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  • 1.
    Burström, Lage
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Lundström, Ronnie
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Hagberg, Mats
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Tohr
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Vibrotactile perception and effects of short-term exposure to hand-arm vibration2009Inngår i: Annals of Occupational Hygiene, ISSN 0003-4878, E-ISSN 1475-3162, Vol. 53, nr 5, s. 539-547Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study clarifies whether the established frequency weighting procedure for evaluating exposure to hand-transmitted vibration can effectively evaluate the temporary changes in vibrotactile perception thresholds due to pre-exposure to vibration. In addition, this study investigates the relationship between changes of the vibrotactile perception thresholds and the normalized energy-equivalent frequency-weighted acceleration. The fingers of 10 healthy subjects, five male and five female, were exposed to vibration under 16 conditions with a combination of different frequencies, intensities, and exposure times. The vibration frequencies were 31.5 and 125 Hz and exposure lasted between 2 and 16 min. According to International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 5349-1, the energy-equivalent frequency-weighted acceleration for the experimental time of 16 min is 2.5 or 5.0 m s(-2) root-mean-square, corresponding to a 8-h equivalent acceleration, A(8), of approximately 0.5 and 0.9 m s(-2), respectively. A measure of the vibrotactile perception thresholds was conducted before the different exposures to vibration. Immediately after the vibration exposure, the acute effect was measured continuously on the exposed index finger for the first 75 s, followed by 30 s of measures every minute for a maximum of 10 min. If the subject's thresholds had not recovered, the measures continued for a maximum of 30 min with measurements taken every 5 min. Pre-exposure to vibration significantly influenced vibrotactile thresholds. This study concludes that the influence on the thresholds depends on the frequency of the vibration stimuli. Increased equivalent frequency-weighted acceleration resulted in a significant change in threshold, but the thresholds were unaffected when changes in the vibration magnitude were expressed as the frequency-weighted acceleration or the unweighted acceleration. Moreover, the frequency of the pre-vibration exposure significantly influenced (up to 25 min after exposure) recovery time of the vibrotactile thresholds. This study shows that the frequency weighting procedure in ISO 5349-1 is unable to predict the produced acute changes in the vibrotactile perception. Moreover, the results imply that the calculation of the 'energy-equivalent' frequency-weighted acceleration does not reflect the acute changes of the vibration perception thresholds due to pre-exposure to vibration. Furthermore, when testing for the vibrotactile thresholds, exposure to vibration on the day of a test might influence the results. Until further knowledge is obtained, the previous practice of 3 h avoidance of vibration exposure before assessment is recommended.

  • 2.
    Bylund, Sonya H
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Burström, Lage
    Knutsson, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkesmedicin.
    A descriptive study of women injured by hand-arm vibration2002Inngår i: Annals of Occupational Hygiene, ISSN 0003-4878, E-ISSN 1475-3162, Vol. 46, nr 3, s. 299-307Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to describe the symptoms and the prognosis of vibration injuries in women. The investigation was based on a study of 374 women who had reported an injury due to hand-arm vibration to the Social Insurance Office or had received financial compensation from the Swedish Labor Market Insurance scheme during 1988-1997. Information on, for example, self-rated health symptoms and vibration exposure was collected by means of a questionnaire. On average, the first symptoms started after 7 yr of exposure and the first visit to a doctor took place after 11 yr. Neurological symptoms developed after a shorter period of exposure compared to vascular symptoms, 6.8 and 9.2 yr, respectively. The prevalence of numbness at the time of reporting the injury was 91% and the prevalence of white fingers was reported by 54%. The occupational group with the highest prevalence of vibration injuries was dental technicians. Two thirds of the women had stopped using vibrating machines in their work. Among the women who suffered from white fingers when they reported the injury, 50% declared impairment or no improvement of the symptoms. One woman in five was retired and the same number of women had retrained due to the occupational injury.

  • 3.
    Eriksson, Kåre
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Liljelind, Ingrid
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Fahlén, Jessica
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik.
    Lampa, Erik
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Should styrene be sampled on the left or right shoulder?: An important question in employee self-assessment.2005Inngår i: Annals of Occupational Hygiene, ISSN 0003-4878, E-ISSN 1475-3162, Vol. 49, nr 6, s. 529-533Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A self-operated personal sampling technique called 'self assessment of exposure' (SAE) has been suggested as an easy method for collecting inhalation exposure data, as the workers themselves are performing the sampling. Employers and employees have raised the question of whether a different estimate of the air concentration is likely to be obtained depending on whether the sampler is fastened at the left or the right shoulder. In order to answer this question, the exposure to styrene vapour in two different small enterprises within the reinforced plastics industry was measured. Seven workers participated and the air sampling was performed by diffusive sampling. We observed no statistically significant difference in the determined air concentration of styrene between the left and right shoulder (P = 0.878). The results strongly indicate that the fastening of a sampler on the left or right shoulder does not produce a difference in the estimation of the inhalation exposure. SAE can thus be used to collect reliable exposure data of styrene vapour. The reliability of SAE will most certainly inspire occupational hygienists, physicians and other experts to involve the workers in repeated exposure measurements. Taking the exposure variability into account, repeated measurements are crucial when evaluating acute and chronic health effects following inhalation exposure to gases and vapours from chemical hazards.

  • 4.
    Eriksson, Kåre
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Wiklund, Leif
    Dermal exposure to styrene in the fibreglass reinforced plastics industry.2004Inngår i: Annals of Occupational Hygiene, ISSN 0003-4878, E-ISSN 1475-3162, Vol. 48, nr 3, s. 203-8Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the potential dermal exposure to styrene in the fibreglass reinforced plastics industry. METHODS: Assessment was performed during spraying and rolling using a patch sampling technique. The patch was made of charcoal sandwiched between two layers of cotton fabric. Samplers were fastened at 12 different spots on a sampling overall, each spot representing a body area. One patch was fastened at the front of a cap. A patch fastened to a string worn around the neck assessed the exposure at chest level inside the clothing. Patches were fastened to cotton gloves at sites representing the dorsal side and the palm of the hand to evaluate exposure on these areas. Following sampling the patches were solvent desorbed and styrene was analysed by gas chromatography flame ionization detection. RESULTS: The potential body exposure for the participating individuals was between 544 and 17 100 mg/h with a geometric mean (GM) of 3780 mg/h. The legs, arms and outer chest in general had the highest exposures. The left and right hands had mean (GM) exposures of 344 and 433 mg/h, respectively. Styrene was determined for the patch at the inside of the clothing, indicating contamination of the dermal layer. CONCLUSIONS: The charcoal patch can be used to evaluate potential exposure to styrene. The results indicate that the dermal layer of the worker is exposed to styrene. Precautions should be performed to reduce dermal exposure.

  • 5.
    Eriksson, Kåre
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Wiklund, Leif
    Larsson, Cecilia
    National Institute for Working Life, Umeå.
    Levin, Jan-Olof
    National Institute for Working Life, Umeå.
    Dermal exposure to terpenic resin acids in Swedish carpentry workshops and sawmills2004Inngår i: Annals of Occupational Hygiene, ISSN 0003-4878, E-ISSN 1475-3162, Vol. 48, nr 3, s. 267-275Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate dermal exposure to the resin acids abietic acid, dehydroabietic acid and 7-oxodehydroabietic acid during collecting in sawmills and during sawing in carpentry workshops, respectively. METHODS: Sampling was performed by fastening patches at 12 different areas on a sampling overall, one patch on the front of a cap, one patch on the chest inside the clothing and one patch on the inner lower right leg. Exposure of the hands was assessed by fastening patches on cotton gloves representing the dorsal sides and the palms of the left and right hands. Sampling was performed on 30 different occasions in the sawmills and in the carpentry workshops with mean sampling times of 120 and 59 min, respectively. The acids were solvent desorbed from the patches. Identification and quantification of the resin acids was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. RESULTS: The geometric means (GMs) of the potential body exposures to abietic acid, dehydroabietic acid and 7-oxodehydroabietic acid during sawing and collecting of wood from pine and spruce were 3346 and 17 247 micro g/h, respectively. The GM of the potential exposure on the hands was 3020 micro g/h in the carpentry workshops and 4365 micro g/h in the sawmills. Resin acids were detected on the inner chest and inner lower front right leg, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: There is a potential dermal exposure to terpenic resin acids in carpentry workshops as well as in sawmills. The hands have the highest exposure during sawing as well as during collecting. There is a spatial distribution of contaminants, with the outer chest, arms and legs showing the highest exposures. Resin acids also contaminated the inner chest and inner lower leg. It is necessary to take action to reduce dermal exposure to these allergenic substances.

  • 6.
    Hedlund, Ulf
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Jonsson, Håkan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Onkologi.
    Eriksson, Kåre
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Järvholm, Bengt
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Exposure-response of silicosis mortality in Swedish iron ore miners.2008Inngår i: Annals of Occupational Hygiene, ISSN 0003-4878, E-ISSN 1475-3162, Vol. 52, nr 1, s. 3-7Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the exposure-response relationship between exposure to quartz and fatal silicosis. METHODS: The mortality from silicosis in 7729 miners was analyzed and compared to their estimated exposure to respirable quartz. The miners had been working as a miner for at least 1 year between 1923 and 1996. Their mortality between 1952 and 2001 was studied by using information from the national cause of death register. Both underlying and contributing causes of death were considered in the analysis. The exposure to quartz was estimated from job titles and using 3239 measurements of personal exposure to respirable quartz from 1965 to 1999. The mortality rates were adjusted to attained age and years of birth using a Poisson regression. RESULTS: The median cumulative exposure among the 7729 miners was 0.9 mg x years m(-3). There were 58 deaths from silicosis. Their median cumulative exposure was 4.8 mg x years m(-3). The crude mortality rate was 53 cases per 100,000 person-years with an exposure-response relationship. CONCLUSION: There seems to be an increased risk of fatal silicosis at exposure levels around 3 mg x years m(-3) for respirable quartz.

  • 7. Heiden, Marina
    et al.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Garza, Jennifer
    Liv, Per
    Wahlström, Jens
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    A Comparison of Two Strategies for Building an Exposure Prediction Model.2016Inngår i: Annals of Occupational Hygiene, ISSN 0003-4878, E-ISSN 1475-3162, Vol. 60, nr 1, s. 74-89Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cost-efficient assessments of job exposures in large populations may be obtained from models in which 'true' exposures assessed by expensive measurement methods are estimated from easily accessible and cheap predictors. Typically, the models are built on the basis of a validation study comprising 'true' exposure data as well as an extensive collection of candidate predictors from questionnaires or company data, which cannot all be included in the models due to restrictions in the degrees of freedom available for modeling. In these situations, predictors need to be selected using procedures that can identify the best possible subset of predictors among the candidates. The present study compares two strategies for selecting a set of predictor variables. One strategy relies on stepwise hypothesis testing of associations between predictors and exposure, while the other uses cluster analysis to reduce the number of predictors without relying on empirical information about the measured exposure. Both strategies were applied to the same dataset on biomechanical exposure and candidate predictors among computer users, and they were compared in terms of identified predictors of exposure as well as the resulting model fit using bootstrapped resamples of the original data. The identified predictors were, to a large part, different between the two strategies, and the initial model fit was better for the stepwise testing strategy than for the clustering approach. Internal validation of the models using bootstrap resampling with fixed predictors revealed an equally reduced model fit in resampled datasets for both strategies. However, when predictor selection was incorporated in the validation procedure for the stepwise testing strategy, the model fit was reduced to the extent that both strategies showed similar model fit. Thus, the two strategies would both be expected to perform poorly with respect to predicting biomechanical exposure in other samples of computer users.

  • 8.
    Lampa, Erik G.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Nilsson, Leif
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik.
    Liljelind, Ingrid E.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Bergdahl, Ingvar A.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Optimizing occupational exposure measurement strategies when estimating the log-scale arithmetic mean value: An example from the reinforced plastics industry2006Inngår i: Annals of Occupational Hygiene, ISSN 0003-4878, E-ISSN 1475-3162, Vol. 50, nr 4, s. 371-377Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    When assessing occupational exposures, repeated measurements are in most cases required. Repeated measurements are more resource intensive than a single measurement, so careful planning of the measurement strategy is necessary to assure that resources are spent wisely. The optimal strategy depends on the objectives of the measurements. Here, two different models of random effects analysis of variance (ANOVA) are proposed for the optimization of measurement strategies by the minimization of the variance of the estimated log-transformed arithmetic mean value of a worker group, i.e. the strategies are optimized for precise estimation of that value. The first model is a one-way random effects ANOVA model. For that model it is shown that the best precision in the estimated mean value is always obtained by including as many workers as possible in the sample while restricting the number of replicates to two or at most three regardless of the size of the variance components. The second model introduces the ‘shared temporal variation’ which accounts for those random temporal fluctuations of the exposure that the workers have in common. It is shown for that model that the optimal sample allocation depends on the relative sizes of the between-worker component and the shared temporal component, so that if the between-worker component is larger than the shared temporal component more workers should be included in the sample and vice versa. The results are illustrated graphically with an example from the reinforced plastics industry. If there exists a shared temporal variation at a workplace, that variability needs to be accounted for in the sampling design and the more complex model is recommended.

  • 9.
    Liljelind, Ingrid E
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Michel, Ingegerd
    Damm, Maria
    Eriksson, Kåre A
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Development, evaluation and data acquired with a tape-stripping technique for measuring dermal exposure to budesonide at a pharmaceutical manufacturing site.2007Inngår i: Annals of Occupational Hygiene, ISSN 0003-4878, E-ISSN 1475-3162, Vol. 51, nr 4, s. 407-13Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Although corticosteroids have been used for over 50 years as anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative agents, few studies have examined their exposure levels and health effects on workers employed in the corticosteroid manufacturing industry. The aims of the study reported here were to develop a tape-stripping technique for monitoring budesonide (a corticosteroid used in inhalators for treating respiratory diseases) and to apply the method in a pilot study to estimate the potential dermal exposure to budesonide among workers at a pharmaceutical formulation site. METHODS: The tape-stripping method was evaluated by applying 0.5 and 2.07 microg of budesonide dissolved in ethanol on tape strips. The same amounts were also applied on a cleaned glass plate and human skin of volunteers, which were then stripped by series of tapes immediately, and 30 min later, the amounts collected by the tapes were measured. Finally, the technique was used to study the exposure of budesonide among eight employees at a pharmaceutical industry site. Three exposure sites were tested: the tip of the forefinger, palm of the hand and ventral part of the lower arm. Five consecutive tape strips per sampling site were used in both the recovery studies and the field study. RESULTS: The mean overall recoveries from spiked tapes and the glass plate were 96 and 81%, respectively, while for human skin the corresponding figure was 38%, (for applications of 2.07 microg; no detectable amounts were recovered from human skin after 0.5 microg applications). The recovered amount was found on two consecutive tapes after 0 min, but only on the first tape strip after 30 min. The inter-individual variability was 4-fold. In the field, quantifiable amounts were found for four of eight employees and a concentration gradient was detected along the two or three consecutive tape strips. The tip of the forefinger and the palm of the hand were the most highly exposed sites to budesonide. CONCLUSIONS: A tape-stripping method can be used to determine potential dermal exposure to budesonide. The results also indicate that budesonide is taken up by the skin of operators who are exposed to the substance at their workplace.

  • 10.
    Liljelind, Ingrid
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Norberg, C
    Egelrud, L
    Westberg, H
    Eriksson, Kåre
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Nylander-French, L A
    Dermal and inhalation exposure to methylene bisphenyl isocyanate (MDI) in iron foundry workers.2010Inngår i: Annals of Occupational Hygiene, ISSN 0003-4878, E-ISSN 1475-3162, Vol. 54, nr 1, s. 31-40Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Diisocyanates are a group of chemically reactive agents, which are used in the production of coatings, adhesives, polyurethane foams, and parts for the automotive industry and as curing agents for cores in the foundry industry. Dermal and inhalation exposure to methylene bisphenyl isocyanate (MDI) is associated with respiratory sensitization and occupational asthma. However, limited research has been performed on the quantitative evaluation of dermal and inhalation exposure to MDI in occupationally exposed workers. The objective of this research was to quantify dermal and inhalation exposure levels in iron foundry workers. Workers involved in mechanized moulding and mechanized production of cores were monitored: 12 core makers, 2 core-sand preparers, and 5 core installers. Personal breathing-zone levels of MDI were measured using impregnated filter sampling. Dermal exposure to MDI was measured using a tape-strip technique. Three or five consecutive tape-strip samples were collected from five exposed skin areas (right and left forefingers, left and right wrists, and forehead). The average personal air concentration was 0.55 microg m(-3), 50-fold lower than the Swedish occupational exposure limit of 30 microg m(-3). The core makers had an average exposure of 0.77 microg m(-3), which was not significantly different from core installers' and core-sand preparers' average exposure of 0.16 microg m(-3) (P = 0.059). Three core makers had a 10-fold higher inhalation exposure than the other core makers. The core makers' mean dermal exposure at different skin sites varied from 0.13 to 0.34 microg while the two other groups' exposure ranged from 0.006 to 0.062 microg. No significant difference was observed in the MDI levels between the skin sites in a pairwise comparison, except for left forefinger compared to left and right wrist (P < 0.05). In addition, quantifiable but decreasing levels of MDI were observed in the consecutive tape strip per site indicating MDI penetration into the skin. This study indicates that exposure to MDI can be quantified on workers' skin even if air levels are close to unquantifiable. Thus, the potential for uncured MDI to deposit on and penetrate into the skin is demonstrated. Therefore, dermal exposure along with inhalation exposure to MDI should be measured in the occupational settings where MDI is present in order to shed light on their roles in the development of occupational isocyanate asthma.

  • 11.
    Liljelind, Ingrid
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Pettersson, Hans
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Nilsson, Leif
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik.
    Wahlström, Jens
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Toomingas, Allan
    Karolinska Institutet, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Unit of Occupational Medicine SE-171 76 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundström, Ronnie
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Burström, Lage
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Determinants Explaining the Variability of Hand-Transmitted Vibration Emissions From Two Different Work Tasks: Grinding and Cutting Using Angle Grinders2013Inngår i: Annals of Occupational Hygiene, ISSN 0003-4878, E-ISSN 1475-3162, Vol. 57, nr 8, s. 1065-1077Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There are numerous factors including physical, biomechanical, and individual that influence exposure to hand-transmitted vibration (HTV) and cause variability in the exposure measurements. Knowledge of exposure variability and determinants of exposure could be used to improve working conditions. We performed a quasi-experimental study, where operators performed routine work tasks in order to obtain estimates of the variance components and to evaluate the effect of determinants, such as machine–wheel combinations and individual operator characteristics.

    Methods: Two pre-defined simulated work tasks were performed by 11 operators: removal of a weld puddle of mild steel and cutting of a square steel pipe. In both tasks, four angle grinders were used, two running on compressed air and two electrically driven. Two brands of both grinding and cutting wheels were used. Each operator performed both tasks twice in a random order with each grinder and wheel and the time to complete each task was recorded. Vibration emission values were collected and the wheel wear was measured as loss of weight. Operators’ characteristics collected were as follows: age, body height and weight, length and volume of their hands, maximum hand grip force, and length of work experience with grinding machines (years). The tasks were also performed by one operator who used four machines of the same brand. Mixed and random effects models were used in the statistical evaluation.

    Results: The statistical evaluation was performed for grinding and cutting separately and we used a measure referring to the sum of the 1-s r.m.s. average frequency-weighted acceleration over time for completing the work task (a sa). Within each work task, there was a significant effect as a result of the determinants ‘the machine used’, ‘wheel wear’, and ‘time taken to complete the task’. For cutting, ‘the brand of wheel’ used also had a significant effect. More than 90% of the inherent variability in the data was explained by the determinants. The two electrically powered machines had a mean a sa that was 2.6 times higher than the two air-driven machines. For cutting, the effect of the brand of wheel on a sa was ~0.1 times. The a sa increased both with increasing wheel wear and with time taken to complete the work task. However, there were also a number of interaction effects which, to a minor extent, modified the a sa. Only a minor part (1%) of the total variability was attributed to the operator: for cutting, the volume of the hands, maximum grip force, and body weight were significant, while for grinding, it was the maximum grip force. There was no clear difference in a sa between the four copies of the same brand of each machine.

    Conclusions: By including determinants that were attributed to the brand of both machine and wheel used as well as the time taken to complete the work task, we were able to explain >90% of the variability. The dominating determinant was the brand of the machine. Little variability was found between operators, indicating that the overall effect as due to the operator was small.

  • 12.
    Liljelind, Ingrid
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Wahlström, Jens
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Nilsson, Leif
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik.
    Toomingas, Allan
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Burström, Lage
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Variability in Hand-Arm Vibration During Grinding Operations2011Inngår i: Annals of Occupational Hygiene, ISSN 0003-4878, E-ISSN 1475-3162, Vol. 55, nr 3, s. 296-304Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Measurements of exposure to vibrations from hand-held tools are often conducted on a single occasion. However, repeated measurements may be crucial for estimating the actual dose with good precision. In addition, knowledge of determinants of exposure could be used to improve working conditions. The aim of this study was to assess hand–arm vibration (HAV) exposure during different grinding operations, in order to obtain estimates of the variance components and to evaluate the effect of work postures.

    Methods: Ten experienced operators used two compressed air-driven angle grinders of the same make in a simulated work task at a workplace. One part of the study consisted of using a grinder while assuming two different working postures: at a standard work bench (low) and on a wall with arms elevated and the work area adjusted to each operator’s height (high). The workers repeated the task three times. In another part of the study, investigating the wheel wear, for each grinder, the operators used two new grinding wheels and with each wheel the operator performed two consecutive 1-min grinding tasks. Both grinding tasks were conducted on weld puddles of mild steel on a piece of mild steel. Measurements were taken according to ISO-standard 5349 [the equivalent hand–arm-weighted acceleration (m s−2) averaged over 1 min]. Mixed- and random-effects models were used to investigate the influence of the fixed variables and to estimate variance components.

    Results: The equivalent hand–arm-weighted acceleration assessed when the task was performed on the bench and at the wall was 3.2 and 3.3 m s−2, respectively. In the mixed-effects model, work posture was not a significant variable. The variables ‘operator’ and ‘grinder’ together explained only 12% of the exposure variability and ‘grinding wheel’ explained 47%; the residual variability of 41% remained unexplained. When the effect of grinding wheel wear was investigated in the random-effects model, 37% of the variability was associated with the wheel while minimal variability was associated with the operator or the grinder and 37% was unexplained. The interaction effect of grinder and operator explained 18% of the variability. In the wheel wear test, the equivalent hand–arm-weighted accelerations for Grinder 1 during the first and second grinding minutes were 3.4 and 2.9 m s−2, respectively, and for Grinder 2, they were 3.1 and 2.9 m s−2, respectively. For Grinder 1, the equivalent hand–arm-weighted acceleration during the first grinding minute was significantly higher (P = 0.04) than during the second minute.

    Conclusions: Work posture during grinding operations does not appear to affect the level of HAV. Grinding wheels explained much of the variability in this study, but almost 40% of the variance remained unexplained. The considerable variability in the equivalent hand–arm-weighted acceleration has an impact on the risk assessment at both the group and the individual level.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT02
  • 13. Lillienberg, Linnea
    et al.
    Andersson, Eva M.
    Järvholm, Bengt
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Toren, Kjell
    Respiratory Symptoms and Exposure-Response Relations in Workers exposed to Metalworking Fluid Aerosols2010Inngår i: Annals of Occupational Hygiene, ISSN 0003-4878, E-ISSN 1475-3162, Vol. 54, nr 4, s. 403-411Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to identify specific health risks and exposure-response relationships associated with exposure to metalworking fluid (MWF) aerosols. In a cross-sectional study of machine workers exposed to MWF aerosols in five companies in Sweden, a self-administered questionnaire about health symptoms, work tasks, and exposure situations was sent out to 2294 employees, 1632 exposed and 662 referents. Referents were office workers and metal workers not working with MWFs. In four of the companies, there were recent measurements of personal exposure to MWF aerosols. Log-binomial regression models were used to estimate prevalence ratios with 95% confidence intervals for different health outcomes in relation to different variables of exposure. The response rate after two reminders was 67% resulting in 1048 (923 male, 125 female) workers exposed to MWF aerosols and 451 (374 male, 77 female) referents. The study indicates that metal workers in Sweden currently exposed to a mean value of MWF aerosols of 0.4 mg m(-3) have a significantly higher prevalence of wheeze, chronic bronchitis, chronic rhinitis, and eye irritation compared to the referents. At a mean exposure of 0.4 mg m(-3), a level below the Swedish 8-h exposure limit value of 1 mg m(-3), machine operators showed increased prevalence of symptoms in eyes and airways. Thus, the current exposure limit value does not seem to protect the workers from such symptoms.

  • 14. Lillienberg, Linnéa
    et al.
    Andersson, Eva
    Janson, Christer
    Dahlman-Höglund, Anna
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Holm, Mathias
    Gislason, Thorarinn
    Jögi, Rain
    Omenaas, Ernst
    Schlünssen, Vivi
    Sigsgaard, Torben
    Svanes, Cecilie
    Torén, Kjell
    Occupational exposure and new-onset asthma in a population-based study in Northern Europe (RHINE)2013Inngår i: Annals of Occupational Hygiene, ISSN 0003-4878, E-ISSN 1475-3162, Vol. 57, nr 4, s. 482-492Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: In a large population-based study among adults in northern Europe the relation between occupational exposure and new-onset asthma was studied.

    METHODS: The study comprised 13 284 subjects born between 1945 and 1973, who answered a questionnaire 1989-1992 and again 1999-2001. Asthma was defined as 'Asthma diagnosed by a physician' with reported year of diagnose. Hazard ratios (HR), for new-onset adult asthma during 1980-2000, were calculated using a modified job-exposure matrix as well as high-risk occupations in Cox regression models. The analyses were made separately for men and women and were also stratified for atopy.

    RESULTS: During the observation period there were 429 subjects with new-onset asthma with an asthma incidence of 1.3 cases per 1000 person-years for men and 2.4 for women. A significant increase in new-onset asthma was seen for men exposed to plant-associated antigens (HR = 3.6; 95% CI [confidence interval] = 1.4-9.0), epoxy (HR = 2.4; 95% CI = 1.3-4.5), diisocyanates (HR = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.2-3.7) and accidental peak exposures to irritants (HR = 2.4; 95% CI = 1.3-4.7). Both men and women exposed to cleaning agents had an increased asthma risk. When stratifying for atopy an increased asthma risk were seen in non-atopic men exposed to acrylates (HR = 3.3; 95% CI = 1.4-7.5), epoxy compounds (HR = 3.6; 95% CI = 1.6-7.9), diisocyanates and accidental peak exposures to irritants (HR = 3.0; 95% CI = 1.2-7.2). Population attributable risk for occupational asthma was 14% for men and 7% for women.

    CONCLUSIONS: This population-based study showed that men exposed to epoxy, diisocyanates and acrylates had an increased risk of new-onset asthma. Non-atopics seemed to be at higher risk than atopics, except for exposure to high molecular weight agents. Increased asthma risks among cleaners, spray painters, plumbers, and hairdressers were confirmed.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Occupational Exposure and New-onset Asthma in a Population-based Study in Northern Europe (RHINE)
  • 15.
    Lindahl, Roger
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Akhtar Khan, Muhammad
    Department of Chemistry, University of Eastern Finland, Yliopistokatu 7, FI-80220 Joensuu, Finland.
    Levin, Jan-Olof
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Development of a method for the determination of naphthalene and phenanthrene in workplace air using diffusive sampling and thermal desorption GC-MS analysis2011Inngår i: Annals of Occupational Hygiene, ISSN 0003-4878, E-ISSN 1475-3162, Vol. 55, nr 6, s. 681-687Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Diffusive sampling methods have been validated for the determination of naphthalene and phenanthrene in workplace air. The diffusive sampler tested was the Perkin Elmer ATD tube, and the analysis was performed with thermal desorption, gas chromatography, and mass spectrometric detection. The sampling methods were validated in controlled test atmospheres, mainly according to the protocol proposed in the European standard EN 838. For the determination of naphthalene, the diffusive sampling rate was 0.41 ml min21 with a coefficient of variation (CV) of 19%. The mean sampling rate for phenanthrene was 0.49 ml min21 with a CV of 21%. Field tests confirmed the naphthalene results but could not be used to confirm the phenanthrene results. The method is not recommended for phenanthrene sampling unless the method has been tested in the specific environment and the results confirm the laboratory tests.

  • 16.
    Liv, Per
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Svendsen, Susanne Wulff
    Danish Ramazzini Center, Department of Occupational Medicine, Herning Hospital, Denmark.
    Theoretical and empirical efficiency of sampling strategies for estimating upper arm elevation2011Inngår i: Annals of Occupational Hygiene, ISSN 0003-4878, E-ISSN 1475-3162, Vol. 55, nr 4, s. 436-449Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the statistical efficiency of strategies for sampling upper arm elevation data, which differed with respect to sample sizes and sample allocations within and across measurement days. The study was also designed to compare standard theoretical predictions of sampling efficiency, which rely on several assumptions about the data structure, with 'true' efficiency as determined by bootstrap simulations.

    METHODS: Sixty-five sampling strategies were investigated using a data set containing minute-by-minute values of average right upper arm elevation, percentage of time with an arm elevated <15°, and percentage of time with an arm elevated >90° in a population of 23 house painters, 23 car mechanics, and 26 machinists, all followed for four full working days. Total sample times per subject between 30 and 240 min were subdivided into continuous time blocks between 1 and 240 min long, allocated to 1 or 4 days per subject. Within day(s), blocks were distributed using either a random or a fixed-interval principle. Sampling efficiency was expressed in terms of the variance of estimated mean exposure values of 20 subjects and assessed using standard theoretical models assuming independence between variables and homoscedasticity. Theoretical performance was compared to empirical efficiencies obtained by a nonparametric bootstrapping procedure.

    RESULTS: We found the assumptions of independence and homoscedasticity in the theoretical model to be violated, most notably expressed through an autocorrelation between measurement units within working days. The empirical variance of the mean exposure estimates decreased, i.e. sampling efficiency increased, for sampling strategies where measurements were distributed widely across time. Thus, the most efficient allocation strategy was to organize a sample into 1-min block collected at fixed time intervals across 4 days. Theoretical estimates of efficiency generally agreed with empirical variances if the sample was allocated into small blocks, while for larger block sizes, the empirical 'true' variance was considerably larger than predicted by theory. Theory overestimated efficiency in particular for strategies with short total sample times per subject.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that when exposure data are autocorrelated within days-which we argue is the major reason why theory overestimates sampling performance-sampling efficiency can be improved by distributing the sample widely across the day or across days, preferably using a fixed-interval strategy. While this guidance is particularly valid when small proportions of working days are assessed, we generally recommend collecting more data than suggested by theory if a certain precision of the resulting exposure estimate is needed. More data per se give a better precision and sampling larger proportion(s) of the working day(s) also alleviate the negative effects of possible autocorrelation in data.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 17. Milosavljevic, Stephan
    et al.
    Bagheri, Nasser
    Vasiljev, Radivoj M
    McBride, David I
    Rehn, Börje
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Sjukgymnastik.
    Does daily exposure to whole-body vibration and mechanical shock relate to the prevalence of low back and neck pain in a rural workforce?2012Inngår i: Annals of Occupational Hygiene, ISSN 0003-4878, E-ISSN 1475-3162, Vol. 56, nr 1, s. 10-17Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether whole-body vibration (WBV) and mechanical shock exposure from quad bike use are associated with the prevalence of neck and low back pain (LBP) in New Zealand farmers and rural workers.

    METHODS: Full-day WBV and mechanical shock exposures were gathered from 130 farmers and rural workers. Participants were surveyed for a history of neck or LBP in the past 7 days and in the past 12 months. Anthropometric, personal, and workplace data were also gathered.

    RESULTS: Physical exposures (mechanical shocks), employee status, and low levels of workplace satisfaction are all significantly associated with the 12-month prevalence of LBP in this rural workforce that regularly use quad bikes. Both vibration and mechanical shock exposure were strongly associated with 12-month prevalence of neck pain. The 7-day prevalence of neck pain showed a non-significant association with mechanical shock and vibration.

    CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge of these findings will be valuable information for those who teach and advise on safe driving techniques for such vehicles in the rural workplace where reduction of physical exposures and injury rates is of high importance.

  • 18. Milosavljevic, Stephan
    et al.
    McBride, David I
    Bagheri, Nasser
    Vasiljev, Radivoj M
    Mani, Ramakrishnan
    Carman, Allan B
    Rehn, Börje
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Sjukgymnastik.
    Exposure to whole-body vibration and mechanical shock: a field study of quad bike use in agriculture2011Inngår i: Annals of Occupational Hygiene, ISSN 0003-4878, E-ISSN 1475-3162, Vol. 55, nr 3, s. 286-295Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV) and mechanical shock in rural workers who use quad bikes and to explore how personal, physical, and workplace characteristics influence exposure.

    METHODS: A seat pad mounted triaxial accelerometer and data logger recorded full workday vibration and shock data from 130 New Zealand rural workers. Personal, physical, and workplace characteristics were gathered using a modified version of the Whole Body Vibration Health Surveillance Questionnaire. WBVs and mechanical shocks were analysed in accordance with the International Standardization for Organization (ISO 2631-1 and ISO 2631-5) standards and are presented as vibration dose value (VDV) and mechanical shock (S(ed)) exposures.

    RESULTS: VDV(Z) consistently exceeded European Union (Guide to good practice on whole body vibration. Directive 2002/44/EC on minimum health and safety, European Commission Directorate General Employment, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities. 2006) guideline exposure action thresholds with some workers exceeding exposure limit thresholds. Exposure to mechanical shock was also evident. Increasing age had the strongest (negative) association with vibration and shock exposure with body mass index (BMI) having a similar but weaker effect. Age, daily driving duration, dairy farming, and use of two rear shock absorbers created the strongest multivariate model explaining 33% of variance in VDV(Z). Only age and dairy farming combined to explain 17% of the variance for daily mechanical shock. Twelve-month prevalence for low back pain was highest at 57.7% and lowest for upper back pain (13.8%).

    CONCLUSIONS: Personal (age and BMI), physical (shock absorbers and velocity), and workplace characteristics (driving duration and dairy farming) suggest that a mix of engineered workplace and behavioural interventions is required to reduce this level of exposure to vibration and shock.

  • 19.
    Nygren, Olle
    et al.
    National Institute for Working Life, Department of Work and the Physical Environment.
    Gustavsson, Bengt
    Eriksson, Robert
    A test method for assessment of spill and leakage from drug preparation systems2005Inngår i: Annals of Occupational Hygiene, ISSN 0003-4878, E-ISSN 1475-3162, Vol. 49, nr 8, s. 711-718Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Anti-cancer drugs are reactive compounds with known adverse health effects. To prevent occupational exposure to these drugs, there are, in most countries, regulations for handling anti-cancer drugs. Many preparation systems are available, e.g. isolators, biological safety cabinets (BSCs), filter spikes (venting spikes with micro-pore filter) and closed systems (e.g. PhaSeal). Although these systems are used, there are reports of exposure. This causes concern over how efficient these systems are to prevent spill and leakage that may cause undesired exposure when handling cytotoxic drugs. Today, this knowledge is lacking. This paper presents a method (Tc-method) for testing drug preparation systems for spill and leakage. The Tc-method is based on 99Tc(m) as a tracer, with which drug vials used for test preparations are spiked. Wipe samples are then collected around the working area to measure spill and leakage. The Tc-method has been validated using an independent method, showing good agreement between the methods. Spills down to 1 nl cm(-2) can be determined. In an appendix, the Tc-method is described in a detailed step-by-step procedure.

  • 20.
    Nygren, Olle
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Olofsson, Eva
    University Hospital Pharmacy, Apoteket AB, Umeå, Sweden.
    Johannson, Lennart
    Department of Radiophysiology, Umeå University Hospital, Umeå Sweden.
    NIOSH definition of closed-system drug-transfer devices: Letter to the Editor2009Inngår i: Annals of Occupational Hygiene, ISSN 0003-4878, E-ISSN 1475-3162, Vol. 53, nr 5, s. 549-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 21.
    Nygren, Olle
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Olofsson, Eva
    Johansson, Lennart
    Spill and Leakage Using a Drug Preparation System Based on Double-Filter Technology2008Inngår i: Annals of Occupational Hygiene, ISSN 0003-4878, E-ISSN 1475-3162, Vol. 52, nr 2, s. 95-98Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Occupational exposure to cytotoxic drugs has frequently been reported during recent years. Various drug-handling systems have been applied to reduce the spill and leakage that cause this exposure. Some of these systems have also been tested for spill and leakage using independent test methods. In this paper, a new drug-handling system has been tested for spill and leakage during drug preparation. The handling system, TevadaptorTM, was tested using a modification of an independent test method, the Technetium test method, based on the use of Technetium m-99 as tracer substance. The test results showed that the spill was <100 nl for all 75 preparations and was <1 nl for 70 of the preparations. This is comparable with other tested drug-handling system, e.g. isolators, PhaSealTM. The test shows that the Tevadaptor drug-handling system has similar performance as drug-handling systems regarded as closed systems.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 22. Rajan-Sithamparanadarajah, R
    et al.
    Roff, M
    Delgado, P
    Eriksson, K
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Fransman, W
    Gijsbers, J H J
    Hughson, G
    Mäkinen, M
    van Hemmen, J J
    Patterns of dermal exposure to hazardous substances in European union workplaces.2004Inngår i: Annals of Occupational Hygiene, ISSN 0003-4878, E-ISSN 1475-3162, Vol. 48, nr 3, s. 285-97Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Workplace dermal exposure assessment is a complex task that aims to understand the dynamic interaction between the skin and the hazardous substances present in the surrounding environment. A European project known as RISKOFDERM gathered dermal exposure data in 85 workplaces (industrial and other types) in five countries in Europe. In order to optimize data collection and to develop a representative picture of dermal exposure, scenarios (tasks made up of a series of activities) were grouped together into dermal exposure operation units (DEOs). The allocation of scenarios to relevant DEOs was achieved on the basis of similarities of exposure routes, tasks and professional judgement. Sampling and quantification procedures were based on the approaches recommended by the OECD protocol. The laboratories involved in the analysis of the samples participated in quality assurance programmes. This exercise resulted in 419 body measurements and 437 measurements on hands expressed in terms of formulation (product) in use. Exposures for a given scenario varied by several orders of magnitude. The extent and patterns of exposure were found to be dependent on various exposure determinants, including inter- and intra-scenario variations. Hands were found to be the most contaminated parts of the body. Exposure patterns for liquid and solid contaminants were different. On the basis of the analysis of the data presented here, the averaged results (median and 95th percentile) for a given DEO unit should not be used as a representative measure of dermal exposure for all scenarios within that DEO without taking the exposure determinants into account. However, the data could be used to develop an exposure matrix (indicative exposure distributions) for different types of scenario and workplace, using determinants of exposure and a Bayesian approach to integrating expert opinion.

  • 23.
    Rehn, Börje
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkesmedicin.
    Nilsson, Tohr
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Olofsson, Bodil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkesmedicin.
    Lundström, Ronnie
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Whole-body vibration exposure and non-neutral neck postures during occupational use of all-terrain vehicles.2005Inngår i: Annals of Occupational Hygiene, ISSN 0003-4878, E-ISSN 1475-3162, Vol. 49, nr 3, s. 267-275Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to characterize whole-body vibration (WBV) exposure from various all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) like snowgroomers, snowmobiles and forwarders, and to investigate how frequently the drivers' cervical spine is positioned in a non-neutral rotational position during operation. METHODS: Field measurements of WBV were measured according to the international standard ISO 2631-1 in 19 ATVs. Simultaneous recordings of frequency and duration of rotational neck movements exceeding 15 degrees were achieved through an observational method, PEOflex. RESULTS: The sum of the vectors of frequency-weighted r.m.s. acceleration varied between 0.5 and 3.5 m s(-2), which meant that for most vehicles they exceeded the action value stated by the European Union (0.5 m s(r.m.s.)(-2)). In general, snowmobiles achieved the highest vibration total value. The dominant vibration direction for the snowmobile was the x-axis but the z-axis also had relatively high vibration dose values and maximal transient vibration values. The z-axis was the dominant vibration direction for the snowgroomer and the y-axis for the forwarder. Frequency and duration of non-neutral rotational neck postures were relatively low for all driver categories. CONCLUSIONS: Vibration magnitudes in ATVs are considerably high than the EU's action value and the health guidance caution zones in ISO 2631-1. The dominant vibration direction varies depending on the machine type. Duration and frequency of non-neutral rotational positions do not seem to constitute single ergonomic risk factors for musculoskeletal symptoms in the neck among professional drivers of ATVs. However, synergistic effects with other factors are conceivable.

  • 24.
    Wahlström, Jens
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Bergsten, Eva
    Trask, Catherine
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Jackson, Jennie
    Forsman, Mikael
    Full-Shift Trunk and Upper Arm Postures and Movements Among Aircraft Baggage Handlers2016Inngår i: Annals of Occupational Hygiene, ISSN 0003-4878, E-ISSN 1475-3162, Vol. 60, nr 8, s. 977-90Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: The present study assessed full-shift trunk and upper arm postural exposure amplitudes, frequencies, and durations among Swedish airport baggage handlers and aimed to determine whether exposures differ between workers at the ramp (loading and unloading aircraft) and baggage sorting areas.

    METHODS: Trunk and upper arm postures were measured using inclinometers during three full work shifts on each of 27 male baggage handlers working at a large Swedish airport. Sixteen of the baggage handlers worked on the ramp and 11 in the sorting area. Variables summarizing postures and movements were calculated, and mean values and variance components between subjects and within subject (between days) were estimated using restricted maximum likelihood algorithms in a one-way random effect model.

    RESULTS: In total, data from 79 full shifts (651h) were collected with a mean recording time of 495min per shift (range 319-632). On average, baggage handlers worked with the right and left arm elevated >60° for 6.4% and 6.3% of the total workday, respectively. The 90th percentile trunk forward projection (FP) was 34.1°, and the 50th percentile trunk movement velocity was 8° s(-1). For most trunk (FP) and upper arm exposure variables, between-subject variability was considerable, suggesting that the flight baggage handlers were not a homogeneously exposed group. A notable between-days variability pointed to the contents of the job differing on different days. Peak exposures (>90°) were higher for ramp workers than for sorting area workers (trunk 0.6% ramp versus 0.3% sorting; right arm 1.3% ramp versus 0.7% sorting).

    CONCLUSIONS: Trunk and upper arm postures and movements among flight baggage handlers measured by inclinometry were similar to those found in other jobs comprising manual material handling, known to be associated with increased risks for musculoskeletal disorders. The results showed that full-shift trunk (FP) and, to some extent, peak arm exposures were higher for ramp workers compared with sorting workers.

  • 25.
    Wahlström, Jens
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Liv, Per
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Hedlund, Pernilla
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Ahlgren, Christina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Sjukgymnastik.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Upper arm postures and movements in female hairdressers across four full working days2010Inngår i: Annals of Occupational Hygiene, ISSN 0003-4878, E-ISSN 1475-3162, Vol. 54, nr 5, s. 584-594Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To describe upper arm postures and movements among female hairdressers, including the variability between hairdressers, between days within hairdresser, and between tasks, as a basis for understanding the characteristics of exposures in the job, considering possible sources of variation and recovery, and discussing appropriate exposure assessment strategies.

    METHODS: Data on upper arm postures were collected using inclinometers during four working days the same week from 28 female hairdressers working in 13 salons. Twenty of the hairdressers noted customer on and off times in a diary, to allow separate analyses of customer tasks (CT) and auxiliary non-customer tasks (AT), including breaks. For a number of posture and movement variables, mean values and variance components between subjects (BS) and within subjects between days (BD) were estimated using restricted maximum likelihood algorithms in one-way random effect models.

    RESULTS: For the 20 hairdressers with diaries, CT accounted for 279 min (58%) (SD(BS) = 39 min and SD(BD) = 85 min) of the working day and AT and breaks for 207 min (42%) (SD(BS) = 46 min and SD(BD) = 88 min). The hairdressers worked with the right arm elevated >60 degrees for 6.8% of the whole job (SD(BS) = 2.8% and SD(BD) = 2.0%). On average, the hairdressers worked with the right arm elevated >60 degrees for 9.0% of the time during CT, compared to 3.7% during AT, resulting in a contrast between tasks of 0.35.

    CONCLUSIONS: Hairdressers may be at risk for developing musculoskeletal disorders in the neck and shoulders due to a considerable occurrence of highly elevated arms, especially during CT. On the other hand, we do not find reasons to classify hairdressing as a job with too little variation. Posture variability between days within hairdressers was in the same order of magnitude as that between hairdressers, suggesting that 'typical' workdays do not exist. The exposure contrast between CT and AT for variables describing elevated arm postures indicates that for these variables a simple task-based approach for estimating job exposure could be successful.

  • 26. Westerlund, Jessica
    et al.
    Graff, Pål
    Bryngelsson, Ing-Liss
    Westberg, Håkan
    Eriksson, Kåre
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Löfstedt, Håkan
    Occupational exposure to trichloramine and trihalomethanes in Swedish indoor swimming pools: evaluation of personal and stationary monitoring2015Inngår i: Annals of Occupational Hygiene, ISSN 0003-4878, E-ISSN 1475-3162, Vol. 59, nr 8, s. 1074-1084Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Chlorination is a method commonly used to keep indoor swimming pool water free from pathogens. However, chlorination of swimming pools produces several potentially hazardous by-products as the chlorine reacts with nitrogen containing organic matter. Up till now, exposure assessments in indoor swimming pools have relied on stationary measurements at the poolside, used as a proxy for personal exposure. However, measurements at fixed locations are known to differ from personal exposure. Methods: Eight public swimming pool facilities in four Swedish cities were included in this survey. Personal and stationary sampling was performed during day or evening shift. Samplers were placed at different fixed positions around the pool facilities, at similar to 1.5 m above the floor level and 0-1 m from the poolside. In total, 52 personal and 110 stationary samples of trichloramine and 51 personal and 109 stationary samples of trihalomethanes, were collected. Results: The average concentration of trichloramine for personal sampling was 71 µg m-3, ranging from 1 to 240 µg m-3 and for stationary samples 179 µg m-3, ranging from 1 to 640 µg m-3. The air concentrations of chloroform were well below the occupational exposure limit (OEL). For the linear regression analysis and prediction of personal exposure to trichloramine from stationary sampling, only data from personal that spent > 50% of their workday in the pool area were included. The linear regression analysis showed a correlation coefficient (r2) of 0.693 and a significant regression coefficient β of 0.621; (95% CI = 0.329-0.912, P = 0.001). Conclusion: The trichloramine exposure levels determined in this study were well below the recommended air concentration level of 500 µg m-3; a WHO reference value based on stationary sampling. Our regression data suggest a relation between personal exposure and area sampling of 1:2, implying an OEL of 250 µg m-3 based on personal sampling.

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