisational behaviour, as represented by the psychological capital (PsyCap) construct.

    Research purpose: The main aim of this study was to conceptualise and investigate the causal relationship and temporal order in the relationship between PsyCap and engagement by means of longitudinal data.

    Motivation for the study: The rationale for establishing the sequence of engagement and psychological capital lies in the fact that training interventions to enhance the organisational well-being of employees may need to be focused on either one or the other.

    Research design, approach and method: A longitudinal study with a cross-lagged panel design was conducted; data was gathered by means of a survey that was constructed for the purpose of the study. The survey contained the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES), and a measure of PsyCap. All employees within a chemical factory (N = 1003) were approached to provide data; 163 employees participated.

    Main findings: Results revealed that PsyCap at Time 1 (T1) did not significantly predict engagement at Time 2 (T2). Evidence does however exist that initial levels of employee engagement predict subsequent PsyCap.

    Practical/managerial implications: Results suggest that employee interventions aimed at protecting and fostering employee engagement may have implications for subsequent employee psychological capital.

    Contribution/value-add: As an empirical, longitudinal study to address the temporal order between PsyCap and work engagement, this study makes a contribution especially to theory, but also with practical implications by indicating that engagement precedes employee psychological capital.

  • 3. Van Wyk, Sumarie M
    et al.
    de Beer, Leon T.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    WorkWell Research Unit, North-West University, South Africa.
    Schaufeli, Wilmar B
    The psychometric properties of a workplace boredom scale (DUBS) within the South African context2016In: South African Journal of Industrial Psychology, ISSN 0258-5200, E-ISSN 2071-0763, Vol. 42, no 1, article id UNSP a1326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Orientation: Boredom at work has been shown to be a concern for individuals and organisations. At the time of this research, no validated scale was available to measure and investigate workplace boredom within the South African context. Research purpose: To determine the psychometric properties of the Dutch Boredom Scale (DUBS) within the South African context. Motivation for the study: No reliable and valid scale for workplace boredom was available in South Africa at the time of the current research. Boredom at work has been found to affect organisations negatively in other countries. Insights are needed into workplace boredom and how it affects the outcomes of organisations in South Africa. Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional research approach was utilised. A random convenience sample (N = 490) was obtained from organisations within the manufacturing and logistics sector. In order to validate the DUBS, the factor structure, construct validity (convergent and discriminant validity) and scale reliability were investigated. A mediation model was also tested with structural equation modelling to ascertain predictive validity. Main findings: The results showed that the one-factor structure of the DUBS could be confirmed and that this factor had acceptable reliability. In terms of convergent validity, all of the item indicators loaded significantly on the workplace boredom construct, and the relationship between workplace boredom and work underload revealed that they were positively correlated with medium effect size. Furthermore, work engagement and organisational commitment were correlated negatively in terms of practical significance with workplace boredom. A structural mediation model showed that work underload was significantly and positively associated with boredom, which in turn had significant negative relations to both work engagement and organisational commitment. No significant direct relations were found from work underload to either work engagement or organisational commitment. Instead, bootstrapping showed that there was an indirect-only relationship from work underload to work engagement and organisational commitment through workplace boredom - indicating full mediation. Practical/managerial implications: Management should not neglect workplace boredom, as results indicate that it may adversely impact work engagement and organisational commitment. Therefore, workplace boredom should be a concern not only for individuals, but also for the organisation at large. Contribution/value-add: This study contributes to the limited research available on workplace boredom in South Africa by providing evidence of acceptable psychometric properties for a workplace boredom scale.

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